Blog Page 155

Monsoon Tapas : Gauri Vrata

Gauri Vrat
Gauri Vrat
Gauri Vrat
Gauri Vrat

If you are proud parents of 8-10 years old girl child, it is good for her to observe fast and be with nature during these days.

8-10 years old female child is on the verge of puberty. She will go through tremendous physiological changes in upcoming decade. Her reproductive system is on the verge of maturation. During this time, it is important to keep her happy. Her healthy mental state will regulate these physiological changes and won’t allow abnormalities. Fasting will boost her immune system so that pathogens don’t disturb highly vulnerable cervix development.

This ritual becomes more crucial in our times when girls are reaching puberty very early duty chemical cocktails in our lives.

During this time of the year, mother nature is in blooming mood. Mother is in shades of rejuvenation. If she spends more time in nature, she will inspire from mother and do not worry about rapid physiological changes.

In short,

1) Fasting will keep her yearly immunity at best level.
2) Beginning of monsoon is the season of rapid changes. She can best sync her physiological changes with mother nature


Gauri Vrat. Enjoy these moments with your girl child. Make this special period for her.

Side note: There is debate going on at national level about sex education. Sex education? This is ideal time to describe sacred importance of reproduction. Unlike moronic modern sex education who teaches vikruti in name of education (For example, “use condoms and consume yourself safely” type campaigns)

Real sex education will teach kids right actions at right age. Teen age is not the right age as reproductive organs are not yet ready. Indulgence in pre-mature age = havoc in future years. From infections to cancer. Save your children by imparting right values.

I know, you will have question that why not for boys?

Let me explain by one example: Farmers need to take care of both field and seeds. Same treatment cannot be applied to field and seeds.Like that field and seeds in humans should be taken care.

Boys maturation happen little later than girls. They carry seeds. Farmers give different treatment to seeds than fields. Their development happen at Akhada (अखाडा playground) where seeds are protected until good matured spring.


Early Puberty is not only havoc for your girl child but also her future children.

Early puberty is purely an environmental phenomenon. More artificial hormone-bending chemicals in food, water and air. On top of it, filthy Bollywood and TV matures mind early.

On top of it, so called international schools and their local blind copies promote sex education. TV is full of condom ads. Authors and columnists (Chetan Bhagat type) promote free-sex. And then, there is series of planned days like Friendship day, Valentine day etc.

This results into premature sex. Teen-age encounters. Youth engaged in adult acts.

And then we promote HPV vaccines!

Neck like opening to the uterus is called Cervix. In Hindi, it is called गर्भाशय मुख. Opening of Womb.


This Cervix wall act as a protection wall of uterus (divine soil/kshetra where new jiva resides for 9 months). Behind this wall, Prana, architect of human body, is working 24×7 for 9 months, to carve the human body. Any disturbance to this Prana’s work means deformity or miscarriage. Manual abortions do nothing but disturb Prana’s work.

Vagina is full of bacteria. Some of them are healthy bacteria (like lactobacilli which helps newborn to teach breastfeeding) and some of them are pathogens (Any disease-producing agent). This Cervix wall is natural defense against them.

Cervix wall starts developing with first cycle of period in teen age females. It becomes mature by the age 18-21. See picture to understand the difference between cervix wall in adult female and teen age female.

Liberals often talk in favor of sex education in schools. This education and other mediums bombarding sex is not sex education but lust education. This results into teen girls engaged in sex. Some of them become mother before crossing 18.

When teen age females are involved in natural/unnatural sexual acts (which is common in western countries and now in India too 🙁 ), they are early exposed to pathogens and these pathogens passes cervix wall as it is immature and one layer wall (see picture). This lead to infection in uterus and many other issues, including cervical cancer at middle age. So much stress for organ which is still under development.

HPV virus spreads only when immature wall is exposed to it in teen age. It cannot work in females who did not experience sex before ripen age i.e after 21.

Right sex education is education of Brahmcharya. It should inspire teens celibacy for their own wellbeing. No luring, no lust, pure science. Sanatana principles.

Instead of Brahmcharya, our habits, school environment and family environment promotes teen sex. I see many parents laugh on their teens affair relations. Morons!

And as a solution, they suggest HPV vaccine! 😀 . HPV vaccine to innocent female teens is like forceful exposure of HPV virus to immature Cervix without any sexual acts. This is giving ample side effects. Sometimes deadly. Sometimes premature ovarian failure. It snatches right of motherhood for many. And if there is motherhood, children suffer from unforeseen sicknesses due to disturbed Prana during pregnancy.

