GUT

GUT

Human Migration and microbial Churning

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Migrants

We adopt the environment but it takes time. Toll of several generations. In past, migrations were always due to natural calamities and abrupt changes in environment. Now, migrations are forced. As a world, we really don’t wish to calculate toll of forced migrations due to denial of sustainable local economical opportunities. We are in centralisation mode. Decentralisation is an alien concept for our generation. The fall starts by changing pattern of GUT microbes. Of course, things will improve after 3-4 generations but be ready for sacrifice. Or maintain health in very high state by taking care of food, sleep and brahmcharya. Not only outer environment, mental stress of migration also alter GUT microbes.

Watch this video first and then read the research.

Do note: There are certain humans trained for always on the road. They travel with livestock. They get affected if they stabilise! Same applies to migratory birds! 🙂



Research


Younger immigrants at higher risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

The younger a person is when they immigrate to Canada, the higher their risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and its major subtypes Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, according to a study by researchers at the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO), the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) and the University of Ottawa. Canada has one of the highest rates in the world of IBD and while immigrants to Canada have lower rates of IBD compared to Canadian-born residents, that risk goes up in immigrants who are younger at arrival to Canada. In addition, Canadian-born children of immigrants from some regions have a higher risk of developing IBD.

While their parents were at lower risk of developing IBD, once they arrive the children of immigrants from the Middle East, North Africa and South Asia had the same incidence of IBD compared with the children of non-immigrants. In fact, there is a 14 per cent increased risk per younger decade of life at immigration. However, the children of immigrants from East Asia, Eastern Europe, Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean had lower incidence of IBD compared with the children of non-immigrants.

http://www.cheori.org/en/newsreleases?newsid=382

Body as Ecology, Gut as Forest and Restoration as Cure

Ecology

Body is not only ecology system. Like our mother earth, it also has self-healing attribute!

If we talk about Svabhavaparam-स्वभावोपरम principle of Ayurveda, educated arrogant Indians see it as DESI and inferior guess-work. But when a western university scientist talk about it with modern terminology, it is cool, trendy and perfect!

Probiotic food, Rama, Ravana and Dussehra

स्वभावोपरम : Principle of Self-healing

To return to stable state is not only nature of the human body but our mother earth and all her children. What we need to administer is nothing but a support for speedy recovery.

Chronic diseases of modern times are result of torture, be it mental or physical. We see body as machine and ignore it for first 30 years. And when it is in aging route, we start feeling different issues! Body also tries to restore normal state but since aging and torture, both are at work, we often see premature deaths.

Here is the interesting paper and perspective. Hope we learn from it.


Research


OSU biologist advocates ecological approach to improving human health

Chronic diseases like cancer, autoimmune disorders and obesity may ultimately vanquish the efforts of medical intervention unless people change their diet, an Oregon State University biologist argues in a paper published this week.

http://today.oregonstate.edu/news/osu-biologist-advocates-ecological-approach-improving-human-health

“I was diagnosed with Crohn’s disease and put on a monoclonal antibody inhibitor for life,” he said. “Except that I cleaned up my diet, stopped getting the gut irritation, cut out the monoclonal antibody inhibitor, and my symptoms are gone. Two doctors overturned the Crohn’s diagnosis in writing.

“All of that inspired me to think about ways that my knowledge of restoration ecology might help to guide physicians away from treating and misdiagnosing other people the way that they had treated and misdiagnosed me.”

Gut microbes perform a wide range of beneficial functions. Among other things, they produce nutrients in the form of short-chain fatty acids and vitamins, control blood sugar and weight, reduce inflammation and even improve mental health and psychological well-being.

And as with natural habitats, where successful restoration techniques will vary from year to year and place to place depending on individual circumstances, gut restoration requires a similar approach – one toward personalized medicine given that no two gut sets of gut microbiota are identical.

Except for that they’re all essential to the person’s health and all subject to disturbances, including the food people eat and the medicine they take.

“Nineteenth-century research identified microbes as agents of disease and set the stage for 20th-century breakthroughs in antibiotic therapies,” Orr said. “But antibiotic resistance is now a global crisis, and we’re also now aware that antimicrobials can harm beneficial species too.”

