Agriculture

Agriculture

Agriculture and Bhishma’s Tips for Rulers

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Tips for all rulers (Central and State govt(s) ) ignoring Agriculture, cows and local small scale industries.

Bhishma – Yudhisthir Conversation from शान्ति पर्व

Tips for Rulers
Tips for Rulers

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कृषिगॊरक्ष्य वाणिज्यं लॊकानाम इह जीवनम |
कृषि, गौरक्षा & वाणिज्य ही प्रजाका जीवन है|
Remember Yudhisthir! Agriculture, cow-protection and business (small scale industries) only are lifelines of the society.

कच चित कृषिकरा राष्ट्रं न जहत्य अति पीडिताः
ये वहन्ति धुरं राज्ञां संभरन्तीतरान अपि
इतॊ दत्तेन जीवन्ति देवा पितृगणास तथा
मनुष्यॊरगरक्षांसि वयांसि पशवस तथा

कही कृषिकार तुम्हारे असह्य आहरणसे पीड़ित हो राष्ट्र छोड़कर तो नहीं जा रहे न? निश्चिंत कृषिकारही राज्यका भरण-पोषण करते है| उनके दिए अन्नसे ही देवता, पितर, मनुष्य, गंधर्व, राक्षस, पशु, पक्षी – सब जीवन धारण करते है|

Are farmers frustrated by your authority and doing mass migration/exodus? Remember again, only farmers sustain the Nation. From deities to humans to beasts to animals to birds – they all have life thanks to farmers!

By ignoring agriculture, cow-protection and small scale industries, we are inviting self-destruction. And like all previous govt(s), this govt too will be known as reason of collapse.

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Will PMO India take a note and act on following issues?

1) Complete ban on cow-slaughter
2) Stop fertilizer and pesticides subsidy as a first step of total STOP on their usage
3) Remove middle tier corruptions in food chain
4) Promote decentralization and local food instead food processing industries

Research: Soil microbes flourish with reduced tillage

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Before farmers were fooled to believe that tractor based farming is the way forward, traditional farmers used various ways of ploughing. From no tilling to precision tilling. Different land, different season, different crop, different tilling. Or No tilling at all.

There was not compulsion yet the outcome was precise, as per the needs of the soil.

Here, Inspector-General of Agriculture in India in 1900 confessed honestly that Indian Agriculture is just perfect. No improvement is needed. 🙂 If I boast about self, you will doubt. Here, a foreigner’s bias-free account.

Perfect blend of blessings by विश्वकर्मा देव & intuitions and hints gifted by माँ अदिति.

And we are taught in school and colleges that Indians were primitive, knew nothing about science and British actually taught them techniques and all by their modern education reforms.

Pre-British, Pre-Industrial farming, Indian Precision Ploughing/tillage
Pre-British, Pre-Industrial farming, Indian Precision Ploughing/tillage

Here is the latest research recommending reduced tillage for flourished microbial communities in soil. Re-confirming ancient scientific practices.


Research


Soil microbes flourish with reduced tillage

http://www.alphagalileo.org/ViewItem.aspx?ItemId=168600&CultureCode=en

Soil Wealth - Microbes
Soil Wealth – Microbes

It’s the microbes that matter most.

Microbes improve soil quality by cycling nutrients and breaking plant residues down into soil organic matter. In an effort to detect consistent patterns across a large geographical area, University of Illinois researchers conducted a meta-analysis of 62 studies examining the effect of tillage on soil microbes. No-till systems had greater soil microbial biomass and enzymatic activity. Tilled systems that used a chisel plow were equivalent to no-till systems, in terms of microbial biomass.

“Soil microbes are the workhorses of the soil. They break down crop residues and release nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and other nutrients back to the soil so they’re plant-available. We want a healthy, diverse microbial community so that those processes can happen and improve our soils,”

For the past several decades, farmers have been abandoning their plows in favor of a practice known as no-till agriculture. Today, about one-third of U.S. farmers are no longer tilling their fields, and still more are practicing conservation tillage—using equipment that only disturbs the soil to a minimal degree. No-till and, to a lesser degree, conservation tillage maintains or improves soil quality by preserving soil structure and moisture, increasing soil organic matter, and providing habitat for soil microbes.

