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Sacred Plants Series 2 : Bakul

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Bakula

Municipal corporation of my city promotes alien species to the terrain in tree plantation drive. We also fall for it and planted one in front of home.

When a family friend, planting trees for last 30 years came home, he pointed the trap. He said, why don’t you plant native trees? Sacred Trees?

Idea was accepted by family and we selected Bakul for plantation.

Today, after 15 days, we have new leaves and that is sign of acceptance. Sapling has accepted the place, people and surrounding.

Fruit of Bakul is edible. The seed kernel yield oil. Flowers play important role for many local rituals.

Bakul tree is mentioned several times in Ramayana:

चूत नीप महा सालान् पनसान् कुरवान् धवान् |
दाडिमान् अपि तान् गत्वा दृष्ट्वा रामो महायशाः || ३-६०-२१
बकुलान् अथ पुन्नागान् च चंदनान्केतकान् तथा |
पृच्छन् रामो वने भ्रान्त उन्मत्त इव लक्ष्यते || ३-६०-२२

Rama has gone on asking trees like mango, niipa, massive saala, jack-fruit, kuruva, dhava, and even around daaDima, bakula, punnaaga, sandalwood, ketaka trees, and when he is running around them that highly glorious Rama appeared like a madman. [3-60-21, 22]

वेश नलिनीम् रम्याम् पंकजैः च समावृताम् |
तिलकाशोकपुंनागबकुलोद्दालकाशिनीम् – यद्वा –
तिलक अशोक पुन्नाग बकुल उद्दाल काशिनीम् || ३-७५-१६

Rama entered the area of that beautiful lake which is beaming forth with lotuses hemming in from inside, and trees like Tilaka, Ashoka, Punnaga, Bakula, Uddala, are hemming it from outside.

चिरिबिल्वा मधूकाः च वञ्जुला वकुलाः तथा |
चम्पकाः तिलकाः च एव नागवृक्षाः च पुष्पिताः || ४-१-७८

“Charming are the saplings of Bilva, and Madhooka, and plants like Vakula, Champaka, Tilaka, Naaga trees are well flowered…. [4-1-78]

वानीरैः तिमिदैः चैव वकुलैः केतकैः अपि |
हिन्तालैः तिनिशैः नीपैः वेतसैः कृतमालकैः || ४-२७-१८
तीरजैः शोभिता भाति नाना रूपैः ततः ततः |
वसन आभरण उपेत प्रमद एव अभ्यलंकृता || ४-२७-१९

“With the trees born on the riverbank and available here and there in various shapes, like Vaaniira, Timida, Vakula, Ketaka, and with Hintaala, Tinisha, Niipa, Vetasa, Kritamaala trees, that river is brightened up, and thus that river appears as a dame finely bedecked with raiment and ornaments. [4-27-18, 19]

अशोक वनिका च इयम् दृढम् रम्या दुरात्मनः |
चम्पकैः चन्दनैः च अपि बकुलैः च विभूषिता || ५-१४-४३

This Ashoka garden of evil-souled Ravana is definitely beautiful; it is well decorated by Champaka trees, by sandal trees and by Vakula trees.

तालान् दाडिमगुल्मांश्च नारिकेलविभीतकान् || २-२२-५७
करीरान् बकुलान्निम्बान् समाजह्रुरितस्ततः |

From here and there the monkeys brought Palmyra trees, pomegranate shrubs, coconut and Vibhitaka, Karira, Bakula and neem trees.

From above references, it is inferred that:

  • Trees grows well near water bodies. Or rather it was planted near water bodies.
  • It is also good option for planting @ home-garden or community pathways.
  • Flowers and fragrance are center of attraction.

This observation is supported by Brihad Samhita where it is mentioned that Bakula is sacred tree to be planted near home, temple and other  religious places. In same scripture, there is a method mentioned to prepare 84 types of perfumes out of Bakula flowers.

Bakula_1 Bakula_2

 

In Buddhism, अर्हत् arahant (Pali) as “one who is worthy”[1] or as a “perfected person”[1][2]having attained nirvana. One of the अर्हत् is Bakula अर्हत् .Bakula was first an accomplished scholar and then lived as a wandering ascetic. It is said that he used to wear clothes made up from Bakula tree bark and leaves.

There is interesting aspect of trees in Jainism. Naminatha was the twenty-first tirthankara of the present half time cycle, Avsarpini. He attained Kevala jñāna (means omniscience in Jainism and is roughly translated as absolute knowledge or supreme knowledge.) under Bakula tree.

