Brain

Brain

GUT, Second brain : Enabler of कवित्व

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Gut
I repeat certain facts more often. This hammering helps. At least, it helps me.
 
गणेश = आदि कवि
He lives in Muladhara
He is ईश for गण
मरुतगण
कवि needs developed intellect.
Developed intellect can articulate self using senses.
Senses communicates using neurotransmitters.
Mualadhara changes with organism. For us, it is GUT. For bees, stomach (honey 🙂 ). For trees, roots. So in reality, all with muladhara perfection, can become कवि.
 
GUT = Second brain = enabler of कवित्व
 
Now, read this research paper abstract.
 
Share it with those who ask “Why Ganesh Puja? Why Ganesh worship to start any important task of life?”
 
Even नास्तिक needs to focus on GUT if they want to use their senses, brain and intellect :). Any living state without Ganesh worship is mere gift and not your full potential!! 🙂
 
———————-

The microbiome-gut-brain axis in health and disease

 
“Gut microbes are capable of producing most neurotransmitters found in the human brain. While these neurotransmitters primarily act locally in the gut, modulating the enteric nervous system, evidence is now accumulating to support the view that gut microbes through multiple mechanisms can influence central neurochemistry and behavior. This has been described as a fundamental paradigm shift in neuroscience. Bifidobacteria for example can produce and increase plasma levels of the serotonin precursor tryptophan, which is fundamental in regulating mood, appetite and gastrointestinal function. Certain Lactobacilli have been shown to produce gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and to alter brain GABA receptor expression and behavior. IBS is regarded as the prototypic disorder of the brain-gut-microbiota axis which can be responsive to probiotic therapy. Recently, the concept of a psychobiotic has been introduced in the literature. A psychobiotic is a bacteria which when ingested in adequate amounts can have a positive mental health benefit. Translational studies indicate that certain bacteria may impact upon stress responses and cognitive functioning. Manipulating the gut microbiota with psychobiotics, prebiotics or even antibiotics offers a novel approach to altering brain function and treating gut-brain axis disorders such as depression and autism.”
 
https://cora.ucc.ie/handle/10468/3544?show=full

Molecular hints of being तामसिक(Tamasic)

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Tamsik

In chapter 17 of Bhagwad Gita, Arjuna had a doubt: Those who, setting aside the ordinances of the scriptures, perform sacrifice with faith, what is their condition, O Krishna? Is is Sattva, Rajas or Tamas?

Bhagwan responded  him with a truth about human nature:

त्रिविधा भवति श्रद्धा देहिनां सा स्वभावजा।
सात्त्विकी राजसी चैव तामसी चेति तां श्रृणु।।17.2।।

सत्त्वानुरूपा सर्वस्य श्रद्धा भवति भारत।
श्रद्धामयोऽयं पुरुषो यो यच्छ्रद्धः स एव सः।।17.3।।

The Blessed Lord said Threefold is the faith of the embodied, which is inherent in their nature the Sattvic (pure), the Rajasic (passionate) and the Tamasic (dark). Do thou hear of it.

The faith of each is in accordance with his nature, O Arjuna. The man consists of his faith; as a man’s faith is, so is he.

And later, he explains how food selection to charity, all work based on innate prakriti.

Changing someone’s innate prakriti is not an easy job. It demands herculian efforts by pious heart, a change agent, blessed by divine powers to alter someone’s life. And the base of entire process is : Selfless love.

So, based on chapter 17 of Bhagwad Gita, it is clear that, it is not food that decides your nature but it is your nature that selects food and maintains your particular nature. If we want to change anyone’s nature, we will first have to work on their nature i.e. स्वभाव. No easy task to alter human nature. This process starts very early in life. Before birth. This is the reason I emphasis more often on two institution most 1) Marriage 2) Parenting – Child development. Future depends on these two social norms. We must protect them. When they are of sattvik nature, we can pray mother nature to gift Sattvik generations. It is difficult to mold, already molded clay pot (Tamasik nature of grown up adults). And if you try, very hard, you may break the equilibrium. If you really are interested in building healthy future, work on children. Prepare Sattvik nature in them. Nurture them accordingly.

