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Sense Matter: Sensory Illusion forces cells to self-destruct

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https://www.ucsf.edu/sites/default/files/styles/2014_inline_5-col/public/Misperception2.jpg?itok=BU_P8VKS
https://www.ucsf.edu/sites/default/files/styles/2014_inline_5-col/public/Misperception2.jpg?itok=BU_P8VKS

Although this research talks about yeast cells and illusion at cellular level, it is same law that works at macro level i.e. As a human body.

Information that lies outside our internal models may lead to sensory misperceptions, for humans and yeast alike.

From age 6 onwards (different age for different Varna), post Upanayan Sanskar (Till then body is in Auto-mode, taken care by Ishwar), our dharma scriptures continuously cautions against sensory illusions.

cells have biased perceptions based on what environmental patterns they’ve evolved with. By understanding these biases, we can modulate their behavior,

Sensory illusions / Obsessions / Indulgence >> Unnecessary oscillations at cell level => Self-destruction

इन्द्रिय-निग्रह, निरोध, ब्रह्मचर्य = Without them, what meditation, what yoga and what spiritual progress?

Don’t fool yourself! 🙂

Prepare your body first. Train your senses first. Groom them. Nurture them. Help them, not to self-destruct precious human life. Fine-tune your perceptions!


Research


Sensory Illusion Causes Cells to Self-Destruct

https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2015/11/258466/sensory-illusion-causes-cells-self-destruct#

Magic tricks work because they take advantage of the brain’s sensory assumptions, tricking audiences into seeing phantoms or overlooking sleights of hand. Now a team of UC San Francisco researchers has discovered that even brainless single-celled yeast have sensory biases that can be hacked by a carefully engineered illusion, a finding that could be used to develop new approaches to fighting diseases such as cancer.

Lim and his team discovered that yeast cells falsely perceive a specifically timed pattern of stress – caused by alternating between low and mildly increased sodium levels – as a massive, continuously increasing ramp of stress. In response, the microbes end up over-responding and killing themselves. The results, Lim says, suggest a whole new way of looking at the perceptual abilities of simple cells and could even be used to develop new approaches to fighting diseases using the power of illusion.

Could Sensory Illusions Be Used to Fight Cancer?

The study suggests that many cell types, including human cells, may be predisposed to misperceptions and could be fooled by carefully engineered illusions. For instance, Mitchell said, the signaling pathway by which human cancer cells respond to chemical growth factors is closely related to the stress-sensing MAPK pathway in yeast. Thus, identification of cell-specific misperceptions might ultimately be exploited to induce cancer cells to kill themselves, he suggested, while minimally harming healthy, neighboring cells.

Gene Tinkering : Traits turning silent : GM Corn research

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Gene silencing

Why gene tinkering is flawed technology or say not perfect tech? We really don’t have control over micro-epigenetic factors.We can only control macro-epigenetic factors, that too partially (As we cannot control air quality, rain timing etc).

Biotechnology is not bad. Direction is wrong.

Do you use molecular structure report of your kid’s DNA to decide his/her upbringing?
Do you use his/her blood report to identify innate nature and then use it for personality development?
Do you hire geneticist to modify his/her DNA to get desired results?

No. And yet, efforts put in parenting do pay the yield, positively or negatively.

Then why do you need to change genes of the seeds?

“It can be disastrous for a farmer to buy seeds that do not behave in the grow-out the way they were promised by the producer.”

Before we talk about recent paper of gene traits turning silent, let us talk about famous green revolution hero seed. IR8.

IR8 variety of rice. Plants like IR8 succeeded in protecting humanity against global famine and were hailed as part of the “Green Revolution” in agriculture. How, we will see shortly.
In the meantime, however, the yields from IR8 have declined by around 15 percent, and the cultivation of this previously very promising plant is no longer seen as worthwhile.

The dwarf rice variety lacks an enzyme that is required for the production of the plant growth hormone gibberellic acid; without gibberellic acid, the rice plant remains short but strong and high-yielding. Although nothing has changed in the genetic makeup of the IR8 rice plant in the past 50 years, its yields have declined continuously.

Do you want to know the reason why?

