Agriculture

Agriculture

Agnihotra Impact on Crops

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Some more connecting dots evidences about Homa/Agnihotra’s positive impact on crops.

As per paper 1 [1], Nitric oxide plays a central role in determining lateral root development in tomato.

As per paper 2 [2] Agnihotra promotes root length and overall rice seeds germination

Cow dung is full of Nitric Oxide metabolites. Ghee helps in diffuse NO in local environment.


Research

[1] http://www.cas.miamioh.edu/~meicenrd/pdevlmnt/stdpresents/tomato.pdf
 
[2] http://nopr.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/9356/1/IJTK%203%283%29%20231-239.pdf

Agnihotra NitrixOxide

To bee or not to be : Agri Tech, Diesel Fume and Bees

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Ideal Agriculture vs Stressful Agriculture
Ideal Agriculture vs Stressful Agriculture

Even if bees want to help in pollination, they cannot. Why? Because we use diesel tractors everywhere for farming! And the fume that is being emitted alters scent that bees seek.

So half of the scents are lost. Forget honey, pollination is affected. Crop yield reduction.

“People rely on bees and pollinating insects for a large proportion of our food, yet humans have paid the bees back with habitat destruction, insecticides, climate change and air pollution.”

Is it not hara-kiri to promote self-destructing technologies @ farms ? Tractor is costly and destructive shortcut.

Only solution we have to become सात्विक अन्नबाहुल्य राष्ट्र is to worship and take help from गौ माता!

Mantra for being sattvik world power : अन्नबाहुल्य

We have all संभावना. गौ, गंगा (त्रिदोषहर water in abundance) & गौरी (जमीन) to help us. Better late than never. Revive Agriculture. If we produce सात्विक धान्य for all, we will actually transform corrupted world-psyche in to सत्त्व. It is actually a 7 generation process. We have to start somewhere. Anytime is a good time to start. Sooner the better.

But instead, what do we support as a society?

Male calf? Useless for milk , send him to slaughter!

World without bees
World without bees

Research


SCENTS AND SENSE ABILITY: DIESELS FUMES ALTER HALF THE FLOWER SMELLS BEES NEED

https://www.reading.ac.uk/news-and-events/releases/PR649662.aspx

In polluted environments, diesel fumes may be reducing the availability of almost half the most common flower odours that bees use to find their food, research has found.

The new findings suggest that toxic nitrous oxide (NOx) in diesel exhausts could be having an even greater effect on bees’ ability to smell out flowers than was previously thought.

NOx is a poisonous pollutant produced by diesel engines which is harmful to humans, and has also previously been shown to confuse bees’ sense of smell, which they rely on to sniff out their food.

Researchers from the University of Southampton and the University of Reading found that there is now evidence to show that, of the eleven most common single compounds in floral odours, five have can be chemically altered by exposure to NOx gases from exhaust fumes.

Lead author Dr Robbie Girling, from the University of Reading’s Centre for Agri-Environmental Research, said: “Bees are worth millions to the British economy alone, but we know they have been in decline worldwide.

“We don’t think that air pollution from diesel vehicles is the main reason for this decline, but our latest work suggests that it may have a worse effect on the flower odours needed by bees than we initially thought.

“People rely on bees and pollinating insects for a large proportion of our food, yet humans have paid the bees back with habitat destruction, insecticides, climate change and air pollution.

“This work highlights that pollution from dirty vehicles is not only dangerous to people’s health, but could also have an impact on our natural environment and the economy.”

Co-author Professor Guy Poppy, from Biological Sciences at the University of Southampton, said: “It is becoming clear that bees are at risk from a range of stresses from neonicitinoid insecticides through to varroa mites. Our research highlights that a further stress could be the increasing amounts of vehicle emissions affecting air quality. Whilst it is unlikely that these emissions by themselves could be affecting bee populations, combined with the other stresses, it could be the tipping point.”

This latest research is part of continuing studies into the effects of air pollution on bees. Previous work in 2013 found that bees in the lab could be confused by the effects of diesel pollution. Dr Girling and Dr Tracey Newman from the University of Southampton are currently studying how diesel fumes may have direct effects on the bees themselves.