It is interesting to note that all the 24 tirthankaras meditated under the trees and not any other place like caves or river banks etc. to get enlightenment.
There is so much importance of plants and their medicinal values in Jainism that all Tirthankaras of present (Avasarpani Era) got their enlightenment meditating under various trees of medicinal value.
The Tirthankaras and their respective Kewali Vrikshas (Trees) are given in the following Table. [1]

Medicinal Benefits

Apart from its usage for preparing perfumes, there are several medicinal benefits too.

There is growing demand in the cosmetics Industry for exotic plants and fruits which have interesting beneficial properties for skin and hair care.

The latest of these is an Indian tree known as Bakula.

  1. Lotion prepared from flowers is used to clear wounds and ulcers.
  2. A decoction of bark generates tissues, controls bleeding and controls excessive mucus secretion.
  3. Bakula uses as per Traditional Ayurveda:
    Indicated in –
    Visha – Toxic conditions, poisoning
    Shvitra – leucoderma, vitiligo
    Krumi – worm infestation
    Dantaroga – tooth decay

    Bullet wood fruit –
    Madhura – sweet
    Snigdha – unctuous, oily
    kashaya – astringent,
    Vishada – clarity, non slimy
    Hima – coolant
    kaphapittahara – Balances Kapha and Pitta Dosha
    Hrudya – acts as cardiac tonic, congenial for heart
    Dantya – good for teeth
    Sangrahi – absorbent, useful in diarrhea, IBS
    Vatala – increases Vata Dosha
    Guru – heavy to digest [2]

Modern studies

Bakul3 Bakula4 Bakula5 Bakula6

[1] http://www.herenow4u.net/index.php?id=111518

[2] https://easyayurveda.com/2016/11/28/bakula-mimusops-elengi-bullet-wood-spanish-cherry/

Your household and Family shape Salivary microbes and Oral immunity and not genes

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Genetics Saliva

“The Human Salivary Microbiome Is Shaped by Shared Environment Rather than Genetics”

This is very interesting study in support of my hypothesis that microbes are nothing but form of Prana with special purpose. Body cells without identity of known organ classification. They are bridge between us and environment. They are translator of environmental impact on body. They are reflection of bodily health state. In short, this form of prana is never an enemy! Just a faithful servant of mother nature, at our service until we ignore them and try to get rid of them by modern practices.

This study testifies importance of two things which Sanatana Dharma based living openly prescribes:

  1. Living in joint family is natural immunity booster
  2. Household plays critical role in shaping our prana hence our health. Vastu Vidya plays invisible role in maintaining your health.
  3. Home surrounded by mother nature helps a lot
  4. The most significant impact on salivary microbes is by the food we eat and medium used for cleaning the teeth and mouth. If you are using toothpaste and chemical cocktail to gargle, you are at significant loss of healthy prana i.e. good bacteria in oral cavity.
  5. Oral health had direct connection to heart. This way, your home environment, both physical, mental, play role in your health!

Old notes on Saliva

  1. 1. How to drink water, do we really know?

    2. Wound Healing : Thanks to wonder that is skin microbes!


Research


HOUSEHOLD ENVIRONMENT—NOT GENETICS—SHAPES SALIVARY MICROBES

https://www.asm.org/index.php/newsroom/item/6799-household-environment-not-genetics-shapes-salivary-microbes

“It’s generally becoming known that there’s a link between our microbiomes and our health and that’s reason enough to find out what’s in there, how they arrived there, and what they are doing,”

“The oral cavity is naturally colonized by hundreds of bacterial species, which stop external pathogens from establishing a foothold, but they also can themselves cause oral disease.”

Spouses and parents and children younger than 10 living in a household together had the most similar saliva microbiomes. “The contact doesn’t even have to be intimate, like kissing,” says Roberts. “Individuals’ hands are covered in saliva and they are touching everything in the house.”  Children younger than 10 had more similar bacteria to their parents than older children, perhaps reflecting that older children are becoming “more independent individuals,” says Roberts.

