Agriculture

Agriculture

World War-1 Waste as Fertilizer

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bomb

British officer, director of Indore based agriculture institute and advisor to govt for states in Central Indian and rajputana, Albery Howard (C.I.E) confessed that Indian Agriculture practices (गौ आधारित कृषि) are best and ideal to adopt for rest of the world.

He shares reason behind introduction of artificial fertilizers to India in his report (1940).

” Artificial manures are widely used. The feature of the manuring of the West is the use of artificial manures. The factories engaged during the Great War in the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen for the manufacture of explosives had to find other markets, the use of nitrogenous fertilizers in agriculture increased, until today the majority of farmers and market gardeners base their manurial programme on the cheapest forms of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) on the market. What may he conveniently described as the NPK mentality, dominates farming alike in the experimental stations and the country-side. Vested interests, entrenched in time of national emergency, have gained a stranglehold.”

Same strategy is used by US right now for introducing GM crops, pesticides, large agri machines and nuclear plants.

It is burning time to get rid of all retarded technologies from our farms.

fertilizer

Nehru govt was the most retarded govt in our history who introduced artificial fertilizer units across country and destroyed fertility of the land.

Flow : From Collapsing agriculture to Civil Wars

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agricol2.jpg

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With collapsing agriculture, village system breaks and gives open hands to Anti-India forces. This(War like efforts to support cow based farming) is the only way to save this land from Syria like civil wars.

Century long chemical usage and high yield greed has turned sacred profession into dirty business.

Change cannot be possible without you and me. We must stand together with our farmers. Encourage them for cow-based farming. At the same time, we must demand pro-cow based farming policies from center and state govt(s).

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“In the past three years, 160 Syrian farming villages have been abandoned near Aleppo as crop failures have forced over 200,000 rural Syrians to leave for the cities. This news is distressing enough, but when put into a long-term perspective, its implications are staggering: many of these villages have been continuously farmed for 8000 years. As one expert puts it, this may be the worst long-term drought and most severe set of crop failures since agricultural civilizations began in the Fertile Crescent many millennia ago.”

The drought severly weakened Syria’s ability to grow food. As farming became impossible entire regions lost their way of life. Men, families, or “entire villages” as Gary Nabhan recounts, were forced to leave their land and head to Syria’s major cities. Most of the displaced farmers were from predominantly Sunni regions. The Syrian political apparatus on the other hand was mainly Alawite. Whereas confronting the Assad regime would have been unthinkable before the drought, the desperate poverty many Sunnis now found themselves in meant they had nothing left to lose. In March 2011 demonstrations broke out in the city of Daraa and Syrian security forces responded violently, killing four people. Protests then spread throughout the country and breakdown of the state would soon follow.


Reference articles


Climate Change and the Syria Crisis

http://mandalaprojects.com/ice/ice-cases/syria-jordan.htm

Syrian Civil War Outbreak Explained in Two Graphs

http://soilandstate.blogspot.com/2014/04/syrian-civil-war-outbreak-explained-in.html

गौ आधारित खेती: Important for climate stabilization

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gochar

We have discussed this ample times. Unfortunately, our society’s will and political will is weakest in the history. We must stop all western agriculture practices immediately and go back to roots. It is dangerous idea to enforce migration of agriculture belt population to cities for so called virtual GDP growth. Destructive.

Read more on it. This is western view so there is now cow here. Do read this old article to realize why cow plays critical role in climate recovery formula.

Gau Gavya and Gau-Raksha


Research


Improving soil quality can slow global warming

http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/4/8/eaaq0932

Removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) combined with emission reduction is necessary to keep climate warming below the internationally agreed upon 2°C target. Soil organic carbon sequestration through agricultural management has been proposed as a means to lower atmospheric CO2 concentration, but the magnitude needed to meaningfully lower temperature is unknown. We show that sequestration of 0.68 Pg C year−1 for 85 years could lower global temperature by 0.1°C in 2100 when combined with a low emission trajectory [Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 2.6]. This value is potentially achievable using existing agricultural management approaches, without decreasing land area for food production. Existing agricultural mitigation approaches could lower global temperature by up to 0.26°C under RCP 2.6 or as much as 25% of remaining warming to 2°C. This declines to 0.14°C under RCP 8.5. Results were sensitive to assumptions regarding the duration of carbon sequestration rates, which is poorly constrained by data. Results provide a framework for the potential role of agricultural soil organic carbon sequestration in climate change mitigation.


Low-tech ways of improving soil quality on farms and rangelands worldwide could pull significant amounts of carbon out of the atmosphere and slow the pace of climate change, according to a new UC  Berkeley study.

