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What has been deliberately suppressed by the Western Scholars rooted in the Eurocentric Anti-Hindu tradition is that the Keladi King Basava Bhupala produced the first ever Encyclopedia of the World in any language, Sivatattva Ratnakara in Sanskrit in 1699—29 years before the first Encyclopedia in English by Ephraim Chambers in 1728 and 52 years before the first Encyclopedia in the French Language by Denis Diderot in 1751.

The Sansrkirt Encyclopedia of Basava Bhupala published in 1699 was in no way less detailed or less verstile than the encyclopedia of Ephraim Chambers in English published in 1728 (London) or Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers of Denis Diderot in French published in 1751 (Paris).

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Here is something about water from this encyclopedia.

This encyclopedia narrates the following facts:

[1] Formation of clouds,
[2] direction of rainfall, and its Characteristics Effect of air on clouds and rainfall
[3] Rain forecast Ground Water,
[4] Correlation between the plants and water bodies Types of water and its quality Collection and preservation of potable water

Formation of clouds according to the author the formation of cloud takes place due to the union of water particles, fog, air, and fire (heat produced due to friction or difference in temperature) and pours down to ground in the form of rain, with the air pressure, they pour water about six months with the intension to do welfare to all the beings on earth. It is almost in the same manner the rainfall of a Water Year, is accounted as Monsoon (June to November) and Non Monsoon (December to May), of six months each. If the rain fall happens on Deepavali, Tuesday or on Sunday it will not be good. The forecasting of rain should be calculated for a period of 15 days only.Clouds formed in the night will rain in the day time and vice versa. Clouds formed in the East will bring rain to West, and the West to the East. There are 9 types of clouds. Viz., Avarta, Samvarta, Pushkara, Drona, Kalika, Kaala, Neela, Vaaruna and Vaibhava (Verse No.93 to 97).

Ground Water Resources

Soils that are having different colours like brown, white, sand, quartz, contain water inside. It gives the clue which the author knows about the absorption and retention capacity of water by such type of soils. He gives many examples to confirm his view. If the colour of the soil turns from white to yellow, at a depth of three and half feet at the Western side and if there is a termite, there will be water at a depth of about 12 1/2 ft. The Banyan tree having more twists and termite towards its Northen side,about 18 feet of water will be available in that place.

Along with 9 types of classification mentioned above, the author especially mentions the natural mineral water called Narikelajala (tender coconut). By drinking this water, the person gets the required mineral content like potassium, to the body instantaneously. The earth having the quartz and copper contents, the taste of water will be bitter, brown or white or blue colour which leads to hardness of water.

The pure quality of water mentioned above should be collected in vessels of copper, well washed three times before use. King should drink this water by using Gold vessels only. The common people can collect the water and use it from the earthen and copper vessels. The mouth of the container should be closed with white muslin cloth. Water should be collected before the sunrise and it should be filtered before storing.

In modern times the water quality is classified by its parameter contents like Ph, Electrical content, Mineral Contents, and Bacterial analysis etc., based on its utilities in Agriculture, Industries, etc.,
whereas in the ancient times, it was classified according to the source of origin.

This work contains nine chapters called ‘kallOla’ and each of these contains many subdivisions aptly named as ‘taranga’s. In all, there are 108 tarangas in this work. The number of shlokas in the volume is 35000. This is a veritable source book of traditional and region specific knowledge. It deals with all fields of knowledge prevalent during his times such as philosophy, economy, royal administration, warfare, agriculture, history, geography, astrology, astronomy, erotics, sculpture, drama, construction of gardens, divination of water and hydrology, musicology, dance etc in detail. It also contains, possibly by way of introduction a detailed history of the Keladi dynasty. The whole work is written in the form of a dialogue. Somashekhara, a son of the king asks questions and the answers are provided by the king. This conversational mode awakens and perpetuates the interest and intellectual curiosity of the readers.

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