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Vedic Studies and Oral Education by Prof H B Dave

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Vedic Studies and Oral Education by Prof H B Dave
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Its been 14 years I passed out from Computer Engineering Department @ DDIT, Nadiad.

Feeling so left out as I could not utilize expertise of my HoD Prod H B Dave in the field of Vedic Studies. Had I came across this then, my journey would have been different!

My deepest gratitude for the towering figure in computer science for his love and research in Veda!!

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Veda and Oral Tradition

1. Extreme importance is attached to the oral tradition as far as Vedas is concerned because of its contents and intended use. In order to benefit in any way from the text of Vedas (especially the first three), it is necessary that the mind of the reciter (and listener) should be in meditative state, what I shall call Alpha state for want of better word in English.

2. During such Alpha state EEG would exhibit high value of alpha
rhythm. Normal waking brain exhibits Beta rhythm.

3. This requires, at least in case of a beginner (Ma.navaka) that
his/her eyes should be closed. But then he/she can not read!

4. With eyes open, unless you are very advanced meditator, it is very difficult to achieve Alpha state.

5. The process of reading (which requires eyes open) and deciphering the written or printed text is a very complex operation which involves large parts of Cerebral Cortex. Compared to that the auditory inputs (either heard or self-spoken) require much less processing at Cerebral Cortex. If the Vedas are to be understood, the activity at Cerebral Cortex should be minimized.

6. Thus if you are studying the text of Vedas for purposes other then the one for which they were meant, you can go ahead and study from a written or printed book, but not if you are a beginner and /or want to derive the benefits as intended.

http://list.indology.info/pipermail/indology_list.indology.info/2000-February/020324.html

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दैनिक सुभाषित पंचांग (पौष/माघ कृष्ण पक्ष : नवमी)

subhashita_10-1-18

 

शक सम्वत:
१९३९ हेमलम्बी
चन्द्रमास:
पौष – अमांत
विक्रम सम्वत:
२०७४ साधारण
माघ – पूर्णिमांत
गुजराती सम्वत:
२०७४
पक्ष:
कृष्ण पक्ष
तिथि:
नवमी – १७:२५ तक
 बुधवार

Food shouldn’t be cooked for self alone. Sanatana Sanskruti prescribes to cook for समष्टि, for all. Keeping aside food for cow, dog, birds is our normal practice. Don’t ignore it. Before eating food, offer it to देवगण & पितृ.

Community Kitchen. If not daily, once a week?

Cook together,eat together and serve those who are really in need! Serve the same food as you eat.

No name, no fame but silent concrete work.

Who really needs NGO? Work in manageable small tribes.

Food is a strongest medium to strengthen & protect dharma.

संस्कृत साधना : पाठ ९ (सर्वनाम विशेषण)

Sanskrut_9

नमः संस्कृताय !!
आज सर्वनाम विशेषण की चर्चा करते हैं।

१) जिन शब्दों का प्रयोग नाम (संज्ञा) के साथ विशेषण के रूप में किया जाता है या जो नाम (संज्ञा) के स्थान पर अकेले भी आते हैं उन्हें ‘सर्वनाम’ अथवा ‘सर्वनाम विशेषण’ कहते हैं।जैसे –
‘वह’ बालक जाता है।
= ‘सः’ बालकः गच्छति।
‘ये’ लड़के खेलते हैं।
= ‘एते’ बालकाः क्रीडन्ति।
‘तुम’ ‘कौन’ हो ?
= ‘त्वं’ ‘कः’ असि ?
‘मैं’ ‘वह’ ही लड़का हूँ।
= ‘अहं’ ‘सः’ एव बालकः अस्मि।
‘जो’ ‘उस’ विद्यालय में था।
= ‘यः’ ‘तस्मिन्’ विद्यालये आसीत्।