The researchers found that well-established agricultural management practices such as planting cover crops, optimizing grazing and sowing legumes on rangelands, if instituted globally, could capture enough carbon from the atmosphere and store it in the soil to make a significant contribution to international global warming targets.

Their initial aim was to determine if such practices could reduce global temperatures at least 0.1 degree Celsius (0.18 degrees Fahrenheit). This is one-tenth of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s goal of limiting the average global temperature increase between now and the year 2100 to 1 degree Celsius (1.8ºF), or 2 above temperatures before the industrial revolution.

When combined with aggressive carbon emission reductions – the best scenario for limiting warming from climate change – the study found that improved agricultural management could reduce global temperatures 0.26 degrees Celsius – nearly half a degree Fahrenheit – by 2100.

“As someone who has been working on carbon sequestration for a long time, I have always had this question in the back of my mind, ‘Will sequestration in soils make a difference with climate change at a global scale?’ ” said study senior author Whendee Silver, a professor of environmental science, policy and management at UC Berkeley. “We found that there are a wide range of practices deployable on a large scale that could have a detectable worldwide impact. A big take-home message is that we know how to do this, it is achievable.”

Cow Dung, Soil moisture and Rain

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Agriculture in India is panchang(पञ्चांग) driven. We plan agriculture activities based on specific tithis. Take for example: Monsoon crop preparation starts very early summer.

rain

अक्षय तृतीया – The day when we start new crop season. It is the day when farmer begins new food cycle for us. Day when farmer community requires our support. It is not just about food, essential rain cycle depends upon how for next 1-2 months we maintain soil moisture. Once the land is ploughed, it is kept open for cows grazing. Free flow of cow urine and dung keep the soil moisture intact.

Keeping land open to the sun for 1-2 months before monsoon along with cow dung and urine based moisture play role in bringing rain to the land as per latest research hints.

Moisture, such as from soil, is one of three ingredients necessary to create rain. Also needed are an upward motion of air from the earth’s surface into cooler parts of the upper atmosphere, which drier soils are good at facilitating, and a source of water vapor.

Maintaining soil moisture with the help of cow dung is not only important for soil fertility but also to attract monsoon rain and future ground-water storage.

Here is the research supporting this timeless methods followed by Indian farmers.

 


Research


Does Rain Follow the Plow?

https://uanews.arizona.edu/story/does-rain-follow-plow

There are many factors that play a role in whether or not it rains, and research from the University of Arizona shows that human activity such as cultivating agricultural fields may be one of them.
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here are three ingredients necessary to create rain, Zeng said, and moisture – from atmospheric humidity, plants, bodies of water or soil – is one of them. Also needed are an upward motion of air from the earth’s surface into cooler parts of the upper atmosphere, which drier soils are good at facilitating, and a source of water vapor.

Welty and Zeng found that morning soil moisture can affect afternoon rain accumulations over the Southern Great Plains during the warm season and the impact differs based on atmospheric conditions. On days when the wind brings limited moisture to the region, drier soils enhance afternoon rain. But when the wind brings greater moisture to the region, wetter soils increase afternoon rain.

“The dry soils that enhance afternoon rain are acting like conveyor belts for warm air that’s being sent into the upper atmosphere,” Zeng said. “Combine that upward motion with moisture and a water vapor source, and the result is afternoon rain.”

Conversely, when atmospheric conditions are bringing moisture to the region, it acts as a source of water vapor, which, when added to the upward motion of air, produces rain.

Their findings suggest that land surface changes in response to both climate and human activity could be significant.

Zeng, whose research specialties include climate modeling, land-atmosphere-ocean interface processes and hydrometeorology, noted the ideas developed during the study could be further used for “global analysis based on NASA satellite measurements and climate models.”

https://uanews.arizona.edu/story/does-rain-follow-plow

Reinventing wheels : Soil microbes are key for sustainable agriculture

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When I read research like this, I imagine how far we tolerated these profit-devils in agri-business? To earn petty profits, they killed soil, made farmers more and more poor and created crisis everywhere.

Chemical agriculture is a curse for mankind. Especially, most fertile land owner country India, it is greatest fall of dharma. This land’s dharma is to feed the world and not her own subjects. We are now in a position where we have to import food. So great green revolution.

“The fact that the traits that govern these partnerships vary between plants of the same species and are heritable shows that they can be selected for by breeders,” Wendlandt said. “Ultimately, we hope that agronomists will use this research to develop plant varieties that make the most of the soil microbes they encounter. This could reduce reliance on chemical fertilizers, which are expensive for growers and can pollute the environment.”

There is only way to reverse this. Cow-based farming. Only cow can help soil. Both are called गौ in Sanskrit. Only one Gau can cuddle another one. Our job is to facilitate this relation.