Now, here is the interesting paper talking about molecular basis of prakriti.


Research


Not my future? Core values and the neural representation of future events

“Some people are worried about the consequences of climate change, while others consider them too remote to have an impact on their well-being. Researchers examined how these differences are reflected in our brains. With the help of neuro-imaging, the scientists found that people deemed ‘egotistical’ do not use the area of the brain that enables us to look into and imagine the distant future. In ‘altruistic’ individuals, the same area is alive with activity.”

Selfishness makes the brain lazy

The psychologists then focused on the activity in the ventromedial pre-frontal cortex (vmPFC), an area of the brain above the eyes that is used when thinking about the future and trying to visualize it. “We found that with altruistic people, this cerebral zone is activated more forcefully when the subject is confronted with the consequences of a distant future as compared to the near future. By contrast, in an egotistical person, there is no increase in activity between a consequence in the near future and one in the distant future,” says Brosch.

This particular region of the brain is mainly used for projecting oneself into the distant future. The absence of heightened activity in a self-centred person indicates the absence of projection and the fact that the individual does not feel concerned by what will happen after his or her death. Why, then, should such people adopt sustainable forms of behaviour?

Set your projection capabilities to work

These outcomes, which can be applied to areas other than climate change, demonstrate the importance of being able to think about the distant future in order to adapt one’s behaviour to the future constraints of the world. “We could imagine a psychological training that would work on this brain area using projection exercises,” suggests Brosch. “In particular, we could use virtual reality, which would make the tomorrow’s world visible to everyone, bringing human beings closer to the consequences of their actions.”

https://link.springer.com/article/10.3758%2Fs13415-018-0581-9

Mind is not an outcome

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mind-control

Modern medical science does not believe in mind. For them , mind is an imaginary phenomenon, a resultant of brain activity.

Our medical science (Ayurveda) approves existence of mind as separate layer of organism. You have mind, I have mind, ameba too has mind. Your so much appearing dead furniture too has mind.

This mind decides circuitry of brain. When your mind changes, your brain changes, too. When neurons fire together, they wire together—mental activity actually creates new neural structures (Hebb 1949; LeDoux 2003)

As a result, even fleeting thoughts and feelings can leave lasting marks on your brain, much like a spring shower can leave little trails on a hillside.

So, it is important maintain healthy mental state. That is where we Indians can lead the world in upcoming turmoil times. We have rich heritage of mind experiments. Treasure for anyone whose mind is not confined in prejudices against own local culture.

Key of healthy body is : Healthy mind. What flows through your mind sculpts your brain. Thus, you can use your mind to change your brain for the better—which will benefit your whole being, and every other person whose life you touch.

Smile. Love. Learn. Laugh. Nurture. Revere. Take care 🙂. Damn, no diseases will dare to trespass, unless it is really a outcome of past life’s bad karma 🙂

Coconut Oil and Brain Health

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Coconut

Oil play critical role in our diet. From lubrication to antioxidants, they provide important support to our body cell ecology.

Excess of oil in food is harmful and no oil in food is also harmful. Moderate usage can work as boon. Unrefined oil is must. Avoid packaged and processed oil – it is unhealthy. Avoid refined oil. If possible, find organically grown seeds(groundnuts for Gujarat).

Due to bombardment of all advertisements, consumers are always confused about best selection.

There is simple rule: Eat whatever mother nature can grow in abudance in your environment. As shown in map, if we divide Bharat in three parts and locate your residence, you will find best suitable oil for you. Throw all other brands in dustbin.

1) South Indian friends or friends from coastal area eat lot of coconut oil.
2) Coconut oil used to be primary source for hair massage
 
Coconut oil has lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs) fat. 4.6%. It is ample. [1]
 
As per this research paper, Lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs) is found to be essential for brain growth.
 
But what do we do now? We choose our oil based on TV advertisement and market enticement by ads! 😀 So we use useless oils. All refined.
 
Even coconut oil that comes in the market is refined.
 