Change in environment. Global increase of CO2 made IR8 to produce continuously declined yield. After all, the current concentration of the greenhouse gas in the atmosphere is 25 percent higher than in the 1960s.
Using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (generally known as thale cress), the researchers were able to observe that a higher carbon dioxide concentration results in the unblocking of the capacity of dwarf plant to form gibberellic acid. The carbon dioxide appears to have the same growth-stimulating effect as that triggered by the gibberellic acid. Thus, in the experiment, the dwarf plants gradually lost their advantage and increasingly resembled the control plants. [2]

Despite having genes, IR8 is impotent. As I shared in part 1 of the note, it is not gene but the environment (epigenetical factors) that controls the organism)

Apart from CO2 , many factors work. Modern Agri science knows this very well but since they want to do business, they don’t reveal this fact to the world and govt(s).

So when GMO varieties will be introduced, Seller Company will come up with specific environmental conditions to maintain. And to do that, farmers will have to buy their fertilizers and pesticides. In some cases, despite all of this, yield will fail as no one has control over Mother Nature and so company will blame farmers for not following instructions.

[2] http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/160/4/1781


Research


Corn genetics research exposes mechanism behind traits becoming silent

http://news.psu.edu/story/495374/2017/11/21/research/corn-genetics-research-exposes-mechanism-behind-traits-becoming

Research conclude with this

“That is a big setback for anyone trying to breed for traits such as high yield, which is regulated by several genes,” said Chopra. “If one or two of those genes that are essential for high yield become silent, then a reduction in the overall yield may result.”

This is enough for me to realize why GMO is flawed.

If one or more genes that are controlling a trait become silent due to overlapping DNA methylation, then that trait basically disappears from the population.

This researcher believes

“It can be disastrous for a farmer to buy seeds that do not behave in the grow-out the way they were promised by the producer.”

This is so true in case of Bt Cotton in Gujarat!

 

Disordered Eating : Invite long-term neg­at­ive health ef­fects

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DisorderedEating

We have discussed this many times. Not following strict routine is nothing but rape of body and torture that will pop as negative health impacts, sooner or later. If you are parent of toddler, make sure you groom your kids for regular meal habits. If you are parent of teen, share this paper with them and ask them to follow regular routine. And if they fail to follow out of ignorance or arrogance, be ready for negative consequences.

Help your family and friends realize that MediClaim and FiveStar hospital is not the cure! Prevention is the ONLY Cure if you don’t wish to suffer and let your family suffer while you are in bed.

What is solution?

Sit with your grandparents.They know local eating habits best. Learn from them. Have meals with them! Be rooted. Follow traditions.

Learn and implement rules about

  1. Meal timing
  2. Season driven diet
  3. Age driven diet
  4. Food compatibiltiy
  5. Food staleness
  6. Day time driven food

Research


Dis­ordered eat­ing among young adults found to have long-term neg­at­ive health ef­fects

https://www.helsinki.fi/en/news/health/disordered-eating-among-young-adults-found-to-have-long-term-negative-health-effects

According to a recent University of Helsinki study, disordered eating among young adults has long-term effects on their health. Disordered eating among 24-year-old women and men was an indicator of higher body weight, larger waist circumference and lower psychological wellbeing as well as a lower self-evaluation of general health both at age 24 and ten years later.

“Disordered eating is often seen as harmless as it is so common. However, it seems that disordered eating may have far-reaching negative effects on the general health and wellbeing of young adults,” says researcher Ulla Kärkkäinen, authorised nutritionist. “Even if the symptoms do not constitute a clinical eating disorder, early recognition and treatment is important, also for men.”

Published in the European Eating Disorders Review, the study is part of the extensive FinnTwin 16 study, and included more than 4,900 young Finnish men and women. The research participants answered questionnaires on eating behaviour, weight, health and psychological wellbeing at age 24 and again, ten years later at age 34.

When all variables were considered, disordered eating at age 24 was a predictor of lower psychological wellbeing among both women and men as well as a lower self-evaluation of health among men ten years later.

“These results prove that disordered eating is detrimental to the physical and mental health of young adults both in the short and long term. Previous research has established that low psychological wellbeing and a poor self-evaluation of health are predictors of higher susceptibility to physical illness and mortality. To mitigate these long-term negative effects, we must recognise disordered eating early and direct sufferers to treatment,” says Kärkkäinen.

Eating is disordered when a person arbitrarily decides when they are hungry or full, regardless of how they are feeling; weighs themselves constantly; or drinks non-caloric drinks to keep from feeling hungry. Eating can also be considered disordered if a person meticulously plans each meal long into the future, counts calories and weighs foods, follows an excessively strict diet or cuts certain foods from their diet claiming health or ethical reasons, when the real motivation is weight loss, describes Kärkkäinen.