Seat of the Prana: Heart Attack and Gut Microbes: Part 1

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F4.large

A recent study point out that Microbial communities play significant role in make or break of heart by causing or avoiding heart attack.

Read the research abstract summary first[1]

The gut is a major reservoir of T cells and diverse resident microbes, microbiota, which can influence immune responses in sites distant from the mucosal surfaces. Complete sterilization of the gut has proven to be beneficial in some experimental models of T cell mediated diseases, whereas partial recolonization post sterilization leads to microbial perturbations, a process called dysbiosis, and, worsens the outcome. Gut dysbiosis is thus recently becoming associated with the pathogenesis of several diseases, in part, by mechanisms in which certain bacteria promote T cell activation and enhance disease progression in a vicious cycle. The complex syndrome of heart failure (HF), a leading cause of morbidity and mortality affecting more than 24 million people worldwide, is recently becoming associated with gut dysbiosis and T cell mediated systemic inflammation in patients, but the mechanisms regulating this emerging gut-heart axis, and whether T cell activation and heart infiltration play a role remains unclear. We have previously reported that T cells infiltrate the heart in patients with non-ischemic HF, and using the transverse aortic constriction (TAC) mouse model of HF, demonstrated that T cells are critical regulators of adverse cardiac remodeling and HF. We hypothesized that sterilization of the gut by microbiota depletion prevents adverse cardiac remodeling and HF in a T cell dependent manner. C57/BL6 mice were orally treated with a well-established cocktail of antibiotics and antifungal (ABX) and subjected to TAC or Sham surgery. ABX treatment started 1 week before TAC surgery and was terminated 4 weeks after TAC. In vivo transthoracic echocardiography and hemodynamics showed a preserved ejection fraction and fractional shortening in mice treated with ABX as compared to untreated mice. Furthermore, gut microbiota depletion with ABX resulted in decreased left ventricular interstitial and perivascular fibrosis, and decreased cardiac hypertrophy in response to TAC, as compared to non-ABX treated TAC mice. These changes correlated with significant reduction of CD4 T cell activation in the mediastinal lymph nodes (mLNs) draining the heart, determined by FACS, as well as in the number of CD4 T cells infiltrated in the heart in ABX treated mice. Our findings indicate that ABX treatment results in distal effects in T cell activation occurring during TAC and protects from adverse cardiac remodeling, supporting the potential importance of gut microbiota in pressure overload induced HF. Future studies will determine whether dysbiosis post ABX treatment contributes to pathological cardiac remodeling and the mechanisms regulating the gut-heart axis in non-ischemic HF.

Let us first understand few terms and entities.

What is Gut dysbiosis?

Gut dysbiosis, sometimes called bacterial dysbiosis, means you have a lack of beneficial bacteria in your gastrointestinal (GI) tract.

There are approximately over 400 species of bacteria in your system that make up your gut microbiome. You actually have more bacteria in your gut than you do cells in your body! These bacteria help you digest food, synthesize vitamins, and fight off harmful pathogens. In short, gut bacteria are a fundamental part of your health, and without them you wouldn’t be able to survive.

[2]

What are T-cells (T-Lymphocytes (T-Cells))?

A type of white blood cell. T-lymphocytes are part of the immune system and develop from stem cells in the bone marrow. They help protect the body from infection and may help fight cancer. Also called T cell and thymocyte.

When our body lacks life-enriching Prana, naturally, it is being captured by life-consuming prana. Life-consuming prana or Prana doing job of destruction, flows from GUt to heart and disturbs its working.

Inflammed GUT due to idiotic eating habits, will generate flood of T-cells. When these T-cells travel to Heart, they are responsible for heart failure as per research.


My understanding


Body is made up of srota or channels. Channel that transports Prana, is known as Pranavaha Srotas. It’s root is in heart (left chamber). Seat is in heart. It receives Prana from two places. Lungs and gastrointestinal tract. It is also connected to GUT/Colon. Clogged colon or inflamed GUT , not only disturbs Prana transport but also affect breathing, and vice a versa. If breathing is not proper, GUT/Colon will be disturbed.
 
Heart attack is easy to detect very early by person’s eating habits. Irregular meals, obsession for exotic food against age, gender, season and time of the day, obsession for specific rasa (sweet teeth) – all of them play role in destroying GUT and in turn disturbing Prana transportation by polluting heart the root of the Pranavaha channel.

