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Ideal Agriculture vs Stressful Agriculture
Ideal Agriculture vs Stressful Agriculture

Even if bees want to help in pollination, they cannot. Why? Because we use diesel tractors everywhere for farming! And the fume that is being emitted alters scent that bees seek.

So half of the scents are lost. Forget honey, pollination is affected. Crop yield reduction.

“People rely on bees and pollinating insects for a large proportion of our food, yet humans have paid the bees back with habitat destruction, insecticides, climate change and air pollution.”

Is it not hara-kiri to promote self-destructing technologies @ farms ? Tractor is costly and destructive shortcut.

Only solution we have to become सात्विक अन्नबाहुल्य राष्ट्र is to worship and take help from गौ माता!

Mantra for being sattvik world power : अन्नबाहुल्य

We have all संभावना. गौ, गंगा (त्रिदोषहर water in abundance) & गौरी (जमीन) to help us. Better late than never. Revive Agriculture. If we produce सात्विक धान्य for all, we will actually transform corrupted world-psyche in to सत्त्व. It is actually a 7 generation process. We have to start somewhere. Anytime is a good time to start. Sooner the better.

But instead, what do we support as a society?

Male calf? Useless for milk , send him to slaughter!

World without bees
World without bees

Research


SCENTS AND SENSE ABILITY: DIESELS FUMES ALTER HALF THE FLOWER SMELLS BEES NEED

https://www.reading.ac.uk/news-and-events/releases/PR649662.aspx

In polluted environments, diesel fumes may be reducing the availability of almost half the most common flower odours that bees use to find their food, research has found.

The new findings suggest that toxic nitrous oxide (NOx) in diesel exhausts could be having an even greater effect on bees’ ability to smell out flowers than was previously thought.

NOx is a poisonous pollutant produced by diesel engines which is harmful to humans, and has also previously been shown to confuse bees’ sense of smell, which they rely on to sniff out their food.

Researchers from the University of Southampton and the University of Reading found that there is now evidence to show that, of the eleven most common single compounds in floral odours, five have can be chemically altered by exposure to NOx gases from exhaust fumes.

Lead author Dr Robbie Girling, from the University of Reading’s Centre for Agri-Environmental Research, said: “Bees are worth millions to the British economy alone, but we know they have been in decline worldwide.

“We don’t think that air pollution from diesel vehicles is the main reason for this decline, but our latest work suggests that it may have a worse effect on the flower odours needed by bees than we initially thought.

“People rely on bees and pollinating insects for a large proportion of our food, yet humans have paid the bees back with habitat destruction, insecticides, climate change and air pollution.

“This work highlights that pollution from dirty vehicles is not only dangerous to people’s health, but could also have an impact on our natural environment and the economy.”

Co-author Professor Guy Poppy, from Biological Sciences at the University of Southampton, said: “It is becoming clear that bees are at risk from a range of stresses from neonicitinoid insecticides through to varroa mites. Our research highlights that a further stress could be the increasing amounts of vehicle emissions affecting air quality. Whilst it is unlikely that these emissions by themselves could be affecting bee populations, combined with the other stresses, it could be the tipping point.”

This latest research is part of continuing studies into the effects of air pollution on bees. Previous work in 2013 found that bees in the lab could be confused by the effects of diesel pollution. Dr Girling and Dr Tracey Newman from the University of Southampton are currently studying how diesel fumes may have direct effects on the bees themselves.

The Effects of Diesel Exhaust Pollution on Floral Volatiles and the Consequences for Honey Bee Olfaction

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10886-015-0624-4

There is growing evidence of a substantial decline in pollinators within Europe and North America, most likely caused by multiple factors such as diseases, poor nutrition, habitat loss, insecticides, and environmental pollution. Diesel exhaust could be a contributing factor to this decline, since we found that diesel exhaust rapidly degrades floral volatiles, which honey bees require for flower recognition. In this study, we exposed eight of the most common floral volatiles to diesel exhaust in order to investigate whether it can affect volatile mediated plant-pollinator interaction. Exposure to diesel exhaust altered the blend of common flower volatiles significantly: myrcene was considerably reduced, β-ocimene became undetectable, and β-caryophyllene was transformed into its cis-isomer isocaryophyllene. Proboscis extension response (PER) assays showed that the alterations of the blend reduced the ability of honey bees to recognize it. The chemically reactive nitrogen oxides fraction of diesel exhaust gas was identified as capable of causing degradation of floral volatiles.

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