ऊपर के वाक्यों में वह, ये, तुम, मैं, जो आदि शब्द सर्वनाम हैं।

२) इन सर्वनामों की संख्या लगभग चौंतीस है। इन सभी सर्वनामों का एक जगह संग्रह महर्षि पाणिनि ने अपने “गणपाठ” नामक ग्रन्थ में किया है। यह भी अष्टाध्यायी का एक परिशिष्ट है। किन्तु अभी आपका काम कुछ महत्त्वपूर्ण सर्वनामों से चल जाएगा।

३) सर्व (सब), उभय (दो), अन्य, तद् (वह), यद् (जो), एतद् (यह), इदम् (यह), अदस् (वह), युष्मद्(तुम), अस्मद् (मैं), भवत्(आप), किम्(क्या)।

४) ध्यान रहे, युष्मद् (तुम) और अस्मद् (मैं) को छोड़कर सभी सर्वनामों के रूप तीनों लिंगों में चलते हैं। जिस लिंग, वचन और विभक्ति का नाम (संज्ञा) होगा उसके स्थान पर प्रयुक्त हुआ सर्वनाम भी उसी लिंग, वचन और उसी विभक्ति में रहेगा। भवत् (आप) को छोड़कर किसी भी सर्वनाम के रूप सम्बोधन में नहीं होते। इसमें लिंग, विभक्ति इत्यादि की त्रुटि कभी नहीं करना। ध्यान रखना है। अधिकतर विद्यार्थी यहाँ ध्यान नहीं देते और वाक्यरचना त्रुटिपूर्ण हो जाती है।

५) संज्ञा (नाम) का उच्चारण बार बार न करना पड़े इसलिए सर्वनाम का प्रयोग किया जाता है। उदाहरण –
“श्याम भोजन करता है, श्याम विद्यालय जाता है, श्याम पढ़ता है, श्याम खेलता है और श्याम सोता है।”
= श्यामः भोजनं करोति, श्यामः विद्यालयं गच्छति, श्यामः पठति, श्यामः खेलति, श्यामः स्वपिति।

इसमें कुल पाँच बार श्याम बोलना पड़ा। किन्तु यदि सर्वनाम का प्रयोग कर लें तो केवल एक बार ही ‘श्याम’ कहना पड़ेगा।

“श्यामः भोजनं करोति, सः विद्यालयं गच्छति, सः पठति, सः खेलति, सः स्वपिति।”

६) उपर्युक्त सभी सर्वनामों का अभ्यास आपको कराया जाएगा। आज तद् , एतद् , यद् और किम् का अभ्यास करायेंगे। तद् के रूप लिखकर बताएँगे बाकी के रूपों का संकेतमात्र कर देंगे। तद् की भाँति ही एतद् , यद् और किम् के रूप भी होते हैं।

१] तद् = वह, उस, उन आदि अर्थों में
२] एतद् = यह, इस, इन आदि अर्थों में
३] यद् = जो, जिस, जिन आदि अर्थों में
४] किम् = क्या, कौन, किस, किन आदि अर्थों में

१] तद् पुँल्लिंग :

सः तौ ते
तम् तौ तान्
तेन ताभ्याम् तैः
तस्मै ताभ्याम् तेभ्यः
तस्मात् ताभ्याम् तेभ्यः
तस्य तयोः तेषाम्
तस्मिन् तयोः तेषु

तद् नपुसंकलिंग :

तत् ते तानि
तत् ते तानि
(शेष पुँल्लिंग की भाँति)

तद् स्त्रीलिंग :

सा ते ताः
ताम् ते ताः
तया ताभ्याम् ताभिः
तस्यै ताभ्याम् ताभ्यः
तस्याः ताभ्याम् ताभ्यः
तस्याः तयोः तासाम्
तस्याम् तयोः तासु

२] एतद् :: तद् के सभी रूपों के आगे ‘ए’ जोड़ दीजिए- (कुछ विशेष नियमों के कारण स को ष हो जाएगा बस)