More in next part…

[1] https://www.fasebj.org/doi/10.1096/fasebj.2018.32.1_supplement.287.3

[2] https://blog.kettleandfire.com/gut-dysbiosis/

 

GUT, Second brain : Enabler of कवित्व

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Gut
I repeat certain facts more often. This hammering helps. At least, it helps me.
 
गणेश = आदि कवि
He lives in Muladhara
He is ईश for गण
मरुतगण
कवि needs developed intellect.
Developed intellect can articulate self using senses.
Senses communicates using neurotransmitters.
Mualadhara changes with organism. For us, it is GUT. For bees, stomach (honey 🙂 ). For trees, roots. So in reality, all with muladhara perfection, can become कवि.
 
GUT = Second brain = enabler of कवित्व
 
Now, read this research paper abstract.
 
Share it with those who ask “Why Ganesh Puja? Why Ganesh worship to start any important task of life?”
 
Even नास्तिक needs to focus on GUT if they want to use their senses, brain and intellect :). Any living state without Ganesh worship is mere gift and not your full potential!! 🙂
 
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The microbiome-gut-brain axis in health and disease

 
“Gut microbes are capable of producing most neurotransmitters found in the human brain. While these neurotransmitters primarily act locally in the gut, modulating the enteric nervous system, evidence is now accumulating to support the view that gut microbes through multiple mechanisms can influence central neurochemistry and behavior. This has been described as a fundamental paradigm shift in neuroscience. Bifidobacteria for example can produce and increase plasma levels of the serotonin precursor tryptophan, which is fundamental in regulating mood, appetite and gastrointestinal function. Certain Lactobacilli have been shown to produce gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and to alter brain GABA receptor expression and behavior. IBS is regarded as the prototypic disorder of the brain-gut-microbiota axis which can be responsive to probiotic therapy. Recently, the concept of a psychobiotic has been introduced in the literature. A psychobiotic is a bacteria which when ingested in adequate amounts can have a positive mental health benefit. Translational studies indicate that certain bacteria may impact upon stress responses and cognitive functioning. Manipulating the gut microbiota with psychobiotics, prebiotics or even antibiotics offers a novel approach to altering brain function and treating gut-brain axis disorders such as depression and autism.”
 
https://cora.ucc.ie/handle/10468/3544?show=full

सूर्य नमस्कार for Healthy GUT : How exercise alone shapes GUT Microbes

I have been saying this for long based on experience and observations. Microbes are nothing but manifestation of our bodily Prana. They are not organized as organ but do work as community with special purpose to serve the body. And since they are manifested based on Prana, they can be controlled by Pranic exercises. Asana(s) and specifically Surya Namaskar plays vital role here for their well-designed postures and bends with regulated breathing.

Exercise changes gut microbial composition independent of diet, team reports

All the bends that one performs during Surya Namaskar, work as churning process for Prana. And it directly affects the composition of microbes in GUT, GUT being Muladhara chakra.

Probiotic food is not the primary medicine. Exercise is. Surya Namaskar – Must must!

Even playing hockey helps a lot for its natural bending posture that gives enough churning in muladhra.

Exercise GUT


Research


Exercise changes gut microbial composition independent of diet, team reports

https://news.illinois.edu/blog/view/6367/586206

Two studies – one in mice and the other in human subjects – offer the first definitive evidence that exercise alone can change the composition of microbes in the gut. The studies were designed to isolate exercise-induced changes from other factors – such as diet or antibiotic use – that might alter the intestinal microbiota.

In the first study, scientists transplanted fecal material from exercised and sedentary mice into the colons of sedentary germ-free mice, which had been raised in a sterile facility and had no microbiota of their own. In the second study, the team tracked changes in the composition of gut microbiota in human participants as they transitioned from a sedentary lifestyle to a more active one – and back again.

“These are the first studies to show that exercise can have an effect on your gut independent of diet or other factors,” said Jeffrey Woods, a University of Illinois professor of kinesiology and community health who led the research with former doctoral student Jacob Allen, now a postdoctoral researcher at Nationwide Children’s Hospital in Columbus, Ohio. The work with mice was conducted at the U. of I. and with scientists at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, who develop and maintain the germ-free mice. The work in humans was conducted at Illinois.