“Even though disordered eating is common in the population, it is not harmless. Disordered eating among both women and men should be taken seriously,” states Kärkkäinen.

The study was headed by Associate Professor Anna Keski-Rahkonen from the University of Helsinki.

Do Disordered Eating Behaviours Have Long-term Health-related Consequences?

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/erv.2568/abstract;jsessionid=A3E6035625AE122844743F72E5DA1567.f03t01

Results

In crude models, disordered eating behaviours at age 24 were associated cross-sectionally and prospectively with poor self-rated health, higher BMI, larger waist circumference and psychological distress in both sexes. In models adjusted for baseline BMI and potential confounders, disordered eating behaviours predicted increased psychological distress in both sexes and poor self-rated health in men.

Conclusions

Among young adults, disordered eating behaviours are associated with long-term health-related consequences, particularly psychological distress. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

Universal diet is a myth

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=======================
Universal diets don’t work because ‘healthy’ foods differ by individual
=======================

Diet
Globalization is a deepest myth propagated in last 100 years.
Modern medicine is flavor of it.

Even Today, Indian doctors quote British Journal, American Journal and treat patients! What a slavery!

From food to medicine, everything is local in reality. Not only local, personal! Individual!

This is the base on Ayurveda and they call it primitive guess work! What a foolish arrogance modern doctors have!

If two persons with fever visit genuine Ayurvedacharya, both gets different treatment! Unlike idiotic modern medicine! One pill for everyone!

Not only that, food choices changes based on person’s mental state, biological age, season, time of the day, terrain, region and community!

What do we have now?

Pizza for Navratri! Pizza for Diwali! Pizza for Uttrayan! 😀

Replace pizza with any global choice!

We now don’t decide food based on mental state, biological age, season, time of the day, terrain, region and community but what the market bombard on us! Pity!


Research


http://www.cell.com/cell/abstract/S0092-8674(15)01481-6

Personalized Nutrition by Prediction of Glycemic Responses

“Elevated postprandial blood glucose levels constitute a global epidemic and a major risk factor for prediabetes and type II diabetes, but existing dietary methods for controlling them have limited efficacy. Here, we continuously monitored week-long glucose levels in an 800-person cohort, measured responses to 46,898 meals, and found high variability in the response to identical meals, suggesting that universal dietary recommendations may have limited utility. We devised a machine-learning algorithm that integrates blood parameters, dietary habits, anthropometrics, physical activity, and gut microbiota measured in this cohort and showed that it accurately predicts personalized postprandial glycemic response to real-life meals. We validated these predictions in an independent 100-person cohort. Finally, a blinded randomized controlled dietary intervention based on this algorithm resulted in significantly lower postprandial responses and consistent alterations to gut microbiota configuration. Together, our results suggest that personalized diets may successfully modify elevated postprandial blood glucose and its metabolic consequences.”

प्राणविहीन Pre-Cut Salad and Risk of Infection

92d2ff0800ee462547b8abe568033f1a--healthy-food-delivery-vegetable-salads
There is a family rule at our home. If social conditions force having meals outside, don’t eat Salad and Chutney.
At restaurants and social gatherings, salad is prepared first and kept open whole day long!
Malls now offer pre-cut vegetables and fruits! 😀 Exploiting laziness of urban families!
I have never seen ignorant junta as I observe now in last decade! With increasing purchasing power, our common sense is diminishing fast! 😀
This also testify my theory that bacteria are faithful weapons of mother nature, used to clean the debris. Pre-cut is प्राणविहीन. Without प्राण, you are dead! Dead are registered in Mother nature’s register for cleaning! So bacteria like Samonella!
I know couple of colleagues affected by typhoid recently after eating at costly most restaurant of city! 🙂 Typhoid is not just due to exposure to fecal in food items but also eating dead food like salad.
This also testify my theory that bacteria are faithful weapons of mother nature, used to clean the debris. Pre-cut is प्राणविहीन. Without प्राण, you are dead! Dead are registered in Mother nature’s register for cleaning! So bacteria like Samonella!
I know couple of colleagues affected by typhoid recently after eating at costly most restaurant of city! 🙂 Typhoid is not just due to exposure to fecal in food items but also eating dead food like salad.
——————
Research
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https://www.asm.org/index.php/journal-press-releases/94749-precut-salad-may-encourage-growth-of-salmonella

PRE-CUT SALAD MAY ENCOURAGE GROWTH OF SALMONELLA

Pre-prepared salads are sold increasingly commonly in grocery stores, said Freestone. They also appear in fast food and in airline meals. However, few studies had previously investigated the behavior of Salmonella within ready-to-eat bagged salad, she said. “We wanted to investigate what happens to Salmonella in a bag of salad to better understand the potential risks to consumers and inform future research on reducing attachment of this pathogen to salad leaves. This study is part of our ongoing research into ways to reduce the risk of Salmonella persisting and growing when it is present in bagged salad.”