The Human Salivary Microbiome Is Shaped by Shared Environment Rather than Genetics: Evidence from a Large Family of Closely Related Individuals

http://mbio.asm.org/content/8/5/e01237-17

The human microbiome is affected by multiple factors, including the environment and host genetics. In this study, we analyzed the salivary microbiomes of an extended family of Ashkenazi Jewish individuals living in several cities and investigated associations with both shared household and host genetic similarities. We found that environmental effects dominated over genetic effects. While there was weak evidence of geographical structuring at the level of cities, we observed a large and significant effect of shared household on microbiome composition, supporting the role of the immediate shared environment in dictating the presence or absence of taxa. This effect was also seen when including adults who had grown up in the same household but moved out prior to the time of sampling, suggesting that the establishment of the salivary microbiome earlier in life may affect its long-term composition. We found weak associations between host genetic relatedness and microbiome dissimilarity when using family pedigrees as proxies for genetic similarity. However, this association disappeared when using more-accurate measures of kinship based on genome-wide genetic markers, indicating that the environment rather than host genetics is the dominant factor affecting the composition of the salivary microbiome in closely related individuals. Our results support the concept that there is a consistent core microbiome conserved across global scales but that small-scale effects due to a shared living environment significantly affect microbial community composition.

 

 

Ocean’s Wildlife Populations Down by Half: Solution in Dharma ethos

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If fish is your traditional food, carry on. But if fish is your taste, your passion, your tongue-lust, you are the idiot criminal responsible for over-fishing. More than that, if you are using consumer products where fish is used as raw material, you deserve a death by Tsunami or flood. Just to have a feel like a fish!
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Same applies to all Egg, Meat and beef eaters/consumers.
 
Almost all of us.
 
Solution?
 
Rekindle perception to see divinity in all. Revive idea of shared wealth and social responsibilities. Retire mindset of greed-based living. Once the supply chain at origin is altered, no one can force overfishing.
 
One such experiment is filmed beautifully by Shyam Benegal in movie Antarnad (Inner Voice), based on the Swadhyay Movement by Pandurang Shastri Athavale. (You can watch it here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uDzvr3wv3MM )
 
Pandurang Shastri Athavale gave concept of floating temple to ever neglected fisherman community in Maharashtra.
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Thus, the experiment called Matsyagandha (mother of the sage Veda Vyas) took its shape. The sagarputras treat these Matsyagandha boats as floating temples. A crew of six to ten swadhyayee fishermen is onboard each boat. Fishing goes on all year except for a three-month pause during the monsoon period which is used for repairs and refitting the boats.
 
The volunteers are many more than the Matsyagandha boats. No individual fisherman gets a chance for more than one trip (of 24 hours) in a year. And when the boat is docked during the monsoon, the seamen among the swadhyayees take over the job of repairs and refitting the boats.
 
There is no employer and no employee; there are no owners and no workers; none has claim over what he has willingly offered to God. Each fisherman and seaman is a pujari, while he is on his floating temple. To date there are one hundred vessels and few more are added each year. An open sea-going cargo ship, SS Jayashree Sagar, was launched in October 1996 that regularly plies between India’s west coast and Persian Gulf States.
 
Every local community has rules to interact with Mother nature. From fisherman to tribals. They all respect seasons and avoid resource collection in certain seasons. They all share the wealth gifted by mother nature. They all see indwelling God in everything.
 
As my Gujarati friends share, same experiments were done in agriculture and forest.
 
When perspective of divinity is killed and greed-virus is implanted, rampant overfishing cannot be controlled.
 
Ref: http://www.swadhyay.org/index.htm
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Research news
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Ocean’s Wildlife Populations Down by Half

A new WWF report reveals an alarming decline in marine biodiversity over the last few decades. According to WWF’s Living Blue Planet Report, populations of marine vertebrates have declined by 49% between 1970 and 2012, with some fish species declining by almost 75%.

In addition to fish, the report shows steep declines in coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses that support marine food webs and provide valuable services to people. With over 25% of all marine species living in coral reefs and about 850 million people directly benefiting from their economic, social and cultural services, the loss of coral reefs would be a catastrophic extinction with dramatic consequences on communities.

According to the report, the biggest drivers of these declining trends are from human actions–mainly overfishing, habitat destruction, and climate change. Although the report paints a dim picture of ocean health, it also provides solutions and opportunities to turn the tide. It highlights the need to protect critical marine habitats, manage fish stocks more sustainably, improve fishing practices, and redirect financial flows to support these needed initiatives.

Wordy Noise

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Wordy Noise
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“For whom your life is consecrated? Dreams or drudgery?”

“Dreams.”

“Obvious remark. As expected. Are you sure? Is it not your illusory perception? Just like other 98 who also think that they are dedicated dreamers and achievers. Better you drudge and make some good fortune for 2050.”