The Effects of Diesel Exhaust Pollution on Floral Volatiles and the Consequences for Honey Bee Olfaction

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10886-015-0624-4

There is growing evidence of a substantial decline in pollinators within Europe and North America, most likely caused by multiple factors such as diseases, poor nutrition, habitat loss, insecticides, and environmental pollution. Diesel exhaust could be a contributing factor to this decline, since we found that diesel exhaust rapidly degrades floral volatiles, which honey bees require for flower recognition. In this study, we exposed eight of the most common floral volatiles to diesel exhaust in order to investigate whether it can affect volatile mediated plant-pollinator interaction. Exposure to diesel exhaust altered the blend of common flower volatiles significantly: myrcene was considerably reduced, β-ocimene became undetectable, and β-caryophyllene was transformed into its cis-isomer isocaryophyllene. Proboscis extension response (PER) assays showed that the alterations of the blend reduced the ability of honey bees to recognize it. The chemically reactive nitrogen oxides fraction of diesel exhaust gas was identified as capable of causing degradation of floral volatiles.

Environment, not genes, at work

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“A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques. GMOs are the source of genetically modified foods and are also widely used in scientific research and to produce goods other than food.”

Most GMO apologists are using 20th century science of genes to prove their points. Reductionism and over-mechanized compartment-wise study of organism has led science world to the great delusion of Gene centric control of the organism.
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Part 1 : Environment and NOT Genes shape our life
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Biologists know this very well: “Embryo development (ontogeny) depends on developmental gene regulatory networks (dGRNs), but dGRNs depend on preexisting spatial anisotropies that are defined by early embryonic axes, and those axes are established long before the embryo’s dGRNs are put in place. DNA sequences do not specify the final functional forms of most membrane components. Still less does DNA specify the spatial arrangements of those components. Yet their spatial arrangements carry essential ontogenetic information. The fact that membrane patterns carry ontogenetic information that is not specified by DNA poses a problem for any theory of evolution (such as Neo-Darwinism) that attributes the origin of evolutionary novelties to changes in a genetic program—whether at the level of DNA sequences or dGRNs.”[1]
In short, development of new cells depends more on Membrane Patterns than genes at the center. Membrane Patterns are formed based on epigenetic factors and cell-cell communication.

Unfortunately, we are taught in Biology that genes control us ever since Watson and Crick proposed Genes dogma. So there is apathy and doubt related to epigenetic factors (Non-genetic factors controlling and shaping our lives) not limited to stress-free mind, stress-free social environment, natural habitat, pets, animals, plants – they all play a role in helping us regaining healthy state back.

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Part 2 : Plants, yield, immunity
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Now, let us come to plants. Let me cite example of popular Green Revolution hero IR8 variety of rice. Plants like IR8 succeeded in protecting humanity against global famine and were hailed as part of the “Green Revolution” in agriculture. How, we will see shortly.
In the meantime, however, the yields from IR8 have declined by around 15 percent, and the cultivation of this previously very promising plant is no longer seen as worthwhile.

The dwarf rice variety lacks an enzyme that is required for the production of the plant growth hormone gibberellic acid; without gibberellic acid, the rice plant remains short but strong and high-yielding. Although nothing has changed in the genetic makeup of the IR8 rice plant in the past 50 years, its yields have declined continuously.

Do you want to know the reason why?

Change in environment. Global increase of CO2 made IR8 to produce continuously declined yield. After all, the current concentration of the greenhouse gas in the atmosphere is 25 percent higher than in the 1960s.
Using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (generally known as thale cress), the researchers were able to observe that a higher carbon dioxide concentration results in the unblocking of the capacity of dwarf plant to form gibberellic acid. The carbon dioxide appears to have the same growth-stimulating effect as that triggered by the gibberellic acid. Thus, in the experiment, the dwarf plants gradually lost their advantage and increasingly resembled the control plants. [2]

Despite having genes, IR8 is impotent. As I shared in part 1 of the note, it is not gene but the environment (epigenetical factors) that controls the organism)

Apart from CO2 , many factors work. Modern Agri science knows this very well but since they want to do business, they don’t reveal this fact to the world and govt(s).