Exercise training-induced modification of the gut microbiota persists after microbiota colonization and attenuates the response to chemically-induced colitis in gnotobiotic mice

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/19490976.2017.1372077

Exercise reduces the risk of inflammatory disease by modulating a variety of tissue and cell types, including those within the gastrointestinal tract. Recent data indicates that exercise can also alter the gut microbiota, but little is known as to whether these changes affect host function. Here, we use a germ-free (GF) animal model to test whether exercise-induced modifications in the gut microbiota can directly affect host responses to microbiota colonization and chemically-induced colitis. Donor mice (n = 19) received access to a running wheel (n = 10) or remained without access (n = 9) for a period of six weeks. After euthanasia, cecal contents were pooled by activity treatment and transplanted into two separate cohorts of GF mice. Two experiments were then conducted. First, mice were euthanized five weeks after the microbiota transplant and tissues were collected for analysis. A second cohort of GF mice were colonized by donor microbiotas for four weeks before dextran-sodium-sulfate was administered to induce acute colitis, after which mice were euthanized for tissue analysis. We observed that microbial transplants from donor (exercised or control) mice led to differences in microbiota β-diversity, metabolite profiles, colon inflammation, and body mass in recipient mice five weeks after colonization. We also demonstrate that colonization of mice with a gut microbiota from exercise-trained mice led to an attenuated response to chemical colitis, evidenced by reduced colon shortening, attenuated mucus depletion and augmented expression of cytokines involved in tissue regeneration. Exercise-induced modifications in the gut microbiota can mediate host-microbial interactions with potentially beneficial outcomes for the host.

Exercise Alters Gut Microbiota Composition and Function in Lean and Obese Humans

https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00005768-900000000-97045

Abstract

PURPOSE

Exercise is associated with altered gut microbial composition, but studies have not investigated whether the gut microbiota and associated metabolites are modulated by exercise training in humans. We explored the impact of six weeks of endurance exercise on the composition, functional capacity, and metabolic output of the gut microbiota in lean and obese adults with multiple-day dietary controls prior to outcome variable collection.

METHODS

Thirty-two lean (n=18 [9 female]) and obese (n=14 [11 female]), previously sedentary subjects participated in six weeks of supervised, endurance-based exercise training (3 days/wk) that progressed from 30 to 60 minutes/day and from moderate (60% of heart rate reserve [HRR]) to vigorous intensity (75% HRR). Subsequently, participants subsequently returned to a sedentary lifestyle activity for a six week washout period. Fecal samples were collected before and after six weeks of exercise, as well as after the sedentary washout period, with 3-day dietary controls in place prior to each collection.

RESULTS

β-diversity analysis revealed that exercise-induced alterations of the gut microbiota were dependent on obesity status. Exercise increased fecal concentrations of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in lean, but not obese, participants. Exercise-induced shifts in metabolic output of the microbiota paralleled changes in bacterial genes and taxa capable of SCFA production. Lastly, exercise-induced changes in the microbiota were largely reversed once exercise training ceased.

CONCLUSION

These findings suggest that exercise training induces compositional and functional changes in the human gut microbiota that are dependent on obesity status, independent of diet and contingent on the sustainment of exercise.

 

Microbial Community(प्राणमय कोष) controls Gene expression : Not genes, epigenetic!

http://www.cell.com/cms/attachment/2079859016/2071400130/fx1.jpg
http://www.cell.com/cms/attachment/2079859016/2071400130/fx1.jpg

Instead of medicine, why I suggest all friends to worship Surya and Hanuman! 🙂 It is the need of the hour as our Prana is being consumed daily rapidly by toxic environment, physical and mental.

So many dots can be connected by reading this research paper.

This is wonderful morning as I read this research. One more confirmation proof for my theory that it is प्राणमय कोष that actually influences body and not the genes!!

Entire Genome project is pseudo-science of last century! And so GMO crops! Yes, this is tall claim and against the waves but it is the reality! 🙂

प्राणमय कोष is our immunity. It is our cellular intelligence. It is the one that manifests and govern cell-formation. It is the one that manifests cells with individual identity i.e. microbes rather than collective identity i.e. Body organ cell like skill cell, liver cell or neuron.