‎”Maharishi Patanjali, one of the greatest scientists of this land, once said that when you are inspired by some great purpose, some extraordinary project, all of your thoughts break their bonds: your mind transcends limitations, your consciousness expands in every direction and you find yourself in a new, great and wonderful world. Dormant forces, faculties and talents become alive and you discover yourself to be a greater person than you ever dreamed yourself to be. I am such dream achiever. I don’t drudge. I don’t live for earning mere bread-butter. I have a purpose and a path to create.”

“Aha. Patanjali quote! You are good at repeating rhetoric and indulging into wordy noise.”

“Sea of words? Wordy noise? Don’t underestimate Patanjali words!”

“What are words? Permutation and combination of alphabets.”

“Yes. And permutation and combination of words make sentences. Sometimes meaningful and many a times totally garbage. What patanjali said is meaningful and inspiring. They are conclusions of his experiments!”

“How many of such words you imbibed in life so far?”

“Millions…may be billion or more.”

“Try to understand. I don’t deny Patanjali or his conclusion. I am talking about wordy pollution you and your generation is facing. You need to understand the difference. Words are not life. Words are mere food for your nervous system. Words fulfill your ego, satisfies your intellectual urge. Mere accumulation of words, wealth of billion or more words you posses in your memory bank is nothing but weight of your brain until they teach you way of living and growth. Patanjali’s conclusion is meaningful for you only if you experience it. Same way, your dreams are meaningful only if you become part of it and execute them in reality.”
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PS: This note was written in 2010. I was overwhelmed by amazing numbers. 550,000 books were published last year! 20000 per day! And that only published books! Add million and more blogs! Unpublished drafts! Man! Words everywhere…

Children, Modern Toys, Household plastic and Chemical Cocktail

toy_1265b

For a growing child, every moment is learning. Learn, forget, re-learn and master the life. To do this, they seek help from toys. Toys provide them artificial simulation opportunities.

Over the past century, toys have become the focus of a massive industry, the opening wedge for the commoditization of childhood, icons of cultural controversy, subjects of serious (and not-so-serious) scholarship, and sometimes even tools for psychological research.

To avoid anti-growth effects of toys, it is important to keep them simple. Since this is not the topic for this note, we will park it aside.

Most toys in India are dumped by China, made up of toxic plastic. Even branded toys. Here are some researches related to plastic toys.


Research


Endocrine disrupting chemicals in baby teethers

http://www.goethe-university-frankfurt.de/55655899/041

In laboratory tests, two out of ten teethers, plastic toys used to sooth babies’ teething ache, release endocrine disrupting chemicals. One product contains parabens, which are normally used as preservatives in cosmetics, while the second contains six so-far unidentified endocrine disruptors.

“Our study shows that plastic toys are a source of undesirable chemicals. Manufacturers, regulatory agencies and scientists should investigate the chemical exposure from plastic toys more thoroughly”, Wagner concludes from the study. The additives have only limited benefits for the quality of the product, but can represent a potential health issue. This is especially true for babies and infants, whose development is orchestrated by a delicately balanced hormonal control and who are more susceptible to chemicals exposures than adults.

Household Chemicals May Impair Thyroid in Young Girls

EXPOSURE TO PHTHALATES IS LINKED TO DEPRESSED FUNCTION IN THE “MASTER CONTROLLER” OF BRAIN DEVELOPMENT, POTENTIALLY EXPLAINING KNOWN PHTHALATE-RELATED COGNITIVE PROBLEMS

Early childhood exposures to specific phthalates were associated with depressed thyroid function in girls at age 3, according to scientists at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health. Phthalates, a class of chemicals thought to disrupt the endocrine system, are widely used in consumer products from plastic toys to household building materials to shampoos.

https://www.mailman.columbia.edu/public-health-now/news/household-chemicals-may-impair-thyroid-young-girls

Is there something up with stinky inflatable pool toys?

http://www.springer.com/gp/about-springer/media/research-news/all-english-research-news/is-there-something-up-with-stinky-inflatable-pool-toys-/12218368

Inflatable toys and swimming aids, like bathing rings and arm bands, often have a distinctive smell which could indicate that they contain a range of potentially hazardous substances. Some of these compounds, which include carbonyl compounds, cyclohexanone, phenol and isophorone, might be critical when present in higher concentrations in children’s toys, say Christoph Wiedmer and Andrea Buettner, who are authors of a study in the journal Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry (ABC), which is published by Springer.

Lead author Wiedmer (Fraunhofer Institute for Process Engineering and Packaging IVV in Germany) and his team conducted tests using an inflatable beach ball, a pair of swimming armbands and two bathing rings they bought off the shelf from local stores and online suppliers in Germany. A small piece of material from each sample was analysed using a variety of material analysis techniques, including one that takes infrared measurements, and it was concluded that the inflatable objects were all made from polyvinyl chloride (PVC).