“Helping the soil function better helps your crops grow better, and can also maintain high quality soil for sustainability purposes. In Illinois, we have such great soil; it’s our biggest resource. Farmers can help protect it by making sure the microbial community is healthy.”

Glorious Bharatiya Agriculture – British Observations

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Glorious Bharatiya Agriculture Part 2 : Fallowing process
As observed by British officers.
#IndianAgriFacts (will use this tag to compile all posts on this subject)
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37_10103_S6s

The Greed based farming has no concept of fallowing. A process in which Land left unseeded during a growing season. Yes! deliberate yield break!

This was key method by which the Sun was harvested time to time. When you keep the land fallow without unseeded, mother Earth with the help of local soil microbes and other birds and insects, will cover the land with grass. Call it weeds in your technical language. This helps Mother Earth to replenish herself with enough energy which is used extensively during planned crops.

Research hint: Fallowing = Restoring प्राण for Soil. Not following fallowing means, producing humans every year from your wife. Can you imagine her health? She will die prematurely. At least 4 years gap is suggested between two children. Maximum 4 children as per economic and health capacity. Same gap is needed for Mother Earth too.

In our times, this is not possible without community support. Majority farmers have small piece of land. So for them to help mother Earth, community must support them. That is possible at village level .That is possible only when urbans support them.

Here are the observations by British scientists about benefits reaped by Bombay presidency farmers by this method.

11081042_396853363772911_5479011023929159701_n

Insects, pests and monoculture

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Why insect pests love monocultures, and how plant diversity could change that
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For all Science-fanatic, world-hunger apologetic supporting chemical mono-culture farming.

And same mono-culture is forced on humans as there is wave of globalization going on killing native diversity. Once you start living synthetic global life-style, you are prone to insects and pests, ending life earlier than expected.

We are hitting own legs with axe!

insect pest


Research


Diversity as Natural Pesticide

The problem with monocultures

The problem with monocultures, Wetzel said, is if an insect likes the crop, that insect has a large food supply to draw from all in one place. Conversely, a field containing a variety of plants does not offer a large block of food for the insect, so it will not get the nutrients it needs to survive and thrive.

“A monoculture is like a buffet for plant-eating insects where every dish is delicious,” Wetzel said. “A variable crop is like a buffet where every other dish is nasty.”

https://www.ucdavis.edu/news/diversity-natural-pesticide/

Variability in plant nutrients reduces insect herbivore performance

Left to its own defenses, a farm field growing a variety of plants tends to attract fewer insect pests than a field growing just one type of crop. While scientists and farmers have noted that difference for years, the reasons behind it have been poorly understood.

A study led by the University of California, Davis, and published Oct. 12 in the journal Nature explains that much of the discrepancy may have to do with the nutritional needs of insects. Returning plant diversity to farmland could be a key step toward sustainable pest control.

“Insects have a perfect nutrient level that they really like,” said lead author William Wetzel, a doctoral student in Population Biology at UC Davis at the time of the study and currently an assistant professor at Michigan State University. “When it’s too high or too low, they do poorly.”

Abstract

The performance and population dynamics of insect herbivores depend on the nutritive and defensive traits of their host plants1. The literature on plant–herbivore interactions focuses on plant trait mean values234, but recent studies showing the importance of plant genetic diversity for herbivores suggest that plant trait variance may be equally important56. The consequences of plant trait variance for herbivore performance, however, have been largely overlooked. Here we report an extensive assessment of the effects of within-population plant trait variance on herbivore performance using 457 performance datasets from 53 species of insect herbivores. We show that variance in plant nutritive traits substantially reduces mean herbivore performance via non-linear averaging of performance relationships that were overwhelmingly concave down. By contrast, relationships between herbivore performance and plant defence levels were typically linear, with variance in plant defence not affecting herbivore performance via non-linear averaging. Our results demonstrate that plants contribute to the suppression of herbivore populations through variable nutrient levels, not just by having low average quality as is typically thought. We propose that this phenomenon could play a key role in the suppression of herbivore populations in natural systems, and that increased nutrient heterogeneity within agricultural crops could contribute to the sustainable control of insect pests in agroecosystems.

Pesticide vs Pest-aside : Real cause of pest/pathogens

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Are bacteria responsible for our illness?

Are viruses responsible for our illness?