It is not just me! I know couple of researchers confirming the same fact and working hard to find more and more epigenetic links!

Our food, our thoughts – all influence our well-being. Genes are actually controlled by them!!

It is not genes, it is epigenetic!

In our guts, and in the guts of all animals, resides a robust ecosystem of microbes known as the microbiome. Consisting of trillions of organisms — bacteria, fungi and viruses — the microbiome is essential for host health, providing important services ranging from nutrient processing to immune system development and maintenance.

Now, in a study comparing mice raised in a “germ free” environment and mice raised under more typical lab conditions, scientists have identified yet another key role of the microbes that live within us: mediator of host gene expression through the epigenome, the chemical information that regulates which genes in cells are active.

Writing online Nov. 23 in the journal Molecular Cell, a team of researchers from the University of Wisconsin–Madison describes new research helping tease out the mechanics of how the gut microbiome communicates with the cells of its host to switch genes on and off. The upshot of the study, another indictment of the so-called Western diet (high in saturated fats, sugar and red meat), reveals how the metabolites produced by the bacteria in the stomach chemically communicate with cells, including cells far beyond the colon, to dictate gene expression and health in its host.


Research


Diet-Microbiota Interactions Mediate Global Epigenetic Programming in Multiple Host Tissues

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2016.10.025

Highlights

  • Gut microbiota alter host histone acetylation and methylation in multiple tissues
  • Western diet suppresses microbiota-driven SCFA production and chromatin effects
  • SCFAs recapitulate microbiota-driven chromatin and transcriptional effects

Summary

Histone-modifying enzymes regulate transcription and are sensitive to availability of endogenous small-molecule metabolites, allowing chromatin to respond to changes in environment. The gut microbiota produces a myriad of metabolites that affect host physiology and susceptibility to disease; however, the underlying molecular events remain largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that microbial colonization regulates global histone acetylation and methylation in multiple host tissues in a diet-dependent manner: consumption of a “Western-type” diet prevents many of the microbiota-dependent chromatin changes that occur in a polysaccharide-rich diet. Finally, we demonstrate that supplementation of germ-free mice with short-chain fatty acids, major products of gut bacterial fermentation, is sufficient to recapitulate chromatin modification states and transcriptional responses associated with colonization. These findings have profound implications for understanding the complex functional interactions between diet, gut microbiota, and host health.

Mood Controllers in GUT: Healthy food for peaceful nation

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Any ancient Indian Kingdom you take, there is utmost care taken for food security of the subjects. Not rationing as it is happening now but high-quality nutrient rich food for everyone. So much so that that famines were predicted and grains grown during famine years was used to be discarded for their low quality!

Why?

Food controls mood. Individual’s psyche to societal psyche.

Must Read – Mood controllers in GUT
Why healthy food and eating habit is must for peaceful society!
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In favor of Bacteria – प्राणमय कोष (Body’s energy footprint in layman terms)’s differently abled manifestation. (Normal manifestation of organ level grouping of cells)
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Ever felt why suddenly you feel gloomy? Anxious? Wondered why mother and grandmother offer either Gud or Dahi before you head for exam with anxiety?

14712976_10155523973449762_4788739437672900236_o

If aliens were to examine a human, they would think we were just slavish organisms designed to feed microbes and carry them around. Our bodies contain ten times more bacteria than cells, and there are an estimated 3.3 million genes in the total bacteria DNA, which is 160 times the number of human genes. Our intestine hosts about one kilogram of bacteria which help to digest and metabolise food, produce vitamins and protect us from infections.

14650347_10155523961229762_7816736959690504918_n

The above is textbook knowledge, but loads of recent studies are uncovering new and unsuspected roles for these little companions. There is evidence that gut bacteria can protect or predispose us to pathologies ranging from inflammation to diabetes and obesity. And, as far-fetching as it sounds, a remarkable amount data shows that they can even modify our mood and behaviour.

What is the connection between the microbiota, the brain, and mood?

There is a growing evidence of a microbial gut-brain axis in which bacteria can influence the brain, and vice versa.

Researchers from Canada found that mice from a particularly shy species became more active and curious after receiving a gut microbial transplant from less inhibited mice. We know that some strains of intestinal bacteria produce compounds that have an effect on the nervous system: neurotransmitters, for example, or metabolites that alter the blood-brain barrier (a barrier which filters the molecules passing from the body to the brain circulation – ed. note). We don’t yet know the precise mechanisms, but it’s quite clear that the gut microbes can influence mood and the behavioural patterns.