The researchers then investigated the molecular make-up of the distinctive smells arising from the pool toys. They extracted detectable odours from each sample using solvent extraction and high vacuum distillation methods, and then identified the main odorants using a combination of sensory and common analytical approaches.

Between 32 and 46 odours were detected in each sample, of which up to thirteen were quite intense. The majority of these odorants were identified and among these were several fatty smelling mono- or di-unsaturated carbonyl compounds and their epoxidised derivatives, but also odouractive organic solvents such as cyclohexanone, isophorone, and phenol.

 

 

Mitti or Clay : Motherly Cure Against infections

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Clay Health

Fish lives in water and birds spend time in the sky. Man spends life on the earth. It is mother earth who acts as continuous fostering medium. We used to remain in touch with mother earth for long until recent times when we have started distancing self from the earth.

From shoes to mattresses to high-rise residential complex, we have added layers of  insulation, so much so that our touch to soil is no more gentle and prolonged.

In absence of direct touch, our body is never allowed to ground negative energy and physical toxins.

Two practices are must for the modern man to survive against most toxic environment ever.

  1. Walking on the surface of earth bare-foot. At least 30 mins a day
  2. Sleeping on the surface of earth/on floor

Sharing this interesting paper about clay’s medicinal properties.


Research


Kisameet Clay Exhibits Potent Antibacterial Activity against the ESKAPE Pathogens

http://mbio.asm.org/content/7/1/e01842-15

ABSTRACT

The ESKAPE (Enterococcus faeciumStaphylococcus aureusKlebsiella pneumoniaeAcinetobacter baumanniiPseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) pathogens cause an increasing number of nosocomial infections worldwide since they escape the inhibitory effect of the available antibiotics and the immune response. Here, we report the broad-spectrum and potent antibacterial activity of Kisameet clay, a natural clay mineral from British Columbia, Canada, against a group of multidrug-resistant ESKAPE strains. The results suggest that this natural clay might be developed as a therapeutic option for the treatment of serious infections caused by these important pathogens.

IMPORTANCE More than 50 years of misuse and overuse of antibiotics has led to a plague of antibiotic resistance that threatens to reduce the efficacy of antimicrobial agents available for the treatment of infections due to resistant organisms. The main threat is nosocomial infections in which certain pathogens, notably the ESKAPE organisms, are essentially untreatable and contribute to increasing mortality and morbidity in surgical wards. The pipeline of novel antimicrobials in the pharmaceutical industry is essentially empty. Thus, there is a great need to seek for new sources for the treatment of recalcitrant infectious diseases. We describe experiments that demonstrate the efficacy of a “natural” medicine, Kisameet clay, against all of the ESKAPE strains. We suggest that this material is worthy of clinical investigation for the treatment of infections due to multidrug-resistant organisms.

First Nations’ ancient medicinal clay shows promise against today’s worst bacterial infections

news.ubc.ca/2016/01/26/first-nations-ancient-medicinal-clay-shows-promise-against-todays-worst-bacterial-infections/

The so-called ESKAPE pathogens — Enterococcus faeciumStaphylococcus aureusKlebsiella pneumoniaeAcinetobacter baumanniiPseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species — cause the majority of U.S. hospital infections and effectively ‘escape’ the effects of antibacterial drugs.

“Infections caused by ESKAPE bacteria are essentially untreatable and contribute to increasing mortality in hospitals,” said UBC microbiologist Julian Davies, co-author of the paper published today in the American Society for Microbiology’s mBio journal.

“After 50 years of over-using and misusing antibiotics, ancient medicinals and other natural mineral-based agents may provide new weapons in the battle against multidrug-resistant pathogens.”

The clay deposit is situated on Heiltsuk First Nation’s traditional territory, 400 kilometres north of Vancouver, Canada, in a shallow five-acre granite basin. The 400-million kilogram (400,000 tonne) deposit was formed near the end of the last Ice Age, approximately 10,000 years ago.

Local First Nations people have used the clay for centuries for its therapeutic properties—anecdotal reports cite its effectiveness for ulcerative colitis, duodenal ulcer, arthritis, neuritis, phlebitis, skin irritation, and burns.

“We’re fortunate to be able to partner with UBC on this significant research program” said Lawrence Lund, president of Kisameet Glacial Clay, a business formed to market cosmetic and medicinal products derived from the clay. “We hope it will lead to the development of a novel and safe antimicrobial that can be added to the diminished arsenal for the fight against the ESKAPE pathogens and other infection-related health issues plaguing the planet.”

