Dung

Dung

Artificial Fertilizers, Nutrient Pollution and Ecological Collapse

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Eliminating use of animals from farm land and use of artificial fertilizer in farms – these two steps are enough to recognize current western civilization as most barbaric and idiotic society.

India – this land and her culture, instead of leading the world for sustainable future, is under same trap. Thanks to her idiot and selfish children. The Political terrorists.

Nutrients

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Everyone should read this paper. Realize the unity in diversity. Sanatana principle of give and take. Mutual existence. Synergy.

Nature has its own economy, with trading as dynamic as that of any stock exchange. To cope with nutrient deficiencies in their respective habitats, certain plants, animals and fungi have evolved partnerships by which they can swap resources.

But the economic tradeoffs in the natural marketplace are becoming unbalanced by nutrient pollution, most of which can be traced back to nitrogen fertilizers and fossil-fuel consumption. The partners have evolved a reciprocal exchange whereby the heterotroph provides metabolic waste — nitrogen and phosphorus — to the phototroph, which requires these key nutrients to survive. In return, the phototroph supplies its partner with photosynthetically fixed carbon as sugar that the heterotroph uses for energy.

“When you start to add more and more of the nutrients that the animal would normally be providing, the plant is no longer as dependent on that animal for those nutrients and so it starts to return less of the sugars back to the animal,” explained lead author Shantz, a doctoral candidate in the Burkepile Community Ecology Laboratory.


Research


Nutrient loading alters the performance of key nutrient exchange mutualisms

Abstract

Nutrient exchange mutualisms between phototrophs and heterotrophs, such as plants and mycorrhizal fungi or symbiotic algae and corals, underpin the functioning of many ecosystems. These relationships structure communities, promote biodiversity and help maintain food security. Nutrient loading may destabilise these mutualisms by altering the costs and benefits each partner incurs from interacting. Using meta-analyses, we show a near ubiquitous decoupling in mutualism performance across terrestrial and marine environments in which phototrophs benefit from enrichment at the expense of their heterotrophic partners. Importantly, heterotroph identity, their dependence on phototroph-derived C and the type of nutrient enrichment (e.g. nitrogen vs. phosphorus) mediated the responses of different mutualisms to enrichment. Nutrient-driven changes in mutualism performance may alter community organisation and ecosystem processes and increase costs of food production. Consequently, the decoupling of nutrient exchange mutualisms via alterations of the world’s nitrogen and phosphorus cycles may represent an emerging threat of global change.

Give and Take

Researchers analyze how nutrient pollution can negatively impact important ecological relationships

Nature has its own economy, with trading as dynamic as that of any stock exchange. To cope with nutrient deficiencies in their respective habitats, certain plants, animals and fungi have evolved partnerships by which they can swap resources.

However, according to a new study by UC Santa Barbara researchers Deron Burkepile and Andrew Shantz, excess nutrient input — or nutrient pollution —creates an imbalance in the interactions between partner — also known as mutualistic — species across a variety of ecosystems. The culprit: nitrogen fertilizers and fossil-fuel combustion. Their findings appear in the journal Ecology Letters.

In a very short period of time, Burkepile noted, humans have short-circuited the tight recycling of nutrients between mutualistic species, and this in turn has changed the balance of how such partners interact.

“That’s especially important because lots of these organisms are the foundation species of ecosystems without which the ecosystem would cease to exist,” said Burkepile, an associate professor in UCSB’s Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology.

Take, for example, reef-building coral, which contain tiny algae that allow for rapid growth even when nutrient stores are low. “The presence of coral is what makes a coral reef,” Burkepile continued. “Without the association between coral and its symbiotic algae, you wouldn’t have coral reefs. Rainforest trees are what make those systems rainforests, and interactions with microbes are what drive the success of those plants.

“This research,” he added, “really focused on big important organisms within many different ecosystems, so the problem is a worldwide phenomenon.”

These give-and-take scenarios — as with corals and algae — occur between a phototroph, an organism that makes its own food through the process of photosynthesis, and a heterotroph, which must look to its environment for food.

But the economic tradeoffs in the natural marketplace are becoming unbalanced by nutrient pollution, most of which can be traced back to nitrogen fertilizers and fossil-fuel consumption. The partners have evolved a reciprocal exchange whereby the heterotroph provides metabolic waste — nitrogen and phosphorus — to the phototroph, which requires these key nutrients to survive. In return, the phototroph supplies its partner with photosynthetically fixed carbon as sugar that the heterotroph uses for energy.

“When you start to add more and more of the nutrients that the animal would normally be providing, the plant is no longer as dependent on that animal for those nutrients and so it starts to return less of the sugars back to the animal,” explained lead author Shantz, a doctoral candidate in the Burkepile Community Ecology Laboratory.