Are pest destroying crops?
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pesticide-danger-cancer

No. They are Mother nature’s most trusted messengers. They appears only when we create situations for them in our body or in our local environment by our activities.

Nature has different types of creatures, some with long life and some with very short life. Some with micro body and some with giant body combination of trillions and more micro bodies. Formation of them depends upon the specific combination of environmental factors.

So when you are afflicted by the specific bacteria or virus, try to find root change in the environment. And this physical changes are manifestation of more subtle प्राण. Which action, activity or habit caused it. Sometimes it is beyond our control. Sheer nature’s work. Like mass epidemic.

Insects

Insects 2

 

Same is true for growing food.

Understand this comment shared by Gyan Mitra ji on Jagannath Chatterjeeji’s post to realize it.

“This is the PEST niche graph, part of the I.I.T. Bombay PhD thesis 1996 of Dr. Uday S. Bhawalkar, a chemical engineer from the same institute 1973 batch. He is the first person to say that a PEST has an ecological role, and is a Policeman/woman, Inspector and Regulator too. The fire brigade visits only when there is a fire. The same logic applies for PESTS.This graph is rudimentary, and other graphs followed later, which will also be posted. Contrary to popular belief, these pests are not simply hanging around waiting to commit mayhem. They appear only when there is a need by multiplying, else remain very very few. For example, if a PEST appears in a field and starts chewing up the leaves, it simply means that there is nutrient in the leaves, in a related Carbon to Nitrogen ration relating to that particular pest. Industry gets rid of the PEST with poison / pesticide. But this does not address the root cause viz nutrient for the PEST. Eating such food is unsafe because the nutrient for the PEST is toxic for human consumption. Hence, can you see that PESTS also are quality control mechanism of Nature ? Forget pesticide, even if you were able to physically remove the PESTS by hand, its still no good. Therefore, even ‘organic pest control’ is not O.K. Cost effective Eco Technology if retrofitted into the well / bore well takes care of such toxicity and then the food crops grow without pests. Don’t forget that poor air quality causes acid rain which leaches heavy metals from rocks that gets into the crop. The trace heavy metals break down through a ‘ nature chemistry ‘ and invite PESTS. If you can understand what I have written, you will also be able to develop an argument against G.M. crops. I just saw a BBC film speaking for GM and the main goal is stated to produce food for expected 15 Billion people in the future. What is not discussed is that the food is toxic to human homeostasis. When pest free agriculture is possible even without the use of chemical fertilisers, to produce quality food ( one eats less ) which also has natural antidotes to remedy prevailing regional natural pollution, the modern goal of producing poor quality food in quantity without the antidote property is misplaced. Industrial farming is a model created with inputs and active management. There can never be a food shortage because Nature ensures that the food is made available for the life form first. You need to believe this. Also, borewells are bringing up more salts so much more water is needed for irrigation. And then, when the top soil ecology is pristine and appropriate crops are grown, only moisture is needed, NOT water.”

Water management by temples vs Failed bureaucratic green revolution

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Post world war-2, western elites created new issue i.e. world hunger. And to solve the problem, they came up with ‘Green Revolution’.
 
First, the illusory problem and then delusional solution. Hunger was never an issue in localized societies. But without creating this problem, how can you sell the mechanized techniques? 😀
 
I often discuss case studies of Punjab and MP, traditional wheat lands, to understand disaster we invited in name of green revolution.
 
Today, I studied Bali.
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Decentralized Water management by temples vs Failed disconnected bureaucratic green revolution
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10856544_393581287433452_7755063595412147615_o
In the mid-1970s, a young anthropologist, Steve Lansing, arrived in Indonesia to study the ancient rituals of the water temples on the volcanic slopes of Bali.
 
John Steven Lansing is one of the only anthropologists to study agricultural practices in Bali. Through extensive research into Balinese culture, he discovered the cosmology behind much of daily life, including the organization of water irrigation systems.
10557147_393581317433449_3358458540542007010_o
 
For thousands of years, generations of Balinese farmers have transformed their landscape to enable the growth of irrigated rice. Parallel to the physical system of rice terraces and irrigation, intricate networks of shrines and temples are dedicated to agricultural deities.
 