पुँल्लिंग- एषः एतौ एते
एतम् एतौ एतान् इत्यादि

स्त्रीलिंग- एषा एते एताः
एताम् एते एताः इत्यादि

नपुसंकलिंग- एतत् एते एतानि
एतत् एते एतानि इत्यादि

३] यद् पुँल्लिंग :
यः यौ ये
यम् यौ यान्

स्त्रीलिंग : या ये याः
याम् ये याः

नपुसंकलिंग : यत् ये यानि
यत् ये यानि (शेष पुँल्लिंग)

४) किम्
पुँल्लिंग : कः कौ के
कम् कौ कान्
स्त्रीलिंग : का के काः
काम् के काः
नपुसंक : किम् के कानि
किम् के कानि इत्यादि
_______________________________________

उपर्युक्त सर्वनामों का अभ्यास निम्नलिखित कुछ श्लोकों के माध्यम से कीजिए सन्धियाँ तोड़कर लिख रहा हूँ :

१)
यां चिन्तयामि सततं मयि सा विरक्ता
सा अपि अन्यम् इच्छति जनं सः जनः अन्यसक्तः।
अस्मत्कृते च परिशुष्यति काचिद् अन्या
धिक् ताम् च तम् च मदनं च इमां च मां च ॥
(भर्तृहरि नीतिशतकम्)

२)
कः कालः कानि मित्राणि
कः देशः कौ व्ययागमौ।
कस्य अहं का च मे शक्तिः
इति चिन्त्यं मुहुः मुहुः॥ मुहुः मुहुः = बार बार

३) श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता के द्वितीय अध्याय के ५७-५८, ६१, ६८ श्लोक देखें।

॥ शिवोऽवतु ॥

Debunking ‘Survival of the fittest’ delusion

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SurvivalFittest

I wrote this note in 2014. Read relevant research paper so sharing it.

This is little difficult to accept for those for whom Darwin is God and his ‘Survival of the fittest’ is eternal principle. Veda(s) don’t believe ‘Survival of the fittest’ type evolution. They rather prescribed, ‘Uplift the unfit to the higher fitness level of survival’.

What is your way of living? Vedic (Dharmic) or Darwinic?

====================================================

There are more than 8 million species of living things on Earth, but none of them – from 100-foot blue whales to microscopic bacteria – has an advantage over the others in the universal struggle for existence.

अष्टादशपुराणां सारं व्यासेन कीर्तितम् ।
परोपकारः पुण्याय पापाय परपीडनम् ॥

In eighteen lenthy episodes of puranas Vyasa (author of the epic Mahabharatha which has 18 episodes named puranas) has described one thing. Helping others is vitue – troubling others is sin.


Sheer presence[1] of microbial world in our Body proves one thing for sure that idea of ‘dog-eat-dog world of Darwinian competition’ is utter nonsense. Sadly, same survival of the fittest idea is so much ingrained in our psyche by modern education that we waste precious youth life in chasing false alarms and unnecessary competitions.

Life is about living for each other, helping each other. Darwinian illusion is catastrophic. Unlearn it..If we cannot unlearn, we are like those pathogens who make us feel sick selfish and self-centered.

[1] Your body is composed of an estimated 30 trillion human cells, but it is host to more than 100 trillion bacterial and fungal cells, the friendly microbes that coevolved with our species. Think about that: right now in your body bacterial cells substantially outnumber your own human cells.


Research News


What Species Is Most Fit for Life? All Have an Equal Chance, Scientists Say

http://www.esf.edu/communications/view.asp?newsID=7135

There are more than 8 million species of living things on Earth, but none of them – from 100-foot blue whales to microscopic bacteria – has an advantage over the others in the universal struggle for existence.

“This means that each elephant or blue whale contributes no more energy per gram of parent to the next generation than a trout or even a bacterium,” said co-author Charles A.S. Hall, a systems ecologist with the College of Environmental Science and Forestry (ESF) in Syracuse, New York. “We found, rather astonishingly, by examining the production rate and the generation time of thousands of plants, animals and microbes that each would pass on, on average, the same amount of energy to the next generation per gram of parent, regardless of size. A single-celled aquatic alga recreates its own body mass in one day, but lives for only a day. A large female elephant takes years to produce her first baby, and lives much longer than the alga. For all plants and animals of all sizes these two factors – rate of biomass production and generation time – exactly balance each other, so each contributes the same energy per gram of parent to the next generation in their lifetime.”

