Sometime back in online discussion, one friend discussed नास्तिकता (real form of Atheism or Agnosticism) & कपिल ऋषि & सांख्य तत्वज्ञान. But we left the discussion for friends to do independent research about कपिल ऋषि.
Here is the interesting conversation where Sage Kapila elaborates the Sankhya theory of material nature to his mother Devahuti and concludes:
jñāna-yogaś ca man-niṣṭho
dvayor apy eka evārtho
jñāna–yogaḥ — philosophical research; ca — and; mat–niṣṭhaḥ — directed towards Me; nairguṇyaḥ — free from the material modes of nature; bhakti — devotional service; lakṣaṇaḥ — named; dvayoḥ — of both; api — moreover; ekaḥ — one; eva — certainly; arthaḥ — purpose; bhagavat — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; śabda — by the word; lakṣaṇaḥ — signified.
“Philosophical research culminates in understanding the Supreme Personality of Godhead. After achieving this understanding, when one becomes free from the material modes of nature, he attains the stage of devotional service. Either by devotional service directly or by philosophical research, one has to find the same destination, which is the Supreme Personality of Godhead.”
This is a remarkable conclusion, because no serious scientist today believes they will discover God through an analysis of material nature. In fact, no one believes that by understanding the real laws of nature, we can be free of those laws.
We go to the university to learn about the laws of nature, not to become free of them. The above verse can thus be paraphrased as the following scientific proposition: A true understanding of the laws of nature will free you from the laws, or the cycle of cause and effect.
Those who claim self as Atheist (Esp. The Dawkins readers and blind followers who miss no chance to make fun of believers) are confused due to sectarian symbolic Godhood chaos. Real Atheist is micro version of Sage Kapila.