So when GMO varieties will be introduced, Seller Company will come up with specific environmental conditions to maintain. And to do that, farmers will have to buy their fertilizers and pesticides. In some cases, despite all of this, yield will fail as no one has control over Mother Nature and so company will blame farmers for not following instructions. 😀
Bt Cotton in Gujarat has ruined many farmers and Monsanto blamed farmers for not following the procedures! 😀 [3]

Need of the hour is not to introduce yet another fancy variety of seeds and controlled environment goodies (Pesticides, Fertilizers, Processes to bankrupt farmers so that they sell everything and invite corporate farming where they can participate in slavery) but to stabilize environment, purify soil and bring back diversity which can give yield in abundance naturally. I see Bos Indicus emerging as Kamdhenu once again for this task.

[1] Membrane Patterns Carry Ontogenetic Information That Is Specifid Independently of DNA – Jonathan Wells, Biologic Institute, Redmond, Washington, USA. Bio-complexity journal

[2] http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/160/4/1781

[3] http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/bt-cotton-ineffective-against-pest-in-parts-of-gujarat-admits-monsanto/article183353.ece

Water management by temples vs Failed bureaucratic green revolution

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Post world war-2, western elites created new issue i.e. world hunger. And to solve the problem, they came up with ‘Green Revolution’.
 
First, the illusory problem and then delusional solution. Hunger was never an issue in localized societies. But without creating this problem, how can you sell the mechanized techniques? 😀
 
I often discuss case studies of Punjab and MP, traditional wheat lands, to understand disaster we invited in name of green revolution.
 
Today, I studied Bali.
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Decentralized Water management by temples vs Failed disconnected bureaucratic green revolution
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In the mid-1970s, a young anthropologist, Steve Lansing, arrived in Indonesia to study the ancient rituals of the water temples on the volcanic slopes of Bali.
 
John Steven Lansing is one of the only anthropologists to study agricultural practices in Bali. Through extensive research into Balinese culture, he discovered the cosmology behind much of daily life, including the organization of water irrigation systems.
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For thousands of years, generations of Balinese farmers have transformed their landscape to enable the growth of irrigated rice. Parallel to the physical system of rice terraces and irrigation, intricate networks of shrines and temples are dedicated to agricultural deities.
 
Balinese water temples are instrumental, both as religions markers and as aids to agricultural productivity. Traditional Balinese agricultural practices were based on rituals for the Goddess of the Lake, Dewi Danu, one of the two supreme deities of Bali. The top of Mount Batur has a vast freshwater crater lake that is considered a sacred cosmic map, or mandala, of waters.
Water temples organize community groups and maintain ecological productivity. It will take a book long note to describe this fascinating irrigation practice. Do read at sources [1] [2] [3]
10914721_393581300766784_8022094541364876032_o
 
The green revolution mania uprooted 1000+ years old efficient system. The Green Revolution was an approach to agriculture that involved the use of science and large-scale government to control productivity via the use of new forms of crops. It had a profound effect on the practical use of water temples in Bali, disrupting the balanced cycles of cultivation.
 
Temples were brushed off as religious institutions with no constructive role in boosting rice production. This resulted in an ecological crisis. The Green Revolution in Bali began in 1962, when the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) developed a new high-yielding variety of rice called IR-8. They encouraged its use throughout Asia. The Indonesian government was enthusiastic because it was expected to increase rice production and was responsive to chemical fertilizers (Lansing, 1995).
Countless centuries of clearly thought out irrigation schedules, intrinsically bound with Balinese religious cosmology, had coordinated a magnificent balance between water sharing and pest control. This system was undermined and infiltrated by naïve capitalistic policies in a matter of a decade.
 
The bureaucratic irrigation complex failed because it contradicted the native decentralized system of temple ritual and agriculture in Balinese society. A decentralized planning strategy is beneficial since it tends to favor indirect, non-central government control while empowering local people by giving them command over their project (Ralston, Anderson, and Colson 113). The water temples create a decentralized system in which priests and farmers control the land under a religious hierarchy rather than the central government. Scientists and economic policy makers who designed the Green Revolution did not consider the viewpoint of farmers, the very individuals who were the project’s main beneficiaries.
Along with our own several disasters, it is lesson to learn for Indian agriculture.
 