The bottom line, Hall said, is that all organisms are, on average, equally fit for survival.

Hall’s co-author, James H. Brown, a physiological ecologist at the University of New Mexico, said, “The fact that all organisms are nearly equally fit has profound implications for the evolution and persistence of life on Earth.”

The third author on the paper, which was published online, is mathematical biologist Richard M. Sibly of the University of Reading in the United Kingdom.

The scientists tackled an intriguing question about life on the planet, beginning with some common knowledge. On one hand, they noted, microscopic, unicellular bacteria, algae and protists that weigh only a few micrograms live fast, generate much new biomass per day or even per minute, and die young, often within hours. On the other hand, mammals such as a 100-foot blue whale can live up to 100 years but generate new biomass, including babies, much more slowly.

The authors ask a sweeping question: How can such enormous variation in reproduction and survival allow persistence and coexistence of so many species? Their answer: Because there is a universal tradeoff in how organisms acquire, transform and expend energy for survival and production within constraints imposed by physics and biology.

In their research, the authors built a model of energy allocation, based on data involving rates of energy investment in growth and reproduction, generation times (commonly considered 22 to 32 years for humans) and body sizes of hundreds of species ranging from microbes to mammals and trees. They found an exactly equal but opposite relationship between growth rate and generation time among all these organisms.

The net result is what the authors call the “equal fitness paradigm.” Species are nearly equally fit for survival because they all devote the same quantity of energy per unit of body weight to produce offspring in the next generation; the higher activity and shorter life of small organisms is exactly compensated for by the slower activity and greater longevity of large organisms.

Hall said the tradeoff between rate of living and generation time is one reason for the great diversity of life on Earth: No one size or life form has a built-in advantage over another. The apparent benefits of being larger (for example, bigger males are more likely to win in competition for mates) are compensated for by the fact that larger animals are typically less productive over time.

“There is no single way of living and using energy that is best,” Hall and Brown said. “Given the array of environmental conditions on the planet, one kind of organism might gain a temporary advantage, but such gains will soon be countered by other, competing organisms. The result is what evolutionary biologist Leigh Van Valen called the ‘Red Queen phenomenon,’ based on Lewis Carroll’s Through the Looking Glass: All species must keep running to keep up with others and stay in the evolutionary race.”

Light in lab reprograms cellular logic but सूर्य नमस्कार (Surya Namaskar) is religious fanaticism?

LightGenes

 

Light to reprogram cells , disciplined body postures add agility in body, संस्कृत mantra chanting nurtures brain’s grey matter and regulated breathing calms down mind. All Proven in lab.
 
But all together as Surya Namaskar is regressive. Trikal Sandhya is superstition. And Fire rituals are humbug resource wastage!
 
Nothing but arrogance led ignorance! Get rid of it and reap life-changing benefits!


Research


Scientists use light to control the logic networks of a cell

http://uncnews.unc.edu/2017/01/05/scientists-use-light-control-logic-networks-cell/

“Proteins are the workhorse molecules of life. Among their many jobs, they carry oxygen, build tissue, copy DNA for the next generation, and coordinate events within and between cells. Now scientists have developed a method to control proteins inside live cells with the flick of a switch, giving researchers an unprecedented tool for pinpointing the causes of disease using the simplest of tools: light.”

“We can take the whole, intact protein, just the way nature made it, and stick this little knob on it that allows us to turn it on and off with light,” said Hahn, Thurman Distinguished Professor of Pharmacology and a UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center member. “It’s like a switch.”

 

The switch that Hahn, Dokholyan and colleagues developed is versatile and fast – they can toggle a protein on or off as fast as they can toggle their light. By changing the intensity of light, they can also control how much of the protein is activated or inactivated. And by controlling the timing of irradiation, they can control exactly how long proteins are activated at different points in the cell.