This HPV infection is increasing in India as teens are not rampant and involved in sex at very early age. No text book covers this 🙁

Sex followed by HPV vaccine is not a solution for teens. Brahmcharya is.

We do not give solid food to infant due to their inability, why can’t same be followed for cervix wall?

Think about it. Learn Vrata(s) of monsoon. Amazing but easy tools to remain in sync with mother nature.

Fat Smart City : Oxymoron

Smart City?
Smart City?
City Heat Sink
City Heat Sink

We aspire to shape existing cities as smart cities. Will it work?

Can you imagine city without steel and concrete? No. Besides usual usage in building homes and other shared usage, it is now part of roads and other land usages (Metro, Flyovers etc).

Steel and concrete absorbs and radiate more heat than their surroundings, raising the temperature in city area and creating the urban heat sinks or islands. This temperature also affects the surface energy balance. This in turn reduces surface moisture in a city. So even land free from concrete and steel is also under constant moisture depression.

A researcher found that high UHI (Urban Heat Island) intensity correlates with increased concentrations of air pollutants that gathered at night, which can affect the next day’s air quality. These pollutants include volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter. The production of these pollutants combined with the higher temperatures in UHIs can quicken the production of ozone. You see the cascading impact?

This can be controlled when there is a planned city limit. Right now, we really do not have city limits.

This can be controlled when distance between two habitat (village or town or city) are maintained. No inter-city distance planned.
Public transport usage can also help.

Trees plantation can help but not significantly as it has huge steel and concrete to compete with. City limit is key here. Boundary. No more development beyond certain point. Or better, city mingled with forest.

City centers are growing like a cancer tumor. Attracting more and more from surroundings to make the place more dense and polluted.

Are there provisions for these issues in smart city planning?

Maratha Jury System(Peer Trial) in Satara reign (1808-1839)



Dharma Sabha
Dharma Sabha

Absolute power for Judges is easy to corrupt, capture and control. Sanatana dharma never believed in it. Even in states where Kingship was in practice, Nyaya was always considered sacred duty, and decisions were taken by group of local tribes.

Pratap Sinha, chatrapati raja reigned from 1808-1839 AD in Satara. Fall of Peshwa took place in the year 1818. Pratap Sinha’s reign coincided with British administration in Mumbai. He studied old customs, dharma shashtra(s) and compiled them in a YADI.

Accoding to Nyayadhish chapter of his Yadi, efforts should be made for amicable settlements through proper exertion of neighbours(peers) and panchayet & peers.

Selection of Panchayet  & Jury is not known, however who were included in Panch is clear from this reference

Also, please note the point that MAHAR, who is considered as low caste, were assisting Panchayet, as peers or part of Jury.

When education is compatible with dharma, it is easy to implement Jury trials in Bharat. Unfortunately, under present education system and society, we cannot implement it. However,it is important to know about better judiciary practice.

Book: Bharat Itihas Sanshodhak Mandal, 3rd Vol by Bhaskar Vaman Bhat

Who is raising our children?

Child Development
Child Development

“Who is raising your child?”
“That is weird question. Of course, we, his parents.”
“I don’t think so, you are not alone.Who else?”
“And who? You can say, his baby-sitter helps us.”
“Oh yes, our parents help too sometimes. His school teachers at school.”
“And you miss some more names…”
“TV commercials, soap opera, cartoon network, Salman, Aamir, Sachin, Ajay, Akshay, Dhoni, mobile games, video games, and the endless list of entertainment tools.When he is at home, doesn’t he spend more time with all of these than with you, your parents ?”
“Then who is actually raising your child? Certainly not you. It is damn your electronic monsters at home! Do not expect more from him than a cartoon overloaded with information and blind awe for entertainment.”
Screen entertainment (TV/Mobile/Laptop/Game player) , like nature and books, has by its same power to control the time, attention and cognitive habits of our youth. In fact, screen entertainment is new competing curriculum, killing institution of Bharatiya education by slow poisoning of shallowness.

Needless to add that same screen entertainment is responsible for accelerating ageing, abridging scope of childhood and lengthening adulthood, confused, weak, shallow and directionless youth.

Loggers outside (Power Saw Storm), loggers inside (Antibiotics Storm)

Img src:
Img src:
Internal Loggers : antibiotics Img src:
Internal Loggers : antibiotics
Img src:

This first photo from WWF is very popular meme explaining deforestation. Imagine a virgin forest in tropical area. Dense and full of life. From insects to primates. Richest diversity. Now imagine loggers moving in to cut the forest using chainsaw. Bulldozing 1000s of years of work by mother nature.