Refined = Useless. There are no fats in refined oils.
 
What a collapse of societal intellect! 🙁
 
And we expect responsible wise responses from our generation 😀 😀 .
 
[1] Page 12, http://fos.ubd.edu.bn/sites/default/files/2000-Paper2.pdf
 
http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-05/dgms-sfp052215.php

Never marry your food to plastic, results in societal psychosis

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Plastic

In marriage, one becomes पति. पति in Sanskrit means protector. The one who protects. We marry our food to plastic containers. Since plastic can remain stable and in form at normal room temperature, we think it will protect our food. So we blindly surrender our food to plastic.

Never do that again! Plastic is pervasive. It can’t protect, it destroys! It acts like how termite acts for wood.

Food when stored or served hot in plastic, will come with micro plastic residue. This will be havoc for brain development in future kids.

The increasing mental disorders and crimes against women – one critical but silent factor is pervasive plastic in our life!


Research


Plastic chemical linked to smaller prefrontal cortex, reduced cognitive ability in rats

Findings demonstrate long-term influence of endocrine-disrupting compounds on brain development

Phthalates — chemicals used in plastics belonging to the same class as Bisphenol A (BPA) — can potentially interfere with hormones important for the developing brain.

Although previous studies have identified associations between phthalate exposure and developmental disturbances, little is known about the neurobiology underlying these relationships.

Janice Juraska and colleagues fed pregnant rats a daily cookie laced with human level doses of a chemical mixture based on data obtained from pregnant women. The researchers found both male and female adult offspring of these rats had fewer neurons and synapses in their mPFC and a specific deficit in cognitive flexibility.

As the mPFC is crucial for high level cognitive functions and reduced cognitive flexibility is observed in developmental disorders such as autism, the research shows how early life phthalate exposure can affect the brain and behavior.

The growth and organization of the developing brain is known to be influenced by hormones, but little is known about whether disruption of hormones affects cortical regions, like the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). This region is particularly important given its involvement in executive functions and implication in the pathology of many neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we examine the long-term effects of perinatal exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds, the phthalates, on the mPFC and associated behavior. This investigation is pertinent as humans are ubiquitously exposed to phthalates through a variety of consumer products and phthalates can readily cross the placenta and be delivered to offspring via lactation. Pregnant dams orally consumed an environmentally relevant mixture of phthalates at 0, 200, or 1000 μg/kg/day through pregnancy and for 10 days while lactating. As adults, offspring were tested in an attentional set-shifting task, which assesses cognitive flexibility. Brains were also examined in adulthood for stereological quantification of the number of neurons, glia, and synapses within the mPFC. We found that, independent of sex, perinatal phthalate exposure at either dose resulted in a reduction in neuron number, synapse number, and size of the mPFC and a deficit in cognitive flexibility. Interestingly, the number of synapses was correlated with cognitive flexibility, such that rats with fewer synapses were less cognitively flexible than those with more synapses. These results demonstrate that perinatal phthalate exposure can have long-term effects on the cortex and behavior of both male and female rats.

SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT

Humans globally are exposed on a daily basis to a variety of phthalates, which are endocrine-disrupting chemicals. The effects of phthalate exposure on the developing brain, especially on cognitively relevant regions like the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), is not known. Here, we use a rat model of human prenatal exposure to an environmentally relevant mixture of phthalates and find there is an appreciable reduction in neuron number, synapse number, and size of the mPFC and a deficit in cognitive flexibility. These results may have serious implications for humans given the mPFC is involved in executive functions and is implicated in the pathology of many neuropsychiatric disorders.

 

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/07/180716130738.htm

Long Term Memory and Mind

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57b1c4cf839e628be56020b14e2b3728

Our text books teaches us that the brain is where memories are stored. Brain is where thoughts take birth. Brain is where decisions are taken. Reductionist science. Poor ignorance.

This experiment on Aplysia, a sea slugs shows something else. Brain plays a role of platform to execute the actions, memories, decisions and does not store in brain.