In the in vitro testing conducted by Davies and UBC researcher Shekooh Behroozian, clay suspended in water killed 16 strains of ESKAPE bacteria samples from sources including Vancouver General Hospital, St. Paul’s Hospital, and the University of British Columbia’s wastewater treatment pilot plant.

No toxic side effects have been reported in the human use of the clay, and the next stage in clinical evaluation would involve detailed clinical studies and toxicity testing. Loretta Li, with UBC’s Department of Civil Engineering, is conducting mineralogical and chemical analyses of the clay as well. MITACS, Kisameet Glacial Clay Inc. and the Tally Fund supported the work.

Viruses are to improve immunity : Titled as Mother

Viruses SIDT2

Fall of neighborhood tree to construction of flyover in vicinity, all events are highly chaotic in nature. These changes will affect not only present living beings but all future generations.

Environmental threats have to be recorded. Viruses are the medium. Tran-generational threat-alert transfer.

Each organism does continuous environmental survey to keep the life in check. To protect the existence of living beings. To protect the well-being of all so that everyone can perform sva-dharma and contribute in universal sacrifice (यज्ञ).

What you do as human body, your body cells also perform at cellular level i.e. Random environmental survey.

I was reading chapter on viral infection (संक्रात्मक ज्वर) in children in one old book of Ayurveda.

Some of these fevers were given suffix ‘माता’.

For example, शीतला माता – known name.

What does ‘माता ‘ indicate?

Is it pro-life mandatory fever? Does this illness act as mother by enhancing life-long immunity?

Viral infection in children is a part of development cycle. There is no cure. Only better management of diet and routine can help to curb harmful effects. Such fevers (like seasonal fevers) act as mother (like how sometimes mother act tough to teach lesson)

Interesting research. It confirms two things.

  1. Life is a flow. Body is full of different transport channels. Viruses are messages.
  2. Viruses are for improving immunity. Immunity is your cellular intelligence to detect self from non-self.

Research


‘Missing link’ explains how viruses trigger immunity

https://www.wehi.edu.au/news/missing-link-explains-how-viruses-trigger-immunity

The research team demonstrated a protein called SIDT2 was crucial for cells to detect viral components in their environment, and initiate an immune response to reduce the virus’ spread.

During a viral infection, RNA – a genetic material similar to DNA – is released into the environment around the infected cells. Dr Nguyen said the team showed that SIDT2 allowed viral RNA to be shuttled between compartments within cells, allowing it to reach the proteins that trigger anti-viral immunity.

“This RNA is in a ‘double-stranded’ form, called ‘dsRNA’, that is not normally found in our body. Human cells have evolved ways to detect dsRNA as a warning sign of an active viral infection and, in this way, dsRNA acts as an important trigger for cells to mount an anti-viral immune response.

“Cells constantly survey their environment by ‘swallowing’ small samples of their environment into compartments called endosomes. The enigma was that no one knew how the dsRNA escaped the endosome to reach the cytoplasm, where it can be detected by the cell.” Dr Nguyen said.

The team showed that SIDT2 was the crucial missing link needed to transport dsRNA out of endosomes, and enable an immune response to be launched.

Viruses have many strategies to prevent an infected cell from alerting the immune system to their presence, Dr Pang said. “Intriguingly, we showed that SIDT2 is critical for uninfected ‘bystander’ cells to detect viral RNA in their environment,” Dr Pang said. “This means bystanders can trigger protective immunity before they even encounter the virus itself.

“Viruses have evolved many ways to switch off the immune response, allowing them to spread, while humans have evolved counter measures to allow a rapid and protective immune response that contains the viral infection. SIDT2 is helping humans in the ‘arms race’ between viruses and their human hosts.”

SIDT2 Transports Extracellular dsRNA into the Cytoplasm for Innate Immune Recognition

http://www.cell.com/immunity/fulltext/S1074-7613(17)30365-5

Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is a common by-product of viral infections and acts as a potent trigger of antiviral immunity. In the nematode C. eleganssid-1 encodes a dsRNA transporter that is highly conserved throughout animal evolution, but the physiological role of SID-1 and its orthologs remains unclear. Here, we show that the mammalian SID-1 ortholog, SIDT2, is required to transport internalized extracellular dsRNA from endocytic compartments into the cytoplasm for immune activation. Sidt2-deficient mice exposed to extracellular dsRNA, encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) show impaired production of antiviral cytokines and—in the case of EMCV and HSV-1—reduced survival. Thus, SIDT2 has retained the dsRNA transport activity of its C. elegans ortholog, and this transport is important for antiviral immunity.