Research


GauSeva

Top-Performing Soil Microbes Could Be Key to Sustainable Agriculture

RIVERSIDE, Calif. (www.ucr.edu) — Beautiful things can happen when plants surround themselves with the right microbes. A study on Acmispon strigosus, a plant in the pea family, showed a 13-fold growth increase in plants that partnered with a highly effective strain of the nitrogen-fixing bacteria Bradyrhizobium.

The ability of plants to use beneficial microbes to boost their growth is not lost on agronomists. Some breeders think understanding the traits that enable crops to recruit top-performing microbes is key to the future of sustainable agriculture.

A roadblock in capitalizing on the beneficial work of microbes is the complex genetic and environmental factors that govern their role in plant growth. Left unattended, plants don’t always recruit beneficial microbes, instead surrounding themselves with a mix of both helpful and ineffective bacteria. Attempts to manage the microbial populations plants encounter in the soil—by inoculating with beneficial strains—have largely failed.

“It is very difficult to predict which combinations of microbes will be successful under field conditions, since the microbes that are beneficial to plants in the lab do not always compete successfully against microbes that already exist in the field,” said Joel Sachs, a professor of evolutionary ecology at the University of California, Riverside and member of the university’s Institute for Integrative Genome Biology. “A promising alternative is to breed plants that are better at managing their own microbial partners, an advancement that will be passed down to future generations.”

In a study published today in New Phytologist, Sachs’ team has advanced our understanding of how plant genetics and environmental factors affect microbial soil populations in the field. The paper’s first author is Camille Wendlandt, a graduate student in Sachs’ research group.

The researchers investigated whether Acmispon strigosus (the pea plant) changes how it associates with different strains of nitrogen-fixing bacteria when its environment changes. Surprisingly, they found that changing the plants’ environment by fertilizing the soil did not change how plants associated with microbes. Instead, the researchers found that genetic variation between the pea plants was most important in explaining whether plants invested in relationships with the most beneficial microbes. In other words, some variants of the plant are better than others at developing these beneficial partnerships.

India in 1880 part 1 : Irrigation

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this summary of chapter on canals from book “India in 1880” by Richard Temple

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In India of 1880, irrigation did not posses overwhelming importance as other parts the world. Whole region had an abundance of rain on which agriculture used to rely. Even drought affected area were able to produce dry-crops (crops not relying on artificial irrigation.). Markets were always glutted with grain. Area where  snow-fed rivers were flowing, there were hardly any canals built.

Primary supplement to rain was not canals but wells. Yes, wells were not limited for drinking water but agriculture irrigation. For example, wheat of  Northen India, poppy of Bihar, sugarcane and vegetables in most parts of India were grown with the aid of irrigation from wells.

Indians mastered well-irrigation so well that Britishers felt their engineering efforts inferior!

After wells, Indians used to create natural rain water reservoirs. Not by obstructing river flows but side lining excess water in naturally viable places. Each of this work, gave life ans wealth to many townships and scores of villages. Such favorable sites, were discovered not singly but in groups at proper suitable geographical formations. Man’s attitude was to establishing synergy with the nature and not to destroy it and consume it!

Dams on rivers were only built in deltaic regions, known as anicut, where water used to divide itself in several thousands streams. Unlike modern mega dams built near the origin of the river.

 

 

Only Cow-Culture can protect plants from extreme weather

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Yes, call it cow-culture or गौ-संस्कृति. It is only with the help cows, we can help our crops and man-made forests to sustain extreme temperatures.

Plants are less stressed if they have these natural microbes

With cows, we receive two extremely important prasad (प्रसाद). Essence. No, it is not milk! It is dung and urine! Let there be rivers of dung and urine flowing on our land! That is how we can live weather-proof life.

gauseva


Research


Microbes help plants survive in severe drought

http://www.washington.edu/news/2016/09/19/microbes-help-plants-survive-in-severe-drought/

With California in its fifth year of severe drought and many western states experiencing another year of unusually dry conditions, plants are stressed.

Agricultural crops, grasses and garden plants alike can get sick and die when factors such as drought and excess sun force them to work harder to survive.

Now, plants can better tolerate drought and other stressors with the help of natural microbes, University of Washington research has found. Specifically, plants that are given a dose of microbes stay green longer and are able to withstand drought conditions by growing more leaves and roots and using less water.

“Plants are less stressed if they have these natural microbes,” said senior author Sharon Doty, a UW professor of environmental and forest sciences. “They will help plants deal with environmental challenges, especially with climate change.”