Researchers trained these creatures to respond to certain neurotransmitter signals. They then used chemicals to return the synapses to their pre-trained state, which basically eliminated the memorized reflexes. But even though the researchers had altered the neural connections, they found that the long-term memories for those reflexes still persisted covertly. According to the authors of the paper, “these results challenge the idea that stable synapses store long-term memories.”

This concurs the Ayurvedic idea of Panchkoshiya sharir where above physical body, Prana and Mind play essential role in forming memories and taking actions.


Research


Reinstatement of long-term memory following erasure of its behavioral and synaptic expression in Aplysia

Long-term memory (LTM) is believed to be stored in the brain as changes in synaptic connections. Here, we show that LTM storage and synaptic change can be dissociated. Cocultures of Aplysia sensory and motor neurons were trained with spaced pulses of serotonin, which induces long-term facilitation. Serotonin (5HT) triggered growth of new presynaptic varicosities, a synaptic mechanism of long-term sensitization. Following 5HT training, two antimnemonic treatments—reconsolidation blockade and inhibition of PKM—caused the number of presynaptic varicosities to revert to the original, pretraining value. Surprisingly, the final synaptic structure was not achieved by targeted retraction of the 5HT-induced varicosities but, rather, by an apparently arbitrary retraction of both 5HT-induced and original synapses. In addition, we find evidence that the LTM for sensitization persists covertly after its apparent elimination by the same antimnemonic treatments that erase learning-related synaptic growth. These results challenge the idea that stable synapses store long-term memories.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03896.001

Pain killer/Antibiotics promotes प्रज्ञा अपराध (Intellectual Errors)

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PainKillers

We noted in this note that प्रज्ञा अपराध – The crime of injecting intellectual errors in day to day decision making – Root cause of all ill-health issues.

Impaired Intellect + Impaired self-control + Impaired memory = High chances of प्रज्ञा अपराध (misuse or no use of human brain/mind)

प्रज्ञापराधो हि मूलं रोगाणाम् |

प्रज्ञापराध कुछ और नहीं, बल्कि प्रकृति के नियमों की अवहेलना है।व्यक्ति जब जीवन के समग्र रूप को भूल खुद को इससे अलग मानने लगता है, तब वह प्रज्ञापराध का दोषी हो जाता है।

अनेक ग्रंथों में कहा गया है कि शरीर की रोगों से रक्षा करना मनुष्य का प्रमुख कर्तव्य है। पर कई बार तमाम कोशिशों के बाद भी बीमारियां हमें अपना शिकार बना ही लेती हैं। आखिर क्यों होते हैं रोग? इस बारे में आयुर्वेद कहता है कि प्रज्ञापराध ही हर रोग की जड़ है। प्रज्ञापराध दो शब्दों से मिल कर बना है: प्रज्ञा और अपराध। प्रज्ञा का अर्थ है ज्ञान और अपराध का अर्थ है गलत कार्य। जानकारी होने के बावजूद गलत काम करना, उपेक्षा या अवहेलना करना ही प्रज्ञापराध है। आयुर्वेद में कहा गया है कि प्रज्ञापराध को महामारियों का प्रमुख कारण माना जा सकता है। जानकारी होने के बावजूद किए जाने वाले इस प्रकार के अपराधों को तीन श्रेणियों में बांटा जाता है। पहले प्रकार का अपराध है किसी नियम की उपेक्षा करना। दूसरे प्रकार के अपराध वे हैं, जिनके नुकसान हम जानते हैं, फिर भी हम वे काम करते हैं। जैसे कि सिगरेट पीना। कोई व्यक्ति कमजोर इच्छा शक्ति के कारण सिगरेट पीना नहीं छोड़ पाता है, तो वह अपने प्रति अपराध करता है। तीसरे प्रकार के अपराध वे हैं, जो हम ज्ञान अथवा स्मृति के अभाव में कर बैठते हैं।

http://hindi.speakingtree.in/article/content-247515

It is state of intellect that cannot decide what is favorable and what is not based on individual’s current state of mind and body.

Our education system does not train us to avoid these crimes. Parenting? They don’t have time. Society? It is no more a live entity.