Balinese water temples are instrumental, both as religions markers and as aids to agricultural productivity. Traditional Balinese agricultural practices were based on rituals for the Goddess of the Lake, Dewi Danu, one of the two supreme deities of Bali. The top of Mount Batur has a vast freshwater crater lake that is considered a sacred cosmic map, or mandala, of waters.
Water temples organize community groups and maintain ecological productivity. It will take a book long note to describe this fascinating irrigation practice. Do read at sources [1] [2] [3]
10914721_393581300766784_8022094541364876032_o
 
The green revolution mania uprooted 1000+ years old efficient system. The Green Revolution was an approach to agriculture that involved the use of science and large-scale government to control productivity via the use of new forms of crops. It had a profound effect on the practical use of water temples in Bali, disrupting the balanced cycles of cultivation.
 
Temples were brushed off as religious institutions with no constructive role in boosting rice production. This resulted in an ecological crisis. The Green Revolution in Bali began in 1962, when the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) developed a new high-yielding variety of rice called IR-8. They encouraged its use throughout Asia. The Indonesian government was enthusiastic because it was expected to increase rice production and was responsive to chemical fertilizers (Lansing, 1995).
Countless centuries of clearly thought out irrigation schedules, intrinsically bound with Balinese religious cosmology, had coordinated a magnificent balance between water sharing and pest control. This system was undermined and infiltrated by naïve capitalistic policies in a matter of a decade.
 
The bureaucratic irrigation complex failed because it contradicted the native decentralized system of temple ritual and agriculture in Balinese society. A decentralized planning strategy is beneficial since it tends to favor indirect, non-central government control while empowering local people by giving them command over their project (Ralston, Anderson, and Colson 113). The water temples create a decentralized system in which priests and farmers control the land under a religious hierarchy rather than the central government. Scientists and economic policy makers who designed the Green Revolution did not consider the viewpoint of farmers, the very individuals who were the project’s main beneficiaries.
Along with our own several disasters, it is lesson to learn for Indian agriculture.
 
[1] https://www.hamilton.edu/documents//levitt-center/Melowsky_article.pdf
[2] http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/Anthro129/balinesewatertemplesJonathanSepe.htm
[3] http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/2/83df61cc-caf2-11e1-8872-00144feabdc0.html#axzz3UJiP0H2z

Cow Urine, Ganga and Plant Sickness Management

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Cow urine
Cow urine

Modern agriculture like modern medicine maps plant sickness with deficiency of specific element. It is so reductionist and limited world view that despite applying treatment, sickness resurfaces after sometime.
Solution for cellular stress sickness (Viral/bacterial) is not just nutrients replenishment but ability to balance tridosha of the plant. If tridosha are not balanced as per nature of the plant, plant won’t be able to digest physical nutrients.

As we discussed in this post (http://prachodayat.in/ganga-catalyst-balances-tridosha/) , Maa Ganga has magical property of balancing tridosha of the organism. In absence of river Ganga’s water, we have same property available in desi Gau mata’s mutra Prasad.

Gau mutra can balance tridosha of any organism that digest it. Besides, it also increases Apana Vayu so that toxic elimination/metabolic waste by plants become active again. Farming without gau mutra is pseudo-science for Bharatiya Krishi. Inspire more and more farmers to go back to roots and save them from committing suicide. Without Maa Ganga’s blessings, how can we survive?

Saving Maa Ganga = Saving Gau mata = Abhyudaya (rising sun ) of Maa Bharti.

Cow Blessings, Inflorescence and Agriculture

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Flowering

There is one thing that is not in farmer’s hand is inflorescence (The time and process of budding and unfolding of blossoms) . It is not predictable event. Time, quantity and quality – nothing can be predicted.

To ensure blessed blossoms, it is important to performs processes that are in our hands. Farmer takes care of processes that are in his hand meticulously.

What do farmers do (or should do)?

Seed Treatment by cow dung
Seed Treatment by cow dung

“The seeds should be taken up in palms, greased with ghee and submerged in milk with greased fingers and mass separated into single seeds! This process is to be repeated on 10 successive days.

Then the seeds are to be rubbed with cow dung.

And such prepared seeds to be sprinkled with noble thoughts and love.”

Above method is described by a farmer friend.