[1] https://www.hamilton.edu/documents//levitt-center/Melowsky_article.pdf
[2] http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/Anthro129/balinesewatertemplesJonathanSepe.htm
[3] http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/2/83df61cc-caf2-11e1-8872-00144feabdc0.html#axzz3UJiP0H2z

वर्ण व्यवस्था in Forest : Danger of exotic monocropping

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boardman-tree-farm-125

The researchers found that while the effects of local tree species loss were highly variable, the effects of biotic homogenization were almost always detrimental for provisioning of multiple ecosystem services. This means that landscapes containing more dissimilar forests provide more ecosystem services than landscapes where all forest patches were dominated by the same tree species.

It is वर्ण व्यवस्था of trees. When it is maintained, they can sustain each other for eternity. We are no different from them. We used to live in dissimilar congregation. We call it -> “Village”.

For farmers planning for Agro-forestry, I suggest to take care of implementing idea of dissimilar forestry instead of mono-culture forestry of high yielding trees.


Research and News


Researchers find dissimilar forests are vital for delivery of ecosystem services

link: https://www.royalholloway.ac.uk/aboutus/newsandevents/news/newsarticles/researchers-find-dissimilar-forests-are-vital-for-delivery-of-ecosystem-services.aspx

A team of ecologists from Royal Holloway, University of London has taken part in a large collaborative EU project to find out what the effects of forest tree species diversity are on ecosystem services. These services, which include timber production, carbon storage, and forest resistance to pests and diseases, are crucial to human well-being.

One of the key novel findings of the project published yesterday (March 14) in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, is the consistently negative impact a similarity in tree species composition across the landscape (biotic homogenization) has on the ability of forests to deliver multiple ecosystem services.

Forests are becoming dominated by a small number of tree species as a result of species extinctions, tree species selection by forest managers, and invasions or planting of exotic species. This process of biotic homogenization is similar to cultural globalization with the global consumer market becoming dominated by the small number of chains (the so-called McDonald’s Effect).

Researchers from Royal Holloway’s School of Biological Sciences worked collaboratively with 29 other institutions and combined field data from 209 forest plots across six European countries (Germany, Finland, Poland, Romania, Italy and Spain) with computer simulations to study the consequences of both local tree species loss and biotic homogenization on 16 ecosystem functions, including timber production, carbon storage, bird diversity, forest regeneration and resistance to insect and mammalian pests.

The researchers found that while the effects of local tree species loss were highly variable, the effects of biotic homogenization were almost always detrimental for provisioning of multiple ecosystem services. This means that landscapes containing more dissimilar forests provide more ecosystem services than landscapes where all forest patches were dominated by the same tree species. This is because different tree species are needed to provide different services; for example, in Poland, the Norway spruce provides high quality timber whereas hornbeam forests are better at supporting the diversity of attractive plant species in the understorey that may appeal to tourists.

 

Agriculture In Water Stressed Terrain

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WaterStressedCow

All Utopians criticizing beef ban, remember one thing : Without her, situation will be worse than predicted.

And all who are rejoicing for MH-Law, don’t stop here! Come out from your homes, do Gupt daan to farmers and inspire them to do Gau-based farming!

At least, spend 10% of your earning in Cow-protection. Both your time and money. Must!

All your idealistic human rights ideas will become dust when tap at home won’t give water!

Read this:

गोबर की खाद जब हम खेत मे डालते है तो होता क्या है ?? दरअसल गोबर जो है वो बहुत तरह के जीव जन्तुओ का भोजन है और यूरिया भोजन नहीं जहर है आपके खेत मे एक जीव होता है जिसे केंचुआ कहते हैं केंचुआ को कभी पकड़ना और उसके ऊपर थोड़ा यूरिया डाल देना आप देखोगे केंचुआ तरफना शुरू हो जाएगा और तुरंत मर जाएगा ! जब हम टनों टन यूरिया खेत मे डालते है करोड़ो केंचुए मार डाले हमने यूरिया डाल डाल के !!
केंचुआ करता क्या है ?? केंचुए मिट्टी को नरम बनाते है पोला बनाते है उपजाऊ बनाते हैं केंचुए का कम क्या है ?? ऊपर से नीचे जाना ,नीचे से ऊपर आना पूरे दिन मे तीन चार चक्कर वो ऊपर से नीचे ,नीचे से ऊपर लगा देता है ! अब जब केंचुआ नीचे जाता तो एक रास्ता बनाते हुए जाता है और जब फिर ऊपर आता है तो फिर एक रास्ता बनाते हुए ऊपर आता है ! तो इसका परिणाम ये होता है की ये छोटे छोटे छिद्र जब केंचुआ तैयार कर देता है तो बारिश का पानी एक एक बूंद इन छिद्रो से होते हुए तल मे जमा हो जाता है !
मतलब water recharging का काम पूरी दुनिया मे कोई करता है तो वो केंचुआ है जो यूरिया के कारण मर जाता है इसलिए यूरिया डालना मतलब किसान के लिए आत्मह्त्या करने के बराबर है ! जिस किसान के खेत मे यूरिया डालेगा तो केंचुआ मर जाएगा केंचुआ मर गया तो मिट्टी मे ऊपर नीचे कोई जाएगा नहीं तो मिट्टी कठोर होती जाएगी कड़क होती जाएगी मिट्टी और रोटी के बारे एक बात कही जाती है की इन्हे फेरते रहो नहीं तो खत्म हो जाती है रोटी को फेरना बंद किया तो जल जाती है मिट्टी को फेरना बंद करो पत्थर जैसी हो जाती है !
मिट्टी को फेरने का मतलब समझते है ?? ऊपर की मिट्टी नीचे ! नीचे की ऊपर !ऊपर की नीचे ,नीचे की ऊपर ये केंचुआ ही करता है ! केंचुआ किसान का सबसे बड़ा दोस्त है ! एक केंचुआ साल भर जिंदा रहे तो एक वर्ष मे 36 मीट्रिक टन मिट्टी को उल्ट पलट कर देता है और उतनी ही मिट्टी को ट्रैक्टर से उल्ट पलट करना पड़े तो सौ लीटर डीजल लग जाता है 100 लीटर डीजल 4800 का है ! मतलब एक केंचुआ एक किसान का 4800 रूपये बचा रहा है ऐसे करोड़ो केंचुए है सोचो कितना लाभ हो रहा है इस देश को !


3 Maps Explain India’s Growing Water Risks


India is one of the most water-challenged countries in the world, from its deepest aquifers to its largest rivers.

Groundwater levels are falling as India’s farmers, city residents and industries drain wells and aquifers. What water is available is often severely polluted. And the future may only be worse, with the national supply predicted to fall 50 percent below demand by 2030.

Enter the India Water Tool 2. 0. The new web platform is the most comprehensive, publicly available online tool evaluating India’s water risks. Created by a group of companies, research organizations, and industry associations—including WRI and coordinated by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD)—the tool can help companies, government agencies, and other water users identify their most pressing challenges and carefully target water-risk management efforts.

The tool illustrates the depth and breadth of India’s water-related challenges. A few trends emerge:

54 Percent of India Faces High to Extremely High Water Stress

The map below illustrates competition between companies, farms and people for surface water in rivers, lakes, streams, and shallow groundwater. Red and dark-red areas are highly or extremely highly stressed, meaning that more than 40 percent of the annually available surface water is used every year.

Read more: http://www.wri.org/blog/2015/02/3-maps-explain-india%E2%80%99s-growing-water-risks

Cow vs Buffalo : Economics perspective

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No automatic alt text available.

1) A buffalo matures on the avg. 1 year later than a good Indian milch bred cow
2) The dry period i.e. The time when she goes dry and up to the time she calves again, is more than thrice of buffalo that of a cow.
3) A good India bred cow gives more milk than buffalo (Pure Gir Cows give 40 to 50 ltrs per day)
4) The Male calves of the buffalo are practically useless for agricultural purpose, unlike male cow.
5) According to veterinary doctors, buffalo is more susceptible to diseases than a cow
6) Buffalo feels heat and cold much more which results in deterioration of milk yield. This is not the case with Cow.
7) According to veterinary doctors, the only point favors Buffalo is that she gives higher % of fat milk but if all production details are taken care, good Cow beats her in event that.