 

“A lot of aspects of cell behavior depend on transient, fast changes in protein activity,” said Hahn. “But those changes have to happen in exact locations. The same protein can cause a cell to do different things if it’s active in different places, building flexible logic networks in different parts of the cell, depending on what it is responding to.”

 

To make their breakthrough, Hahn and Dagliyan used a computational approach to identify which parts of a protein could be modified without changing the protein’s normal operation, and showed that loops of protein structure commonly found on protein surfaces can be readily modified with different ‘knobs’ to control proteins with light, or even to respond to drugs.

 

Imagine sticking a video camera on a bus; put it on the gas pedal and it will obstruct its function, so the bus will not drive properly. But put it on the hood, and the bus will continue to drive just fine. The new computational approach pointed the researchers toward each protein’s hood.

 

Because the tools keep the natural protein function intact, the new technique allows scientists to study proteins in living systems, where proteins normally live and work in all their natural complexity. This ability to manipulate proteins in living systems also provides an opportunity to study a wide range of diseases, which often arise from the malfunctioning of a single protein.

 

“In order to understand what’s happening you need to see the parts moving around,” said Hahn. “It’s that dynamic behavior that you need to know to understand what’s going on.”

 

 

नित्य सुभाषित पंचांग (पौष/माघ कृष्ण पक्ष : अष्टमी)

Subhashita_2

A note from FB friend:

That day, that month, that year and that century will be known for “अभ्युदय” when you find more crowd at Sunrise point than Sunset point.

बिन ब्रह्म मुहूर्त उषा पान,सांसारिक सौख्य तथा समृद्धि की प्राप्ति ? Impossible!

Without witnessing Brahm Muhurt daily, progress? 😀

No make in India, no FDI, no smart city, no smart village will help if the remotest Indian does not realize value of उषा पान !

संस्कृत साधना : पाठ ८ (‘विशेष्य’ और ‘विशेषण’)

Sanskrut_8

सर्वेभ्यः मित्रेभ्यः नमो नमः !!
आज आपको ‘विशेष्य’ और ‘विशेषण’ के विषय में समझाते हैं। किन्तु आप निरन्तर अभ्यास तो कर रहे हैं न ? और सीखने में कोई जल्दबाजी भी नहीं करनी चाहिए। महात्मा विदुर ने धृतराष्ट्र से कहा था – “अशुश्रूषा त्वरा श्लाघा विद्यायाः शत्रवस्त्रयः” अर्थात् गुरु का अनादर, जल्दबाजी और किसी से होड़ रखना- विद्या के ये तीन शत्रु हैं। तो इन शत्रुओं से आपको बचकर रहना है।

१) जो किसी व्यक्ति या वस्तु या किसी स्थान आदि की विशेषता बताए उसे ‘विशेषण’ कहा जाता है। उदाहरण- जैसे बहुत सी गोमाताएँ किसी स्थान पर बैठी हुई हैं और आपसे कहा जाए कि “काली गाय को ले आओ” तब आप उन सभी गोमाताओं में से केवल काली गोमाता को ही लायेंगे। अब यहाँ जो “काली” शब्द है वह गोमाता की विशेषता बता रहा है। इसी प्रकार कहीं बहुत से बालक बैठे हों और कोई कहे कि “मैं बालक को रसगुल्ला दूँगा” तो सभी बालक रसगुल्ला लेने आ जाएँगे। किन्तु यदि वह कहे कि “मैं पीले कुर्ते वाले बालक को रसगुल्ला दूँगा” तब ‘पीले कुर्ते वाला’ विशेषण हो गया, इस विशेषण ने उस बालक को अन्य बालकों से अलग कर दिया।

२) अब ‘विशेष्य’ को जानिये। जिसकी विशेषता बताई जाए वह ‘विशेष्य’। जैसे- “कपिला गाय” कहा जाए तो ‘कपिला’ विशेषण है और ‘गाय’ विशेष्य है।

३) जो लिंग, विभक्ति और वचन विशेष्य के होंगे वही विशेषण के भी होंगे। यह संस्कृतभाषा की अद्भुत विशेषता है। इन विशेष्य विशेषणों को आप वाक्य में कहीं भी रख दें किन्तु वाक्य का अर्थ नहीं बदलेगा।