Research


 

Read more: http://www.youris.com/Health/Immunology/Do-Microbes-Control-Our-Mood.kl#ixzz4Nnxpcznc

Cospeciation : Coevolution, Gut Microbes and role of Prana

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Conspeciation
This science paper confirms eternity of प्राण | Bacteria are manifestation of वैश्विक प्राण | So, not all Gut bacteria are acquired at birth! Some of them followed eternal journey with us!! And they depend upon host lineages!
 
“Gut bacteria therefore are not simply acquired from the environment, but have coevolved for millions of years with hominids to help shape our immune systems and development.”
 
Like how Prana drives growth of body from conception to birth to the youth, same Prana manifest microbial bacteria in GUT as per the need !
 
Our gutter-satisfying eating habits, medications ruin the legacy received from lineages!
 
“The evolutionary origins of the bacterial lineages that populate the human gut are unknown. Here we show that multiple lineages of the predominant bacterial taxa in the gut arose via cospeciation with humans, chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas over the past 15 million years. Analyses of strain-level bacterial diversity within hominid gut microbiomes revealed that clades of Bacteroidaceae and Bifidobacteriaceae have been maintained exclusively within host lineages across hundreds of thousands of host generations. Divergence times of these cospeciating gut bacteria are congruent with those of hominids, indicating that nuclear, mitochondrial, and gut bacterial genomes diversified in concert during hominid evolution. This study identifies human gut bacteria descended from ancient symbionts that speciated simultaneously with humans and the African apes.”
 

Cospeciation of gut microbiota with hominids

http://science.sciencemag.org/content/353/6297/380

Human-microbiota coevolution

The bacteria that make their home in the intestines of modern apes and humans arose from ancient bacteria that colonized the guts of our common ancestors. Moeller et al. have developed a method to compare rapidly evolving gyrB gene sequences in fecal samples from humans and wild chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas (see the Perspective by Segre and Salafsky). Comparison of the gyrB phylogenies of major bacterial lineages reveals that they mostly match the apehominid phylogeny, except for some rare symbiont transfers between primate species. Gut bacteria therefore are not simply acquired from the environment, but have coevolved for millions of years with hominids to help shape our immune systems and development.

Heart Failure starts with Gut (मूलाधार) : Worship गणेश

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GUT bacteria and Heart failure
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Heart Ganesh

I am not microbiologist but हनुमान & गणेश भक्त. And they give enough hints about the गण they protect for me within this body-universe.

I repeat almost daily and urge friends to take care of GUT by proper diet, surya Namaskar.

Area from GUT to Navel – very critical for existence. Protect it.

गणपति resides in GUT area . And to worship him, we generally keep fast. Fasting clean the GUT and transforms it from GUTTER into Heaven. So clean GUT means right decisions, right actions and in real sense गणेश acts as विध्नहर्ता.

During monsoon, our digestive power remains very low and so there are high chances that GUT remains polluted. So just when the monsoon is on the verge of end, we worship गणेश for 10 days.


Research


Heart failure is associated with loss of important gut bacteria

https://dzhk.de/en/news/latest-news/article/heart-failure-is-associated-with-loss-of-important-gut-bacteria/

“In the gut of patients with heart failure, important groups of bacteria are found less frequently and the gut flora is not as diverse as in healthy individuals. Data obtained by scientists of the German Centre for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK) provide valuable points of departure for understanding how gut colonisation is associated with the development and progress of heart failure.”

Influential factors: diet, medication, smoking

“Of course, other factors also affect the composition of our gut bacteria. We know that the gut flora of a vegan who starts eating meat changes within three days”, explains associate professor Dr. Mark Lüdde of the University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel. For this reason, we asked the Kiel-based researchers of dietary habits beforehand. Individuals with an extreme diet, such as a vegan diet, were not allowed to participate in their study. Instead, they chose individuals with a standard diet comprising both meat and vegetables for both groups.