Turmeric or Any herbal plant : Magic is in whole and not in isolated compounds

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Curcumin

Some of us, concerned about culture and great legacy, are worried about Western greedy pharma companies invasion in traditional & tribal medicinal gold mines.

I would say – no need to worry. when the way is faulty, success temporary.

Why?

So far, evaluation of traditional plants was mainly done to discover new drugs for western medicine. Until last century, they were busy in mimicking natural substances found in plants.Now, they are moving away from chemical based medicines to extract based medicine. Of course, in search of magic bullets. Ultimate aim is to capture multimillion dollar market of western life style symptoms like cancer, AIDS, ADHD, Autism, cardiovascular and brain anomalies. Poor ignorant culture.

Any surprise why Turmeric is getting focus worldwide?

While they are on wrong path of extracting substance, magic lies in multi-herbal preparations. For example, recently I talked about drumsticks bio-enhancer capaicity. Gau-mutra’s bio-enhancing capacity is now well-known. Role played by ghee and honey in herb based medicine is difficult to forget.

Tiwari (2001)[1] has also emphasised that the concept of synergy is central to the holistic approach. The trend of the modern concept to isolate pure compounds may not achieve the desired results, as observed in the natural version. Once an active principle is isolated from the natural product without its synergical associates to support and/or balance its action, it may lose its character as present in its natural form. The isolation and study of a problem from its environment is the beauty of modern science. However, the natural/holistic approach attempts to solve problems by taking these in their entirely, with all their inter-linkages and their complexity. This may be the reason why Ayurvedic preparations have different permutations according to the disease conditions.

[1] Tiwari, Ashok K. 2001. Imbalance in antioxidant defence and human diseases: multiple approach of natural antioxidants therapy. Current Science 81(9): 1179-1186.

So I am not worried about fake delusion of patents. I am worried about rampant consumption of natural resources in the race of capturing billion dollar markets. Not only western pharma, Indians pharma(s) too involved in this robbing activity. Instead of worrying about knowledge theft, worry about protecting natural resources.

Learning science in Dharmic language (Sanskrit or her nearest sister) has many benefits.

For example, word गुणधर्म.

If your child is conditioned for science in English, he or she will discuss properties of matter, chemical, organism with you. But if it is Hindi or any Prakrit language, the word would be close to ‘गुणधर्म’.

Physical matter has गुण(s) and their धर्म is decided based on their गुण(s). Their गुण(s) gives different reactions based on the environment they are in.

Turmeric has Curcumin. Curcumin’s गुणधर्म is identified as potential cancer remedy. But what the most western scientists forget is that for curcumin to work as per its dharma, it needs to be part of Turmeric. Extract don’t work always. गुणधर्म changes with environment. So best is to provide home-ground for Curcumin i.e. Let it be part of Turmeric.

गुण धर्म गुण धर्म गुण धर्म गुण धर्म गुण धर्म गुण धर्म …think about it.

धर्म is everywhere. धर्म is the center.

Curcumin, a substance in turmeric is a major game-changer in Ayurvedic cure. Majority (and almost all) suppliers squeeze turmeric roots for curcumin before making turmeric powder for your kitchen. And this is normal process for all herbs, including Tulsi.

End result?
0) You get dead powder with no Prana Force with hardly any medicinal property left
1) You don’t see health benefits of consuming turmeric (or any herb)
2) Your faith on Ayurvedic treatment reduces over the period of time

Solution:
Prefer to buy curcumin rich turmeric, directly from farmer, bypassing entire retail chain. If possible, go for organic one. See the difference. Feel the difference.

 

Asthma prevention : Tree-lined neighbourhood

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Asthma

When you are rooted, you don’t have to wait for such research studies. In culture of sacred grove, immune disorders like asthma were non-existent.