Only way to improve health of society is to train society to avoid प्रज्ञा अपराध.

On the other hand, modern medicines , with a motive to hide the real symptoms, give such medicines that promote intellectual errors!


Research


This popular painkiller may hamper your ability to notice errors, U of T researchers say

https://www.utoronto.ca/news/popular-painkiller-may-hamper-your-ability-notice-errors-u-t-researchers-say

Cognitive control is an important neurological function because people are constantly doing cognitive tasks that flow automatically like reading, walking or talking. These tasks require very little cognitive control because they are well mapped out neurological processes, notes Randles.

“Sometimes you need to interrupt your normal processes or they’ll lead to a mistake, like when you’re talking to a friend while crossing the street, you should still be ready to react to an erratic driver,” explains Randles.

“The task we designed is meant to capture that since most of the stimuli were Go, so you end up getting into a routine of automatically hitting the Go button. When you see a No Go, that requires cognitive control because you need to interrupt the process.”

The study was double blind, so neither the researcher running the study nor the participant knew whether they had been given a placebo or acetaminophen.

An unexpected and surprise finding that Randles plans to explore more closely is that those who received an acetaminophen dose appeared to miss more of the Go stimuli than they should have. He plans on expanding on the error detection aspect of the research to see whether acetaminophen is possibly causing people to “mind wander” and become distracted.

“An obvious question is if people aren’t detecting these errors, are they also making errors more often when taking acetaminophen? This is the first study to address this question, so we need more work and ideally with tasks more closely related to normal daily behaviour.”

Evidence Suggests Early Exposure to Antibiotics Might Lead to Long-Term Behavioural Changes

Low-dose penicillin in early life induces long-term changes in murine gut microbiota, brain cytokines and behavior

There is increasing concern about potential long-term effects of antibiotics on children’s health. Epidemiological studies have revealed that early-life antibiotic exposure can increase the risk of developing immune and metabolic diseases, and rodent studies have shown that administration of high doses of antibiotics has long-term effects on brain neurochemistry and behaviour. Here we investigate whether low-dose penicillin in late pregnancy and early postnatal life induces long-term effects in the offspring of mice. We find that penicillin has lasting effects in both sexes on gut microbiota, increases cytokine expression in frontal cortex, modifies blood–brain barrier integrity and alters behaviour. The antibiotic-treated mice exhibit impaired anxiety-like and social behaviours, and display aggression. Concurrent supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus JB-1 prevents some of these alterations. These results warrant further studies on the potential role of early-life antibiotic use in the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, and the possible attenuation of these by beneficial bacteria.

http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms15062

Rural serenity : Innate urge, hard-wired

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Reason why so many resorts, restaurants, spiritual shops with rustic look run the business with handsome profit. Of course by exploiting our hard wired instinct.

Eternal urge to live life with mother.

urban-vs-rural


Research


Human brain hard-wired for rural tranquillity

Humans may be hard-wired to feel at peace in the countryside and confused in cities – even if they were born and raised in an urban area.

“When looking at urban environments the brain is doing a lot of processing because it doesn’t know what this environment is,” he said. “The brain doesn’t have an immediate natural response to it, so it has to get busy. Part of the brain that deals with visual complexity lights up: ‘What is this that I’m looking at?’ Even if you have lived in a city all your life, it seems your brain doesn’t quite know what to do with this information and has to do visual processing,” he said.

Rural images produced a “much quieter” response in a “completely different part of the brain”, he added. “There’s much less activity. It seems to be in the limbic system, a much older, evolutionarily, part of the brain that we share with monkeys and primates.”

“I think we have neglected the relationship that human beings have with their environment and we are strongly connected to it,” he said. “If you don’t get the conditions right in zoos, the animals start behaving in a wacky way. There have been studies done with laboratory animals showing their feeding is abnormal. Sometimes they stop eating and sometimes they eat excessively. How far we can draw that parallel, I don’t know.”

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/human-brain-hard-wired-for-rural-tranquillity-8996368.html

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