In short, farming processes mentioned in various scriptures (Kautilya arthshahstra, Atharva Veda, Varahamihir to name few) demands certain things from a farmer

1) Individual care of each seed.
2) Extensive usage of Gau-substances
3) Patience

In our time of mass communication, we miss this attention to individuals; attention to individual seed? Impossible.
Patience? Impossible. Protecting gau? Difficult.

Should we expect real satvik food when we ignore all of this?

Synthetic Fertilizer : Opium that kills ecology

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1661845_392198780905036_8536944391997415794_n

Nehru govt was the most retarded govt in our history who introduced artificial fertilizer units across country and destroyed fertility of the land.

All because of fanatic obsession with western masters life.

One more aspect that green revolution apologists must read. This ostrich vision is right now guiding prime minister of India so we must act, educate farmers and raise their voice.

No agriculture university in India is doing such independent researchers. Forget about them educating farmers.

Prime Minister, in his recent speech did mention over-use of NPK formula but on the other hand he also promoted Genetically modified bananas! So I consider his stand deceptive as far as agriculture matters.

As per this research, when exposed to nitrogen fertilizer over a period of years, nitrogen-fixing bacteria called rhizobia evolve to become less beneficial to legumes — the plants they normally serve, researchers report in a new study.

Researchers call it -> “far-reaching ecological and environmental consequences,”

Havoc is already been implemented on India soil

Not that long ago, before the advent of industrial fertilizers and the widespread use of fossil fuels, soil nitrogen was a scarce commodity. Some plants, the legumes, found a way to procure the precious nitrogen they needed — from rhizobia.

“The rhizobia fix nitrogen — from atmospheric nitrogen that we’re breathing in and out all the time — to plant-available forms,” Heath said. “Plants can’t just take it up from the atmosphere; they have to get it in the form of nitrate or ammonium.”

Nitrogen

In return, legumes shelter the rhizobia in their roots and supply them with carbon. This partnership benefits the bacteria and gives legumes an advantage in nitrogen-poor soils. Previous studies have shown that nitrogen fertilizers can affect the diversity of species that grow in natural areas, Heath said. In areas polluted with fertilizer runoff, for example, legumes decline while other plants become more common.

What exactly is happening?
We are changing the प्राणिक footprints of the local environment. And this is no way helping crops. We are killing natural mutualisms. This is not science but moronic pseudo-science.


Research


Long-term nitrogen fertilizer use disrupts plant-microbe mutualisms

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN

When exposed to nitrogen fertilizer over a period of years, nitrogen-fixing bacteria called rhizobia evolve to become less beneficial to legumes – the plants they normally serve, researchers report in a new study.

These findings, reported in the journal Evolution, may be of little interest to farmers, who generally grow only one type of plant and can always add more fertilizer to boost plant growth. But in natural areas adjacent to farmland, where fertilizer runoff occurs, or in areas where nitrogen oxides from the burning of fossil fuels settle, a change in the quality of soil rhizobia could have “far-reaching ecological and environmental consequences,” the researchers wrote.

“The nitrogen that we apply to agricultural fields doesn’t stay on those fields, and atmospheric nitrogen deposition doesn’t stay by the power plant that generates it,” said University of Illinois plant biology professor Katy Heath , who led the study with Jennifer Lau , of Michigan State University. “So this work is not just about a fertilized soybean field. Worldwide, the nitrogen cycle is off. We’ve changed it fundamentally.”

Not that long ago, before the advent of industrial fertilizers and the widespread use of fossil fuels, soil nitrogen was a scarce commodity. Some plants, the legumes, found a way to procure the precious nitrogen they needed – from rhizobia.

“The rhizobia fix nitrogen – from atmospheric nitrogen that we’re breathing in and out all the time – to plant-available forms,” Heath said. “Plants can’t just take it up from the atmosphere; they have to get it in the form of nitrate or ammonium.”

In return, legumes shelter the rhizobia in their roots and supply them with carbon. This partnership benefits the bacteria and gives legumes an advantage in nitrogen-poor soils. Previous studies have shown that nitrogen fertilizers can affect the diversity of species that grow in natural areas, Heath said. In areas polluted with fertilizer runoff, for example, legumes decline while other plants become more common.

In the new analysis, Heath and her colleagues looked at six long-term ecological research fields at Michigan State University’s Kellogg Biological Station. Two experimental plots were located in each of six different fields. One plot in each field had been fertilized with nitrogen for more than two decades; the other, a control plot, had never been fertilized.