In addition to diet, medication also affect the gut flora. It was, therefore, important that the control group also took medicinal products that patients with heart failure must take routinely. Antibiotics could not have been administered for at least three months prior. Smokers were also included in both groups. All participants were from the same region and were the same age; gender distribution and BMI were equal in both groups.

Consequence or cause of the disease?

The observed pattern of the reduced genera and families of bacteria seems very characteristic of heart failure, which is why these results may be new points of departure for therapies. The differences between healthy individuals and those with heart failure, thus, came about mainly through the loss of bacteria of the genera Blautia and Collinsella, as well as two previously unknown genera that belong to the families Erysipelotrichaceae and Ruminococcaceae. 

The Gut, the Heart, and TMAO

Here’s how it works: When people ingest certain nutrients, such as choline (abundant in red meat, egg yolks, and dairy products) and L-carnitine (found in red meat as well as some energy drinks and supplements), the gut bacteria that break it down produce a compound called trimethylamine (TMA). The liver then converts TMA into the compound, trimethylene N-oxide (TMAO).

The trouble with TMAO is that data show high levels contribute to a heightened risk for clot-related events such as heart attack and stroke—even after researchers take into account the presence of conventional risk factors and markers of inflammation that might skew the results. In their most recent analysis, scientists showed that high blood levels of TMAO were associated with higher rates of premature death in a group of 2235 patients with stable coronary artery disease. Those found to have higher blood levels of TMAO had a four-fold greater risk of dying from any cause over the subsequent five years.

The implications are intriguing. Taken together, the new studies suggest that positively altering the gut microbiota may help to reduce damage to blood vessels, resulting in a stronger cardiovascular system, and they point to targets for potential new heart disease therapies.

The Gut, the Heart, and TMAO

 

Research : GUT Microbes controls circadian clocks

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GutMicrobesClocks

While selfish mankind is focusing more and investing more in understanding internal circadian rhythms, we are utter foolish in recording every day disturbed circadian rhythms in outer environment. If someone notices, they are called climate hoax creators, conspiracy theorists etc.

“5 elements outside. 5 elements inside. No difference. If the outside is disturbed, such disturbances can occur on the inside too. The reverse also becomes true if done so deeply that we’re all the zombies who destroy everything for no good reason (okay, our current “good reason” is to make money) and will ultimately turn into cannibal zombies to end the feeding frenzy.” – Suraj Kumar

It is vicious cycle. You eat junk, disturb GUT bacteria and your circadian rhythms are disturbed (body clocks).

On the other hand, disturb rhythms by shift jobs, late night movies, parties, irregular life routine – all results into disturbed GUT.


Research


http://harvardmagazine.com/2015/06/engineering-circadian-clock

Engineering an Internal Clock

Gut microbes affect circadian rhythms in mice, study says

http://www.anl.gov/articles/gut-microbes-affect-circadian-rhythms-mice-study-says

A study including researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago found evidence that gut microbes affect circadian rhythms and metabolism in mice.

We know from studies on jet lag and night shifts that metabolism—how bodies use energy from food—is linked to the body’s circadian rhythms. These rhythms, regular daily fluctuations in mental and bodily functions, are communicated and carried out via signals sent from the brain and liver. Light and dark signals guide circadian rhythms, but it appears that microbes have a role to play as well.

All humans have a set of bacteria, viruses and fungi living in our guts, called the gut microbiome, which helps us digest food—and also interacts with the body in a number of other ways: there is evidence they affect allergies, mental health, weight and other metabolic conditions.

Researchers found that mice with a normal set of gut microbes showed evidence of a regular daily microbial cycle, with different species flourishing in different parts of the day and producing different compounds as a result. These compounds appear to act on the liver—they affected how circadian clock genes were expressed in the liver.

A high-fat diet reduced the variation in the microbial cycle; the circadian clock genes were disrupted, and the mice gained weight.

Meanwhile, “germ-free” mice raised without a normal gut microbiome showed evidence of a disrupted circadian clock cycle, but did not gain weight even on a high-fat diet.

The researchers hypothesize that high-fat diets change the compounds that microbes produce, thus disrupting the liver’s circadian clock signaling.

“The earlier explanation for microbiome-related weight gain was that some bacteria make calories from food more available to your body, but this is a fundamental alternative explanation,” said Jack Gilbert, an Argonne microbial ecologist who co-authored the study.

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