Yes, forest will regrow for sure. But never like before. Since reforestation efforts are manual, humane, it will not be complex and natural. Diversity will drop. Sensitive species will die out. Invaders will flourish.

Understand the risk of mindless deforestation by man-made machines? Dangerous, right?

Same thing happens when we take antibiotics. For the complex ecosystem of the gut, on a scale a million times tinier, the principle still stands. As we bulldoze native microbes in our body, unique GUT flora gifted to us by our mother, family members and home we live in, perish. But as I utter again and again, mother nature does not like vacuum, this empty GUT soon will be taken over again. But never like virgin forest. You may get unknown microbes. Some against your nature. Some altering your habits. Good or bad, you cannot predict. Antibiotic chainsaws and invasive pathogens pull apart the web of life that’s forged a balance through countless subtle interactions. If the destruction is large enough, the system cannot bounce back.

Not only antibiotics, unhealthy diet too is the cause. Eating food at unknown places. Eating from unknown cooks.

So for growing children, it is very critical to avoid antibiotics and unknown food. As much as possible.

Logger outside and loggers inside : Avoid. Or expect collapse, sooner or later. Of great intensity or lower. Your luck 🙂 Your kid’s luck. 🙂 Take care. (Y)

Prevention is the only cure. Keep body stress-free. Have good food. Sound sleep. No addictions. Early morning exercise. Evening walk in the woods. Happy moments with family. That is real medicine.

Happy Cow is Kamadhenu: Serotonin Vs Worship

Keeping cows happy improves milk quality.
Keeping cows happy improves milk quality.

When I say loud and clear to my relatives, friends and colleagues that whatever they drink from dairy, is not just useless but overburden for digestive track, they laugh on me.

When I say them that in Veda, it is said that, गौ must be taken care, they call me fanatic.

When I say them that, there is direct relation between how we take care of  गौ माता and her prasad (milk, urine, dung), they consider it as blind belief.

In this paper, same thing it uttered in their own so called scientific language.

Elevation of circulating serotonin improves calcium dynamics in the peripartum dairy cow

Samantha R Weaver1, Austin P Prichard1, Elizabeth L Endres1, Stefanie A Newhouse1, Tonia L Peters1, Peter M Crump2, Matthew S Akins3, Thomas D Crenshaw2, Rupert M Bruckmaier4 and Laura L Hernandez1⇑

What is serotonin?

Daily infusions with a chemical commonly associated with feelings of happiness were shown to increase calcium levels in the blood of Holstein cows and the milk of Jersey cows that had just given birth. The results, published in the Journal of Endocrinology, could lead to a better understanding of how to improve the health of dairy cows, and keep the milk flowing.

Demand is high for milk rich in calcium: there is more calcium in the human body than any other mineral, and in the West dairy products such as milk, cheese and yoghurt are primary sources of calcium. But this demand can take its toll on milk-producing cows: roughly 5-10% of the North American dairy cow population suffers from hypocalcaemia – in which calcium levels are low. The risk of this disease is particularly high immediately before and after cows give birth.

Hypocalcaemia is considered a major health event in the life of a cow. It is associated with immunological and digestive problems, decreased pregnancy rates and longer intervals between pregnancies. These all pose a problem for dairy farmers, whose profitability depends upon regular pregnancies and a high-yield of calcium-rich milk.

Now, when I read such research paper, I feel sick for the sheer reason that reductionist science only focus on physical aspects of well-being. And they test this by injecting love hormone. And the motive is nothing but to increase the good quality milk.

If you really take care of mother by loving her, worshiping her and providing her clean place to live, clean water to drink and enough freedom to graze pasture lands, she is naturally happy! And the result is observed, not only in her milk but also in her urine and dung! We really don’t need serotonin injections to treat her. That is greedy and short-sighted solution to increase the calcium. What is the use of calcium when there is no prana? Prana is nurtured by the love relations. You as a son and she as a mother.

Here is the description of Gau shala in Veda.