The researchers isolated rhizobia from the nodules of legumes in fertilized and unfertilized plots. In a greenhouse experiment, they tested how these bacteria influenced legume growth and health. The researchers found that the plants grown with the nitrogen-exposed rhizobia produced 17 to 30 percent less biomass and significantly less chlorophyll than plants grown with rhizobia from the unfertilized plots.

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-02/uoia-lnf022315.php

Varna System, Geology ,Farming & Your Food, Your health

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Soil and Varna
Soil and Varna

Below text from Author निघंटु is talking about 4 types of soils. He classified soil as ब्राह्मण,क्षत्रिय,वैश्य & शुद्र. Not only soil, he classified trees and plants in very same 4 categories! Not only soil, plants, trees , he also classified animals in 4 categories! According to our pseudo media tyrants, he is castiest! So narrow-minded as he divided even land! Even he identifies colors! Black is for Shudra! Protest! Black and Dalits! What a castiest man निघंटु was!

======================

This type of utter ignorance goes on in society when habit of cursory reading is common and popular.

 

तत्र क्षेत्रे ब्रह्मभूमीरुहाढ्यं वारिस्फारं यत्कुशाङ्कूरकीर्णं  ।

रम्यं यच्च श्वेतमृत्स्नासमेतं तद्व्याचष्टे ब्राह्मं इत्यष्टमूर्तिः  । । १.९

 

It is Brahman land where there are ample trees, ample water sources and where majority color is पांडू or white.

 

ताम्रभूमिवलयं विभूधरं यन्मृगेन्द्रमुखसंकुलं कुलं  ।

घोरघोषि खदिरादिदुर्गमं क्षात्रं एतदुदितं पिनाकिना  । । १.१०

 

It is Kshtriya land where metal color dominates in nature, mountains, lions and other animals roaring voice stay.

 

शातकुम्भनिभभूमिभास्वरं स्वर्णरेणुनिचितं विधानवत् ।

सिद्धकिंनरसुपर्वसेवितं वैश्यं आख्यदिदं इन्दुशेखरः  । । १.११

 

It is Vaishya land where yellow color dominates in nature, golden land, golden flowers etc.

 

श्यामस्थलाढ्यं बहुशस्यभूतिदं लसत्तृणैर्बब्बुलवृक्षवृद्धिदं  ।

धान्योद्भवैः कर्षकलोकहर्षदं जगाद शौद्रं जगतौ वृषध्वजः  । । १.१२

 

It is Shudra land where soil is of black color, suitable for small plants & grains.

 

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द्रव्यं क्षेत्रादुदितं अनघं ब्राह्म तत्सिद्धिदायि क्षत्रादुत्थं वलिपलितजिद्विश्वरोगापहारि  ।

वैश्याज्जातं प्रभवतितरां धातुलोहादिसिद्धौ शौद्रादेतज्जनितं अखिलव्याधिविद्रावकं द्राक् । । १.१३

 

“Food substances grown on Brahman land are good for increasing intellectual vigor(Brain’s color whitish Gray due to Glial cells), grown on Kshtriya land(Jungle) are strength-enhancers (Tribes played vital role in Ancient Army strength), grown on gold land are good for mineral deficiency (Vegetables are generally grown on yellow land), grown on shudra land are good to fight against dieseases (Grains and Ayurvedic herbals – A valuable Ayurvedic  ingredient Ajwain is cultivated in black soil).”

 

Land color depends on their chemical nature. For example, as black soil has Volcanic origin, it is rich in calcium carbonate, lime , potash & magnesium.It is deffecient in phosphoric acid.

 

Food from Shudra land fights against dieseases.This food is good for immune system.Shudra land is rich in Magnesium. During the last few years, magnesium (Mg) has been subject of research due to its functionality in the organism. It is one of the most important micronutrients, and therefore its role in biological systems has been extensively investigated. Particularly, Mg has a strong relation with the immune system, in both nonspecific and specific immune response, also known as innate and acquired immune response.

 

Do you protest this scientific वर्ण व्यवस्था! Or are you ready to explore वर्ण व्यवस्था, systematic rational approach of living?

 

PS: Sanskrit translation is nearly accurate, not exact. That is my deficiency.

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