Ancient Indian scriptures, while advocating conservation of  sacred forests, do highlight the importance of planting trees and groves. For example, the Vriksotsavavidhi of the  Matsyapurana attaches great importance to the planting of trees and even to the celebration of the tree festival or  ‘vana mahostav’. It emphasizes the importance of planting a tree thus: “A son is equal to ten deep reservoirs of water and a  tree planted is equal to ten sons”. A tree laden with flowers and fruits saves its dependents (birds, humans, etc.)  from distress, just as a good son saves his family.

When the British first came to India in the 17th century, this element of Indian society left them completely  confused. For them, first as traders and then as colonial rulers, forests were meant to be exploited for economic gain;  animals (where they existed) needed to be hunted either for foodor sport. In 1878, in a small village called Vedanthangal,  near Chennai, British soldiers shot some storks in the local wetland. The villagers stormed the collector’s office and made  him issue an order that no one would harm the nesting birds in future. This is by no means the only example of its kind;  Indian history is peppered with such examples. Among the best known are the Bishnoi, in Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana  who are famous for their self-sacrificing defence of wildlife. [1]

In such culture, Asthma is impossible. Not only asthma, any immunity disorders are impossible.

Here is an mundane research reestablishing fact that smart city without ample trees, is curse for the population.

[1]

Humanities Environmental Conservative Management Systems Sushmita Jha Goswami


Research


Land cover and air pollution are associated with asthma hospitalisations: A cross-sectional study

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412017304026?via%3Dihub

Highlights

Natural environments in urban areas were associated with less asthma hospitalisation.

These associations varied by coexisting background air pollution concentration.

Green space/gardens were associated with less asthma when NO2/PM2.5 was lower.

Urban trees were associated with less asthma when NO2/PM2.5 was higher.

Green space and gardens were associated with reductions in asthma hospitalisation when pollutant exposures were lower but had no significant association when pollutant exposures were higher. In contrast, tree density was associated with reduced asthma hospitalisation when pollutant exposures were higher but had no significant association when pollutant exposures were lower.

Conclusions

We found differential effects of natural environments at high and low background pollutant concentrations. These findings can provide evidence for urban planning decisions which aim to leverage health co-benefits from environmental improvements.

Rituals: Inaction to Action to Anusthan(अनुष्ठान)

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Anushthan

वृत्ति alone won’t work.
कृति alone won’t work.
वृत्ति + कृति works, always.

 

Mental Black-hole = Tunneled Vision = Lack of acceptance of the Universe as a whole

अन्धं तमः प्रविशन्ति येऽविद्यामुपासते
ततो भूय इव ते तमो य उ विद्यायाण् रताः ॥

ईशावास्य उपनिषद्

They who follow rites (or rituals) alone enter into blinding darkness, and they, who are engaged in meditation (or knowledge) only verily fall, into an even greater darkness, the mental black-hole or delusion. [ In essence it means – performing rituals without understanding the true knowledge underneath; and engaging only in knowledge without performing the necessary action is ignorance. The right relationship between the rituals and knowledge is to be understood.]

“भोजन करनेसे आनंद होता है” – If you keep repeating this, you won’t find the आनंद. To feel the आनंद, you need to prepare food with total involvement, and eat it as a ritual. That is where आनंद is – in your involvement.

आम्नायस्य क्रियार्थत्वात्| – महर्षि जैमिनि

Actions are important. Only thinking won’t help.
—————————————————
Any actions fruits depend upon the state of mind with which action is performed.

स मनसा ध्यायेद्, यद् वां अहं किं च मनसा ध्यास्यामि तथैव तद् भविष्यति। तद्ध स्म तथैव भवति| गोपथ-ब्राह्मण 1.1.9

आधे-अधूरेपन से कार्य करने का भी निषेध किया है।आदमी मन से जो सोचता है, वही होता है|

Mental focus is important while performing any action.
——————————————————
अकर्मण्यता (तमस) -> कर्मण्यता (रजस) -> अनुष्ठान (कर्म + मन) (सत्व)

Action must be backed by मनका पूर्ण विश्वास + निश्चयात्मक बुध्धि

Why wound healing slows down with aging?

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Older bodies need longer to mend. This reality of aging has been documented since World War I, with the observation that wounds heal slower in older soldiers.

It is because with aging, we consume our प्राण rapidly in activities like copulation, daily chores stress of family life and mindless sleeping and eating habits.

प्राण is our immunity. With aging, disruptions to communication between skin cells and their immune cells slow down this step of wound healing.

This is the reason प्राणवर्धक घी & honey is necessity in old age. Oil massage too.