सं वो गोष्ठेन सुषदा सं रय्या सं सुभूत्या |
अहर्जातस्य यन् नाम तेना वः सं सृजामसि ||1||
सं वः सृजत्व् अर्यमा सं पूषा सं बृहस्पतिः |
सम् इन्द्रो यो धनंजयो मयि पुष्यत यद् वसु ||2||
संजग्माना अबिभ्युषीर् अस्मिन् गोष्ठे करीषिणीः |
बिभ्रतीः सोम्यं मध्व् अनमीवा उपेतन ||3||
इहैव गाव एतनेहो शकेव पुष्यत |
इहैवोत प्र जायध्वं मयि संज्ञानम् अस्तु वः ||4||
शिवो वो गोष्ठो भवतु शारिशाकेव पुष्यत |
इहैवोत प्र जायध्वं मया वः सं सृजामसि ||5||
मया गावो गोपतिना सचध्वम् अयं वो गोष्ठ इह पोषयिष्णुः |
रायस् पोषेण बहुला भवन्तीर् जीवा जीवन्तीर् उप वः सदेम ||6||

अथर्ववेद: काण्डं 3
अथर्ववेद: काण्डं 3
अथर्ववेद: काण्डं 3
अथर्ववेद: काण्डं 3

|Ref: वैदिक सूक्त संग्रह, गीताप्रेस, गोरखपुर

 Shri Subodh Kumar’s translation:

In this cow house’, we provide for you with, Comfortable bedding obtained with money, good materials of Freshly daily produced feeds & water, and provide for many calvings.

(सुषदा गोष्ठेन व: सम्‌) सुख से जहां बैठा जा सकता है, ऐसे गोष्ठ का प्रबंध करो.

(रय्या सं ,भूत्या सं) उत्तम साधनों और आहार का प्रबंध करो. ( जल और हरा) स्वच्छ जल से और उत्तम हरे से दुग्ध उत्पादन और गौ के स्वास्थ्य में महत्वपूर्ण सुधार होता है.

( अहर्जातस्य तेना सृजामसि) पुन: पुन: गर्भ धारण कर के बछड़े बछिया को जन्म देने की व्यवस्था करो ( उत्तम नन्दी उपलब्ध करो)

( In earlier times cows were provided with comfortable floors of clean earth, sand , or straw etc to sit. In modern Dairy practice Cows are provided with comfortable beddings to sit. Plastic Foam pads, and composite canvass water beds are in use in developed world. By providing hard floors for cows to sit, discomfort, damage to milk teats and udder and injuries to knees etc are very common. Milk yield increase up to 10% is possible just by providing comfortable beddings for cows. Good water to drink and green fodder makes significant improvements in health and milk productivity of Cows.)

इस गोशाला में अनेक गौवें सुरक्षित, स्वस्थ, सुख से रहती हुई, (जिस से बड़े स्तर पर उत्पादन द्वारा ) हमें उत्तम गोबर गोमूत्र के जैविक अन्न पदार्थ और उत्तम दुग्धादि, पञ्च गव्य द्वारा शारीरिक पौष्टिकता और मानसिक विकास प्रदान करें।

Welcome all cows with love and affection to live in this institution, to grow in health, and numbers with excellent progeny .

सब गौवों को श्रद्धा और सेवा भाव से प्रेरित सुख मय वतावरण प्रदान करो, जिस से गोवंश की उन्नति हो

इस गौशाला में गौओं के संपूर्ण विकास के पर्यावरण में भिन्न भिन्न प्रकार के तोते बगुले इत्यादि पक्षी अन्य पशु साथ साथ रहने वाले भी गौ के स्वास्थ्य और पौष्टिकता के लिए आवश्यक हैं.

Thus live with large number of happy well-fed well-loved cows for growth, health, long life and prosperity.

मया गोपतिना सचध्वम- मुझ गोपति के साथ रहकर आनंद भोग करती और कराती गौएं , इह पोयिष्णु – सदा पुप्ष्ट रहें और पौष्टिकता प्रदान करें, रायस्पोषेण बहुला – धन धान्य से सम्पन्नता का साधन बनें , जीवन्ती: -सुख से जीवित रहती हुई , व: जिवा: उपसदेम- अपने (गौवों के साथ रह्ने से हम भी दीर्घायु बनें.

If you are sick, have kids at home, parents at home, then try to find such gau shala nearby and only avail milk from such sources. If there is no Gau shala, empower farmers to implement.


Jury System And Dharma Shashtra


You will soon come across forgotten case of K. M. Nanavati by Bollywood flick. Case is considered milestone case, to suppress Jury system in India. Since then, we all have witnessed the state of Indian Judiciary.

Here is the old note to understand Jury system in dharma perspective.