What is Endosome?

Structure and function of endosomes in plant cells

http://jcs.biologists.org/content/125/15/3511

Endosomes are a heterogeneous collection of organelles that function in the sorting and delivery of internalized material from the cell surface and the transport of materials from the Golgi to the lysosome or vacuole. Plant endosomes have some unique features, with an organization distinct from that of yeast or animal cells. Two clearly defined endosomal compartments have been studied in plant cells, the trans-Golgi network (equivalent to the early endosome) and the multivesicular body (equivalent to the late endosome), with additional endosome types (recycling endosome, late prevacuolar compartment) also a possibility. A model has been proposed in which the trans-Golgi network matures into a multivesicular body, which then fuses with the vacuole to release its cargo. In addition to basic trafficking functions, endosomes in plant cells are known to function in maintenance of cell polarity by polar localization of hormone transporters and in signaling pathways after internalization of ligand-bound receptors. These signaling functions are exemplified by the BRI1 brassinosteroid hormone receptor and by receptors for pathogen elicitors that activate defense responses. After endocytosis of these receptors from the plasma membrane, endosomes act as a signaling platform, thus playing an essential role in plant growth, development and defense responses. Here we describe the key features of plant endosomes and their differences from those of other organisms and discuss the role of these organelles in cell polarity and signaling pathways.

Endosomes and Endocytosis

https://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/endosomes/endosomes.html

Endosomes are membrane-bound vesicles, formed via a complex family of processes collectively known as endocytosis, and found in the cytoplasm of virtually every animal cell. The basic mechanism of endocytosis is the reverse of what occurs during exocytosis or cellular secretion. It involves the invagination (folding inward) of a cell’s plasma membrane to surround macromolecules or other matter diffusing through the extracellular fluid. The encircled foreign materials are then brought into the cell, and following a pinching-off of the membrane (termed budding), are released to the cytoplasm in a sac-like vesicle. The size of vesicles varies, and those larger than 100 nanometers in diameter are typically referred to as vacuoles.

Toilet Obsession: Epic Water Waste

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Ambitious political schemes and govt campaigns often don’t consider crucial facts associated with mass level implementation.

When Central govt announced toilet schemes, I asked my self : “Is it really a Central Govt’s job to decide how I should defecate? Is it not local habits formed based by terrain and environment?”

Mind you, I am with the idea of highest possible sanitation. And against open defecation in highly dense urban centers. But you cannot impose same everywhere!

WaterlessToilets

waterless

Waterless toilet from old Architecture book of India.
Waterless toilet from old Architecture book of India.

First photo is from mexico. Water-less toilet. (Via Prof Anil Gupta’s twitter stream, IIMA)

Second photo is from a book published in 1950 (In Gujarati) on subject of Vastu Vidhya (Indian Architecture) where idea of water-less toilet is discussed. The result is सोन-खातर (Fertilizer worth Gold!) every six months! Idea is not discussed as some innovation but as normal practice! Book is for those who used to build homes for self.

What do we do now? We replace old sustainable designs with water guzzling western toilets! 🙂 And that too when we all sense acute scarcity of clean water!


References


How do waterless toilets work?

What is a waterless toilet?

Waterless toilets use urine diversion and the natural processes of decomposition and evaporation to breakdown and reduce the volume of human waste, transforming it into a soil-like compost material. The decomposition/composting and evaporation process can be thought of as what happens to a banana peel when left out in the open. It starts out yellow, moist and smelling like a banana with a relatively thick skin – after a few days it becomes a black, shriveled up, odor-less, dried out fraction of itself. That is decomposition/composting at work. Waste entering the toilets is over 90% water, which is evaporated and carried back to the atmosphere through the vent system. The urine diversion system carries sterile urine to storage containers to be diluted and used as fertilizer or discharged directly into the ground via a shallow soak pit.

http://toiletsforpeople.com/how-composting-toilets-work/

India Groundwater: a Valuable but Diminishing Resource

Groundwater in India is a critical resource. However, an increasing number of aquifers are reaching unsustainable levels of exploitation. If current trends continue, in 20 years about 60% of all India’s aquifers will be in a critical condition says a World Bank report, Deep Wells and Prudence. This will have serious implications for the sustainability of agriculture, long-term food security, livelihoods, and economic growth. It is estimated that over a quarter of the country’s harvest will be at risk. There is an urgent need to change the status quo.

http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2012/03/06/india-groundwater-critical-diminishing

श्राद्ध Saves you from toxin reactions

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Toxins legacy

I read article titled “Biologist Michael Skinner has enraged the chemical community and shocked his peers with his breakthrough research”

What modern science call a breakthrough research, is known to my culture from ages as पितृ दोष, a ancestors legacy gifted to next generation. Modern science, due to its limitations, limit this legacy to genes only. We expand this limited knowledge to all layers of our sharir.