पुत्रगोष्ठी : Learn Zero Budget Vegetable Farming

This is my conversation with 5 years old son. His learning diary. Old posts can be read here : http://prachodayat.in/category/kathan-diary/ or on Facebook tag https://www.facebook.com/hashtag/kathandiary?source=feed_text

After a long break, we got a chance to visit our Gau shala this week. It was great feeling to see Ocra (lady-finger) grown up so fast and healthy in last 1 month’s rain! All of them are matured now. Flowering is started. Some of them have early fruits too! Wow!

This is one vegetable that is grown across India with heavy pesticide usage and here we have Zero Budget Ocra! Yes, there are insects and pests but Cow-dung and urine based treatment is enough!

Our farmer friend and Gau-palak explained us, how to make जीवामृत!

Ocra_1 Ocra_2 Ocra_3 Ocra_4

Jivamrut reference: http://palekarzerobudgetspiritualfarming.org/jiwamrita.aspx

Fertilizers consume Prana and kills Microbes

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Post world war-2, there was question of managing unused raw material planned for bombs. How to use it? Typical profit devil. Sell it to third world slave countries as fertilizers! Make them believe that their land can’t produce enough to feed the population and then on based on this false narrative, sell them fertilizers! And since it became profitable model, more and more money was invested in wrong direction of science.

We don’t consider (We as in Sanatana dharma followers, popularly known as Hindus) mother earth dead or mere a component in a cycle. She is alive. She breathes. She has prana. Her prana is something that decides specific part’s fertility. It is job of her son to maintain the prana of her body. We used to do it with the help of cow-dung and urine. Enough. We mastered the ecology. Just one weak point : Gullible mass and selfish leaders. We lost to market forces and ruined out golden land! 🙁

Now, read the research

Pranamayplants


Research


“When we change the nutrient environment that plants are in, we are fundamentally altering the plant-microbiome interaction and also, importantly, the microbiome-mediated protection of natural plant/microbe interactions,” said senior author Britt Koskella, a UC Berkeley assistant professor of integrative biology.

The fertilizer effect was not the only surprise from the study, Koskella said. She and co-author Maureen Berg, a graduate student, were investigating how the density of the microbial community on the leaves affected the plants’ resistance to disease and discovered that a lower dose of beneficial microbes sprayed on the leaves was often more effective in protecting the plants from infection than higher doses. Berg sprayed leaves with an artificial microbial community composed of 12 species of bacteria taken from the natural microbiome of healthy tomatoes.

“We found that the most protective community was the most dilute, the least concentrated, the lowest dose,” she said. “This was completely nonintuitive. A medium dose gave medium protection and the highest dose was the least protective.”

microbes from a leaf growing on an agar gel

Microbes growing in hundreds of small yellow colonies on a plate of Kings Broth agar in the shape of the leaf that was previously laid on the surface to illustrate bacterial density and diversity. (Shirley Zhang photo, Koskella Lab)

“The fact that we saw this lower-dose/higher-protection effect suggests it is not as simple as just throwing on more microbes,” Koskella said. “There is a lot of work to be done understanding how to apply a plant probiotic.”

She and Berg will report their findings in the Aug. 6 print edition of the journal Current Biology; the article will be posted online July 26.

Koskella focuses on plants’ above-ground microbiomes, or the phyllosphere, a poorly understood community compared to the well-studied below-ground microbiome associated with plant roots, the rhizosphere. Researchers are finding unsuspected activity within phyllosphere microbes, including that some of the bacteria fix nitrogen from the air like root-associated bacteria. Many studies have demonstrated that microbial communities in the roots can promote plants’ nutrient uptake, growth and resistance to disease, and Koskella is investigating whether this also holds true for the above-ground microbiome.

Woven Into Visuals : Catch22 of Agri Chemicals, Fruits and Vegetables

Maximum pesticides are used to grow fruits and vegetables 😉 Catch 22.

Why Catch22?

catch-22 is a paradoxical situation from which an individual cannot escape because of contradictory rules.

Since fruits and vegetables are  prescribed by doctors as antioxidants but you cannot have it because of loaded with chemicals! Catch-22!

pest1

Agro chemicals have tendency to act as magnet of minerals. Esp. Glyphosate . They suck minerals from soil and food. Bind and suck metals.

Reason why your food is now critical poor in minerals. Even supplements won’t work if you are eating pesticides loaded food.

pest2 Pesticides_1 Pesticides_2 Pesticides_3

Glufosinate is as dangerous as glyphosate for our biology – not just because of its toxicity, or because of whatever else they put into the herbicide package, but also because glufosinate, like glyphosate, is an analog of (mimic of) one of the canonical twenty amino acids that are the basic building blocks of all life, from bacteria onwards to humans. Glufosinate is an analog of glutamic acid, while glyphosate is analog of glycine. Both Glycine and glutamic acids are two out of twenty amino acids that all life is made of.

More here:

Beware of GM Mustard, and glufosinate tolerant GM crops

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