Jury System as described in Dharma shashtra(s) by Chanakya,Manu,Narada,Sukra


Hindu law-givers did not draw any formal distinction between civil and criminal law, and the same Court was to administer both civil and criminal justice. It is apparent from Yajnavalkya and Narada that the incident of having justice administered by bodies or assemblies of men or with the assistance of assessors was a very common idea in the constitution of the Courts; e. g. assemblies of the people, corporations or guilds of merchants, gatherings, In Brhaspati, we find a distinction between the Chief Judge and the other Judges, the latter investigating into the case, and the former deciding it, while the King inflicts the punishment. And he also speaks of lesser offences being triable by relatives, companies (of artisans), assemblies (of co-habitants) and other persons duly authorized by the King. Sukra says that besides the King’s Courts there were other subordinate Courts, e. g., families, corporations, associations of inhabitants and officers appointed by the King. And like Brihaspati, Sukra recommends that there should be three, five or seven assessors (Jury members) or judges who should preferably be natives of the place where the two parties reside. The three or five members of Judicial Assembly acted as jurors as well as Judges but the final decision rested with the Chief Justice.

Besides the members of the Assembly, other persons present in Court were permitted, on certain occasions, to offer their
opinions. Narada says, “Whether authorized or unauthorized, one acquainted with the law shall give his opinion. He passes a divine sentence who acts up to the dictates of law”. The Sukraniti quotes these passages with approval and adds: “Duly qualified merchants should be made hearers.” The Sukraniti also quotes another passage from the Smritis, namely, “Either the Court house should not be entered, or the right word should be said. The man, who does
not speak or speaks unjustly, incurs sin.”

Side by side with these Courts there existed in many places that machinary, namely an assembly of men, to whom disputes could be referred for decision or before whom cases of wrong could be brought for redress. In their origin, concept and character there were differences, but their function all over was more or less the same.

According to Manu, Chief Justice should be accompanied by 3 Jurors.

सोस्य कार्याणि संपश्येत्सभ्यैरेव त्रिभिर्वृत:।
सभामेव प्रविश्याग्रयामासीन: स्थित एंव वा॥ 10। अ. 8॥

Chanakya prescribes Jury of , 3 officers of state and 3 learned persons from citizens.
According to Sukra Niti, number of jury members should be uneven i.e. 3, 5 or 7


[1] Public Administration In Ancient India , PhD Thesis by Pramananath.
[2] Kautilya’s arthashashtra
[3] Narada Smriti
[4] Manu SMriti
[5] Sukra Niti



Right Age, Right Actions : No? Yes to Cervical cancer


We as a society, forgot this valuable prescription encapsulated in वर्णाश्रम व्यवस्था. Till 25, it is ब्रह्मचर्य. Gender-neutral rule. Restrain.

Now since, we really don’t care about the prescription, not only innocent attraction triggered by bodily changes, teens of our age are over-indulged in sex. Stress for growing organs.

Results? High chances of Cervical cancer. If not cancer, frequent infections. Indigestion. Rapid aging.

Not only that, HPV vaccine stress. Vicious cycle.

This[1] BBC article starts well by stating :

“”Although women can be infected by HPV at any age, infections at a very young age may be especially dangerous as they have more time to cause damage that eventually leads to cancer.”

But it ends with nasty HPV vaccine recommedation:

“Importantly, the results back up the need for the HPV vaccination to be given in schools at an age before they start having sex, especially among girls in deprived areas.”

Vaccine is not a solution for preventing Cervical cancer. Self-restrain is.

If you have teens at home, take care. Divert their creative energy towards constructive attractions. Sports – best. Classical Music and Dance  – another best. Explain them dangers of early age sex. Save their future.






Are you the fragrance in flowers?

Spiritually soothing song. Listen first (even if you don’t know marathi). And then read the subtitles.

त्या फुलांच्या गंधकोषी सांग तू आहेस का ?
त्या प्रकाशी तारकांच्या ओतिसी तू तेज का ?
त्या नभांच्या नीलरंगी हो‍उनीया गीत का ?
गात वायूच्या स्वरांने सांग तू आहेस का ?

मानवाच्या अंतरीचा प्राण तू आहेस का ?
वादळाच्या सागराचे घोर ते तू रूप का ?
जीवनी या वर्षणारा तू कृपेचा मेघ का ?
आसमंती नाचणारी तू विजेची रेघ का ?

जीवनी संजीवनी तू, माउलीचे दूध का ?
कष्टणार्‍या बांधवांच्या रंगसी नेत्रात का ?
मूर्त तू मानव्य का रे बालकांचे हास्य का ?
या इथे अन्‌ त्या तिथे रे, सांग तू आहेस का ?

