C Sankaran Nair, he became a member of the Viceroy’s Council in 1915 with the charge of the Education portfolio. As member, he wrote in 1919 two famous Minutes of Dissent in the Despatches on Indian Constitutional Reforms, pointing out the various defects of British rule in India and suggesting reforms. For an Indian to offer such criticism and make such demands was incredible in those days. The British government accepted most of his recommendations.

Above note is part of his famous reform suggestions.

FYI: In 1915, Gandhi returned to India permanently. He brought an international reputation as a leading Indian nationalist, theorist and organizer. He joined the Indian National Congress and was introduced to Indian issues, politics and the Indian people primarily by Gopal Krishna Gokhale.

This was the time when British felt real threat of mass uprising again, like 1857.


How pro-British class emerged?


Purpose of intensive English education was crafted in early 1800.

Looking back on these years. Duff later wrote. “It now appeared that the choice could only lie between . . . Sanscrit . . . and English. The determination of this choice involved 
the decision of one of the momentous practical questions connected with the ultimate evangelization of India. . . . The question was ‘Which shall hereafter be established as the language of learning in India 1 Which will prove the most effective instrument of a large. liberal and enlightened education l’ The wrong determination of so vital a question. at the outset, would have greatly retarded . . . every subsequent movement. It was not, therefore. without earnest prayer to God for counsel and direction, 
that a decision was attempted.”

Source :