Old age does not starts at 60. Body starts degradation at 21. 🙂 We realize it much later in 30s when all complications start.

nihms827525u1


Research News


Impaired Epidermal to Dendritic T Cell Signaling Slows Wound Repair in Aged Skin.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27863246

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5364946/

“Within days of an injury, skin cells migrate in and close the wound, a process that requires coordination with nearby immune cells. With aging, disruptions to communication between skin cells and their immune cells slow down this step. Discovery suggests new approaches to developing treatments that could speed healing among older people.

Whenever a wound occurs, the body needs to repair it quickly to restore its protective skin barrier. Wound healing is one of the most complex processes to occur in the human body. Numerous types of cells, molecular pathways, and signaling systems go to work over timescales that vary from seconds to months. Changes related to aging have been observed in every step of this process. Both skin cells and immune cells contribute to this elaborate process, which begins with the formation of a scab. New skin cells known as keratinocytes later travel in as a sheet to fill in the wound under the scab.

Cancer and Death : Two Biological events

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Would you call ‘Death’ as disease? No, right? Death is not a disease. It is biological event. Similarly, cancer is also a biological event. Sometimes, it surfaces on life early. Most of the times, it does in last stage of life. Game of circadian clocks. Time driven events.

 

Cancer is a property of each cell. It is the faulty clock that leads to cell into Cancer pathway than Cell Death pathway.

We all take birth with a probability of normal cells turned cancer cells.

Once you die, the cells in your body think that you are an embryo….so all the genes which remain up in embryo (and that never again become active in your life time after birth) become active again.

Body cells also think that there is something wrong, that’s why there is no signal of cell proliferation, development etc. So, the cells start expressing the genes that are generally overexpressed during cancer. I.e. signal is given to cell to proliferate (multiply).

People who get organ donation from dead body are more prone to cancers. This is explanation!!
Or in other words, Cancer is a sign of early death or rapid aging.

 


Research


http://www.scripps.edu/news/press/2016/20161116lamia.html

TSRI Researchers Show How Circadian ‘Clock’ May Influence Cancer Pathway

A new study led by scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) describes an unexpected role for proteins involved with our daily “circadian” clocks in influencing cancer growth.

The research, published recently in the journal Molecular Cell, suggests that disruptions in circadian rhythms might leave levels of an important cancer-linked protein, called cMYC, unchecked.

“This appears to have big implications for the connection between circadian rhythms and cancer,” said TSRI biologist Katja Lamia, senior author of the study.

There is growing evidence that shift work and frequent jet lag can raise a person’s risk of cancer, suggesting a link between daily rhythms and cell growth. “We know this connection exists, but we haven’t known why,” said Lamia.

The researchers focused on proteins called cryptochromes, which evolved from bacterial proteins that sense light and repair DNA damage caused by sunlight. In humans, these proteins, called CRY1 and CRY2, regulate our circadian clocks, which influence what times of day we become tired, hungry and much more.

Using cells from mouse models, the researchers demonstrated that deleting the gene that expresses CRY2 reduced the cells’ ability to degrade a protein called cMYC. Without CRY2 keeping cMYC at normal levels, the researchers saw increased cell proliferation—similar to the abnormal growth seen in cancers.

Further studies of protein structures suggested that CRY2 is a key player in a process to “mark” cMYC for degradation. The researchers said it is significant that this process occurs after gene transcription—once the proteins are already produced—rather than during transcription, as in many other cryptochrome functions.

“This is a function of a circadian protein that has never been seen before,” said TSRI Research Associate Anne-Laure Huber, who served as first author of the study.

The researchers say more studies are needed to confirm this connection between circadian clocks and cancer in human tissues.

In addition to Lamia and Huber, authors of the study, “CRY2 and FBXL3 Cooperatively Degrade c-MYC,” were Stephanie J. Papp, Alanna B. Chan, Sabine D. Jordan, Anna Kriebs and Madelena Nguyen of TSRI; Emma Henriksson of TSRI and Lund University; Martina Wallace and Christian M. Metallo of the University of California, San Diego; and Zhizhong Li of the Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation and Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research.

This study was supported by the National Institutes of Health (grants DK090188, DK097164, CA188652 and NIGMS P41-GM103311), the Searle Scholars Program through the Kinship Foundation, the Sidney Kimmel Foundation, the Lung Cancer Research Foundation, the Swedish Research Council, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the American Heart Association (grant 15POST22510020).

 

 

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