Artificial Light: Silent Killer

Light Pollution
Light Pollution
Light Pollution

It is gross delusion majority humans exhibit. Whatever is visible, is only considered as pollution. For example, air pollution – you notice only when there is black smog suffocating you. Noise pollution – you notice only when your sleep is hampered by the neighborhood DJ party. We hardly pay attention to silent pollution. Light pollution.

Our body is designed to remain sync with cycle of Sun and Moon. But we now hardly give any respect to bodily rhythms.

Necessity is mother of invention. Post-industrialization, mankind has disturbed human body’s circadian rhythms (A daily cycle of activity observed in many living organisms which depends on Sunrise and Sunset) severely by including post-sunset activities under artificial lights. There is 24×7 work culture now. Effects are inevitable. You see many among us with memory loss in young age. So it became necessity to invent memory supporting tools (From To Do list to modern smartphones)

Result? Slow but gradual degradation human mind’s strength like memory.

Imagine a time of last century when we started using artificial light. Amount of stress entire human race went through. I suspect, some of the historical endemic events were due to industrial leap events. Altering circadian rhythms by flood lights is one of them.

For modern urban resident, there is wealth arrogance. I pay my utility bills so I will keep them on, as long as I want!

Who is worse affected?

Our toddlers. Their rhythms. Their growth.

Artificial night lighting is expanding globally, but its ecological consequences remain little understood. Animals often use changes in day length as a cue to time seasonal behavior. Artificial night lighting may influence the perception of day length, and may thus affect both circadian and circadian rhythms.

Keep low light post sunset. For you, your kids and the birds in neighborhood. Respect natural bodily rhythms. Once in a month, spend a day or two in dark. No lights or very very low lights. Experience and embrace the darkness of the night.

1) Keep low light at home after sunset
2) Avoid artificial lights at work (I know this is difficult but critical 🙁 )
3) At least spend time in nature during sunrise and sunset
4) Make sure your kids sleep early (so that they avoid artificial lights for long)

5) If you really need light post sunset, keep it minimal. Best if you can keep desi ghee lamps or light of that intensity. ZERO light during sleep!



Have a look at few research papers related to light pollution.

Is artificial lighting making us sick? New evidence in mice

Environmental 24-hr Cycles Are Essential for Health

Along with eating right and exercising, people should consider adding another healthy habit to their list: turning out the lights. That’s according to a new study reported in the Cell Press journal Current Biology on July 14 showing many negative health consequences for mice kept under conditions of constant light for a period of months.

“Our study shows that the environmental light-dark cycle is important for health,” says Johanna Meijer of Leiden University Medical Center in the Netherlands. “We showed that the absence of environmental rhythms leads to severe disruption of a wide variety of health parameters.”

Those parameters included pro-inflammatory activation of the immune system, muscle loss, and early signs of osteoporosis. The researchers say that the observed physiological changes were all indicative of “frailty” as is typically seen in people or animals as they age. But there was some more encouraging news, too.

“We used to think of light and darkness as harmless or neutral stimuli with respect to health,” Meijer says. “We now realize this is not the case based on accumulating studies from laboratories all over the world, all pointing in the same direction. Possibly this is not surprising as life evolved under the constant pressure of the light-dark cycle. We seem to be optimized to live under these cycles, and the other side of the coin is that we are now affected by a lack of such cycles.”

Light pollution alters the phenology of dawn and dusk singing in common European songbirds

Artificial night lighting is expanding globally, but its ecological consequences remain little understood. Animals often use changes in day length as a cue to time seasonal behaviour. Artificial night lighting may influence the perception of day length, and may thus affect both circadian and circannual rhythms. Over a 3.5 month period, from winter to breeding, we recorded daily singing activity of six common songbird species in 12 woodland sites, half of which were affected by street lighting. We previously reported on analyses suggesting that artificial night lighting affects the daily timing of singing in five species. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether the presence of artificial night lighting is also associated with the seasonal occurrence of dawn and dusk singing. We found that in four species dawn and dusk singing developed earlier in the year at sites exposed to light pollution. We also examined the effects of weather conditions and found that rain and low temperatures negatively affected the occurrence of dawn and dusk singing. Our results support the hypothesis that artificial night lighting alters natural seasonal rhythms, independently of other effects of urbanization. The fitness consequences of the observed changes in seasonal timing of behaviour remain unknown.





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