Gau, Ganga and Bioremediation of Pharmaceuticals, Pesticides, and Petrochemicals

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gau-gomeya

To recover from our most grotesque outcomes of industrialization, her help is needed. Critical help. Her प्रसाद is गंगा स्वरुप. She can wash our sins selflessly. Our crimes of polluting जल,वायु & जमीन.

All this is possible if we save and protect her. Time is running fast. If she is not protected as early as possible, recovery from possible collapse would be much slower than expected.


Research


Bioremediation of Pharmaceuticals, Pesticides, and Petrochemicals with Gomeya/Cow Dung

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2011/362459/

Use and misuse of pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and petrochemicals by man is causing havoc with nature, as they persist as such or as their toxic metabolites. These pollutants bioaccumulate in environment, and they ultimately reach man through various means. They are hazardous because of potential toxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and genotoxicity. To rejuvenate nature, remediation methods currently available are usually expensive and might convert one toxic pollutant to another. Bioremediation methods use naturally occurring microorganisms to detoxify man-made pollutants so that they change pollutants to innocuous products that make soil fertile in the process. Taking cue from Ayurveda, Gomeya/cow dung is used as an excellent bioremediation method. Thus, utilizing freely available cow dung as slurry or after composting in rural areas, is a cheap and effective measure to bioremediate the harmful pollutants. Yet, more research in this direction is warranted to bioremediate nonbiodegradable, potentially toxic pollutants.

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What is Bioremediation?

Bioremediation is the use of naturally occurring microorganisms or genetically engineered microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) by man, to detoxify man-made pollutants [22]. Earthworms are capable of bioaccumulating heavy metals in their body tissues especially chloragocytes, and their intestinal microflora has the capacity to detoxify most of the pesticides. Earthworms are good additions to enhance the activity of natural and cheap composts to detoxify the environment. Microorganisms have a unique ability to interact both chemically and physically with a huge range of both man-made and naturally occurring compounds leading to a structural change to, or the complete degradation of the, target molecule.

3.1. Vedic Literature

Ayurveda is one of the life sciences of the Vedic Indian period. Panchgavya Chikitsa is a part of Ayurveda (i.e., therapy with cow products, namely, milk, curd, clarified butter, urine, and dung). It is one of the main principles is that the world is made up of a combination of the five basic elements—ether, earth, air, water, and fire with a harmonious blend in the human body, flora, and fauna alike.

Susruta (one of the pioneers of Ayurveda) mentions that the human body is made up of these five basic elements in a delicate balance—Asimnchhaste panchmahabhut sharire samvaiym purusheh etyuchyte.22 (Sushruta Samhita 1 [23])

Susruta also says that when this delicate harmonious balance is interfered with, there would be disease in the world. Bhutebhyo hi param kinchinnasti chinta chikitsite.8 (Sushruta Samhita 1 [23])

Nature has made various natural mechanisms by which all waste are biodegraded naturally leaving no toxins in the environment, thus they do not harm the environment in any manner.

4. Gomeya/Cow Dung

According to Ayurveda, Gomeya/cow dung is not a waste product, but it is a purifier of all wastes in the nature [24]. When spread over urban and rural waste in solution form (1:10–1:25 solution), it biodegrades the waste in time. It is a “gold mine” due its wide applications in the field of agriculture, energy resource, environmental protection, and therapeutic applications.

Cow dung is a cheap and easily available rich source of microflora. Though cow dung has been used in several studies, but the breed of cow has not been mentioned. As per Indian Vedic scriptures, cow dung obtained from Indian indigenous cow/Bos indicus/Zebu breed is better than that of other newer breeds. Ideally, the source of cow dung as per Ayurveda should be from a healthy Zebu cow, fed upon healthy diet of pastures including various natural herbs and which has been reared hygienically.

Shranivartan vrtya ne nivartan vrtya Bhumyachshrtrsm prdishstabhyam ena ne vrtya (Rigveda 10, 19, 8 [25])

Rigveda advises man to let the cows graze freely in the meadows in all the four directions everyday without any restrictions.

8. Conclusion

Taking cue from Ayurveda, Gomeya/cow dung acts as an excellent bioremediation method. It is cheap, a economically viable option and is locally available in the rural areas of India. Much more exhaustive studies are required to bioremediate the active pharmaceutical agents especially the ones which are nonbiodegradable and persistors in nature. Thus, the adverse effects of these chemicals on flora and fauna can be minimized for a healthy and safe future. These effects can be further studied and validated as per modern research methodology.

Prana : Dung manure Vs chemical fertilizer

Fertilizer

Difference between manure and chemical fertilizer is as simple as you eat raw grains and cooked rice-dal.