Not only genes but mental and pranic legacy too carry forward to next generation. For some, it is healthy legacy, for others it is unfortunate suffering. Most of us carry mixed bag – good and bad legacy of biological and mental markers.

Now, these markers are of epigenetic in nature. They remain dormant until a environmental or social condition triggers them.

To keep negative legacy under control and to thank for positive legacy, we celebrate श्राद्ध every year. Btw, it is performed on the death anniversary or collectively during the PitruPaksha or Shraaddha paksha (Fortnight of ancestors), right before Sharad Navaratri in autumn. And it is the season when you see proliferation of diseases.

There are important spiritual reasons to perform pitru tarpana but it also plays critical role in maintaining physical health. More research is needed to identify these bio-markers and perform related rituals. Till then, do perform श्राद्ध every year.

You live life, not for self but also for wellbeing of future generations. Your good or bad physical and mental legacy will either perish next generation or flourish them. Be good, always. Do not forget to pay homage to your ancestors.


Research


The Toxins That Affected Your Great-Grandparents Could Be In Your Genes

His discoveries touch on the basic question of how biological instructions are transmitted from one generation to the next. For half a century it has been common knowledge that the genetic material DNA controls this process; the “letters” in the DNA strand spell out messages that are passed from parent to offspring and so on. The messages come in the form of genes, the molecular equivalent of sentences, but they are not permanent. A change in a letter, a result of a random mutation, for example, can alter a gene’s message. The altered message can then be transmitted instead.

“In essence,” Skinner explains, “what your great-grandmother was exposed to could cause disease in you and your grandchildren.”

http://www.smithsonianmag.com/innovation/the-toxins-that-affected-your-great-grandparents-could-be-in-your-genes-180947644/?all

 

 

Pitru Tarpana

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पितृ, पितामह, and प्रपितामह- This (पितृ पक्ष) is the time to worship them.

Who are they?

विष्णु पितास्य जगतो दिव्यो यज्ञ: स एव च |
ब्रह्मो पितामहो ज्ञेयो रुद्रो हि प्रपितामह: ||

विष्णु जिसको दिव्य यज्ञभी कहते है वह जगतपिता है, ब्रह्मा पितामह & रूद्र प्रपितामह.

‘पितर’ बहुवचनात्मक है. Plural. Pluralism.

Post-monsoon (भाद्रपद) is the time when innumerable combinations of मरुतगण are active in our environment. Once गणपति is stable, we worship मरुत गण. गणपति controls मरुतगण. मरुतगण are of 49 different qualities. They are real पितर whose father is ऋषिगण (7 universal senses).

PS: Sorry if this is not understood. I cannot explain much at this point.

Should-The-Mahalaya-Paksha-Tarpana-Be-Done-For-16-Days

वायुर्वायुर्बलं |
वायु ही आयु और वायु ही बल है |

पितर रूप वायुओ कि शुध्धिका पक्ष : पितृ पक्ष

मासिक अमावस्या is prescribed for पितृ कर्म & शरद ऋतू is also prescribed for पितृ कर्म.

पितृ कर्म performed on मासिक अमावस्या keeps पितर (मरुतगण) satiated for a month while पितृ कर्म performed during श्राध्द काल keeps पितर (मरुतगण) satiated for entire year.

पित्त विकृतियों तथा तज्जन्य रोगों के उपचार में पेट से मल का रेचन उपयोगी है| रेचन is one of the Panchkarma. In simple terms, it means : दस्त लाकर पेट से मल निकालना।

During वर्षा ऋतू, प्राकृतिक रेचन (Rain) happens which keeps the Universe fit and healthy by doing treatment of देव & पितर.

Post-रेचन (Post-monsoon) , new cycle starts. For next year’s proper rain, we must act now. So during श्राद्ध काल, we don’t only clean and restart our body cycle but also keep seasonal cycle intake by doing पितृ कर्म.

शरीर शुद्धि> गृह शुद्धि> वातावरण शुद्धि.

It starts in श्राद्ध काल, continues during Navratri and ends by Diwali. Annual cleansing process.

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