– Dr Sardar Datar singh

Buffalo milk is hard to digest for a person of any age, because the excess fat in buffalo milk when it forms soap in the intestine, is hard to digest with the usual amount of salts, and it takes the deficient quantity of the mineral salts from bones, which are consequently weakened. This does not occur in the digestion of cow milk. Carbohydrate : Fat : Albuminiods ratio in animal milk and comparison of same to human milk helps to decipher this and find best suitable milk.

Mono-cultured forestry : Greedy Society’s Environmental Activism

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MixedForest
Not sure if you came across, but I did came across govt schemes and private plans to do agro-forestry. Nothing but growing series of trees in mono-culture way, forest by definition only. On paper forest.
Mixed forests are more productive than monocultures. This is true on all five continents, and particularly in regions with high precipitation.
Reforesting strategy by GDP-driven society and govt will always be based on economic value of the trees. So, they will plant only economically valuable trees. Not only that, they will also apply mono-culture approach used in modern agriculture.
 
What is naturalized, cannot substitute natural. Simple. Period.
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Research
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Mixed forests: ecologically and economically superior

“We know of the many advantages of mixed forests,” states Professor Hans Pretzsch, co-author of the study and author of a recently released, internationally acclaimed book on the ecology and management of mixed-species stands. “Mixed-species forests are ecologically more valuable as versatile habitats. They mitigate climate change, as they mean a higher carbon sink.”

Trees in mixed-species forests are often better supplied with light, water, and soil nutrients via their complementary crown and root systems. “This makes mixed stands more resilient during dry years. In addition, they are more stable against pests and visually more appealing,” adds Prof. Pretzsch from the Chair of Forest Growth and Yield Science in Weihenstephan.

But these arguments alone have not yet managed to convince forestry management to promote mixed-species stands. This meta-analysis and overview study now shows that a prudent selection of the combination of tree species leads not only to more ecological and resilient forests, but also to greater productivity, explains Pretzsch. The study documents that mixed stands perform better in terms of productivity than monocultures, particularly in areas with favorable water supplies, such as in Central Europe.

https://www.tum.de/en/about-tum/news/press-releases/detail/article/34635/
 

Cow Urine, Ganga and Plant Sickness Management

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Cow urine
Cow urine

Modern agriculture like modern medicine maps plant sickness with deficiency of specific element. It is so reductionist and limited world view that despite applying treatment, sickness resurfaces after sometime.
Solution for cellular stress sickness (Viral/bacterial) is not just nutrients replenishment but ability to balance tridosha of the plant. If tridosha are not balanced as per nature of the plant, plant won’t be able to digest physical nutrients.

As we discussed in this post (http://prachodayat.in/ganga-catalyst-balances-tridosha/) , Maa Ganga has magical property of balancing tridosha of the organism. In absence of river Ganga’s water, we have same property available in desi Gau mata’s mutra Prasad.

Gau mutra can balance tridosha of any organism that digest it. Besides, it also increases Apana Vayu so that toxic elimination/metabolic waste by plants become active again. Farming without gau mutra is pseudo-science for Bharatiya Krishi. Inspire more and more farmers to go back to roots and save them from committing suicide. Without Maa Ganga’s blessings, how can we survive?

Saving Maa Ganga = Saving Gau mata = Abhyudaya (rising sun ) of Maa Bharti.

पुत्रगोष्ठी : Learn Zero Budget Vegetable Farming

This is my conversation with 5 years old son. His learning diary. Old posts can be read here : http://prachodayat.in/category/kathan-diary/ or on Facebook tag https://www.facebook.com/hashtag/kathandiary?source=feed_text

After a long break, we got a chance to visit our Gau shala this week. It was great feeling to see Ocra (lady-finger) grown up so fast and healthy in last 1 month’s rain! All of them are matured now. Flowering is started. Some of them have early fruits too! Wow!

This is one vegetable that is grown across India with heavy pesticide usage and here we have Zero Budget Ocra! Yes, there are insects and pests but Cow-dung and urine based treatment is enough!

Our farmer friend and Gau-palak explained us, how to make जीवामृत!

Ocra_1 Ocra_2 Ocra_3 Ocra_4

Jivamrut reference: http://palekarzerobudgetspiritualfarming.org/jiwamrita.aspx

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