Try eating raw rice dal for some time and observe struggle of your stomach. Do one thing: First eat 10 gm of weekly salt. Then eat 10 gm of each spices. And then some raw vegetables for next day. And third day, uncooked rice. And so on…good meals, right? Try it and see how much stress your digestive track gets.

Same goes with plants when they are treated with raw chemicals as nutrients. This negatively impact their health by two ways

1) Lack of nutrition , Lack of prana, bad health, rapid ageing. By the time they come to your plate, they are dead food. Difficult to digest with no benefits.
2) Lack of prana triggers decay event so mother nature will manage cleaning staff i.e. bacteria. Attack of micro-lives who gather to eat dead chemicals. So pesticides as response and vicious circle goes on.

On the other hand, manure as a fertilizer and cow-urine, cow-butter milk as a pest control, are outcomes from natural/manual churning process. Full of prana. Digestible food. Friendly food. Cooked food. Food that soil loves. Food that bacteria loves.

Digestible (Churned at least once in animal’s digestive system) vs difficult to digest (Raw material)

Full of prana (Treated by animals and humans – high at prana shakti) vs lack of prana (Treated by machines i.e. entities low at prana shakti)

Selection of manure depends upon what plants love to eat. Most plants love Cow-manure in daily food. Do we provide? Well, we are living in critical manure-famine era. There are not enough mother cows to provide enough manure for all plants across all farms of the Nation.

Unless we stop vacuous slaughter of mother, this problem will remain unsolved.

Cow-Dung(Gomeya) as Bioremediation

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Cowdung

Use and misuse of pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and petrochemicals by man is causing havoc with nature. They are hazardous because of potential toxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and genotoxicity.

Honest chemists, farmers and doctors know about this but only handful of them dare to go against the trend.

If you know any of such genuine chemist, farmer or doctor, ask them to connect with Gau shala. Only gau mata has power to rejuvenate nature quickly, effectively and long lastingly free of cost.

Gomeya/cow dung is used as an excellent bioremediation method. Thus, utilizing freely available cow dung as slurry or after composting in rural areas, is a cheap and effective measure to bioremediate the harmful pollutants.

Same dung is excellent medicine and can act as harmless, zero side effect anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-blood pressure medicine.

And if you have any contact with present Govt’s policy makers, give them some lights. They are acting like a moron and want Americanization of healthcare. Stop them now or be ready face dire consequences.


Gau, Ganga and Bioremediation of Pharmaceuticals, Pesticides, and Petrochemicals

Bioremediation of Soil Contaminated with Tannery Effluent by Combined Treatment with Cow Dung and Microorganisms Isolated from Tannery Effluent

Bioremediation potential of a combination of cow dung and a microbial consortium (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus niger) in soil contaminated with tannery effluent, was investigated in the laboratory. Concentrations of phenol, sulphide and ammonium nitrogen in contaminated soil, were significantly reduced (P=0.000) to permissible levels after treatment with microbial consortium, cow dung or combination of microbial consortium and cow dung. Reduction of these compounds was best with combination of microbial consortium and cow dung. Cr (VI) level (139.2 mg/kg) was significantly reduced (P=0.000-0.050) by 33.2, 96.9 and 99.9% after treatment with microbial consortium, cow dung, and combination of consortium and cow dung, respectively. The treatments elevated soil pH from 5.8 to 6.9-7.2. Growth of maize in soil treated with the combination of microbial consortium and cow dung was not significantly different from growth in uncontaminated soil. Cr (VI) concentrations in the maize tissues were very low (0.002-0.006 mg/g). Thus combination of microbial consortium and cow dung may have potential application in bioremediation of soil polluted by tannery wastes.

https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/bioremediation-of-soil-contaminated-with-tannery-effluent-by-combinedtreatment-with-cow-dung-and-microorganisms-isolated-from-tann-2155-6199-1000354.php?aid=77004

Desi Cow’s Dung : Essential fuel for Ayurveda

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CWPcQiEVEAA-lHD

Can you run a diesel car with petrol? Or a petrol car with Kerosene? What if, you do that? What happens to engine?

Similarly, Ayurvedic medicines cannot be prepared with any other fuel but cow-dung. DESI COW DUNG. Period.

It is this vital factor, that is missing in preparation of Ayurvedic medicines now a days and so you see no impact of medicines. From purification of minerals to preparation of ark, fire is necessary and that too slow burning on cow-dung cake. No gas or electric burner can serve the purpose, like the car example I gave above.

Everyday millions of cows are slaughtered as they become useless for owners. Millions of them are forced for pregnancy to satisfy our milk thirst. And Ayurveda becomes irrelevant day by day in upcoming generations.

If there is one thing one can do to stop this nonsense, is SAVE COW and NURTURE COW. LOVE COW.

At least, teach your child a lesson that dung is not bad. Dung is boon! Mother Cow’s boon!

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