In my opinion, 99.9999999999999 % and more viruses are unknown , not limited to skin.

And they are 100% harmless. 🙂 . Can an email be considered harmful? It is how you read and react to the email, matters. 🙂

Viruses are innocent emails cells exchange. Our cells’ interpretation creates issue. And interpretation is based on Immunity. Immunity is function of प्राण.


Penn Scientists Reveal 90 Percent of Skin-Based Viruses Represent Viral “Dark Matter”

PHILADELPHIA — Scientists in recent years have made great progress in characterizing the bacterial population that normally lives on human skin and contributes to health and disease. Now researchers from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania have used state-of-the-art techniques to survey the skin’s virus population, or “virome.” The study, published in the online journal mBiolast month, reveals that most DNA viruses on healthy human skin are viral “dark matter” that have never been described before. The research also includes the development of a set of virome analysis tools that are now available to researchers for further investigations.

The Human Skin Double-Stranded DNA Virome: Topographical and Temporal Diversity, Genetic Enrichment, and Dynamic Associations with the Host Microbiome

Viruses make up a major component of the human microbiota but are poorly understood in the skin, our primary barrier to the external environment. Viral communities have the potential to modulate states of cutaneous health and disease. Bacteriophages are known to influence the structure and function of microbial communities through predation and genetic exchange. Human viruses are associated with skin cancers and a multitude of cutaneous manifestations. Despite these important roles, little is known regarding the human skin virome and its interactions with the host microbiome. Here we evaluated the human cutaneous double-stranded DNA virome by metagenomic sequencing of DNA from purified virus-like particles (VLPs). In parallel, we employed metagenomic sequencing of the total skin microbiome to assess covariation and infer interactions with the virome. Samples were collected from 16 subjects at eight body sites over 1 month. In addition to the microenviroment, which is known to partition the bacterial and fungal microbiota, natural skin occlusion was strongly associated with skin virome community composition. Viral contigs were enriched for genes indicative of a temperate phage replication style and also maintained genes encoding potential antibiotic resistance and virulence factors. CRISPR spacers identified in the bacterial DNA sequences provided a record of phage predation and suggest a mechanism to explain spatial partitioning of skin phage communities. Finally, we modeled the structure of bacterial and phage communities together to reveal a complex microbial environment with a Corynebacterium hub. These results reveal the previously underappreciated diversity, encoded functions, and viral-microbial dynamic unique to the human skin virome.