यह तो आपको ‘विशेष्य’ और ‘विशेषण’ के विषय में बताया। कल आपको सर्वनाम विशेषण के बारे में बताएँगे जो कि बहुत महत्त्वपूर्ण विषय है। और आपसे एक आग्रह है कि किसी पाठ से सम्बन्धित कोई संशय, जिज्ञासा आदि हो तो निःसंकोच पूछिये। अधोलिखित वाक्यों में आपको ‘विशेष्य’ ‘विशेषण’ का अभ्यास कराते हैं।
_______________________________________

वाक्य अभ्यास :
===========

नटखट कन्हैया कपिला गाय का दूध पीता है।
= कौतुकी कृष्णः कपिलायाः धेनोः दुग्धं पिबति।

सुन्दर बच्ची मधुर कण्ठ से मधुर गीत गाती है।
= सुन्दरी बालिका मधुरेण कण्ठेन मधुरं गीतं गायति।

चपल बन्दर विशाल वृक्षों पर पके फल खाता है।
= चपलः वानरः विशालेषु वृक्षेषु पक्वानि फलानि खादति।

दुष्ट शिकारी तीखे बाणों से हिरन को मारता है।
= दुष्टः व्याधः तीक्ष्णैः शरैः हरिणं हन्ति।

तुम दोनों निर्धन आदमी को भयंकर ठण्ड में अच्छे वस्त्र देते हो।
= युवां निर्धनाय पुरुषाय भयङ्करे शैत्ये शोभनानि वस्त्राणि यच्छथः । (यच्छ् -देना)

चतुर स्त्री सुगन्धित पुष्पों को माला में गूँथती है।
= चतुरा नारी सुगन्धितानि पुष्पाणि मालायां ग्रथ्नाति।

_______________________________________

श्लोक :
====

पश्यामि देवान् तव देव देहे
सर्वान् तथा भूतविशेषसङ्घान्।
ब्रह्माणम् ईशं कमलासनस्थम्
ऋषीन् च सर्वान् उरगान् च दिव्यान्॥
(श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता ११।१५॥)

उपर्युक्त श्लोक में द्वितीया विभक्ति के कुछ शब्द हैं उन्हें ढूँढकर टिप्पणी-मंजूषा (Comment box) में लिखें।

॥शिवोऽवतु॥

नित्य सुभाषित : तन्नो सरस्वती प्रचोदयात : कृष्ण पक्ष : सप्तमी

0

#अतुल्यसंस्कृत श्रेणी अंतर्गत, नित्य सुभाषित

कस्तूरी जायते कस्मात्को हन्ति करिणां शतम् |
किं कुर्यात्कातरो  युद्धे मृगात्सिंहः  पलायनम्    ||

उपर्युक्त श्लोक ‘सुभषितरत्नाकर ‘ में ‘अन्तर्लापिका’ शीर्षक के अन्तर्गत संकलित है |  अन्तर्लापिका का तात्पर्य यह है कि उसमे पूछी गयी  पहेली  का उत्तर उसी  में छिपा होता है, यद्यपि ऐसा प्रथम दृष्ट्या विदित  नहीं होता है|

Literal meaning –   Where is kastoori produced, who kills hundreds of elephants and what a coward does in a battle, From deer the Lion runs away ?
The answer is hidden in the last three words of the Shloka.. i.e  Musk is produced by the musk deer,  the lion kills the elephants and the coward runs away from the battlefield.

Subhashita_1

संस्कृत साधना : पाठ ७ (सिंहावलोकन & परिशोधन)

Sanskrut_७

नमः संस्कृताय मित्राणि !!
पिछले दो पाठों में हमने सकर्मक अकर्मक क्रियाओं के विषय समझाया। आशा करता हूँ कि यह विषय आपने हृदयंगम कर लिया है। आज कोई विशेष नियम की चर्चा न करके आपसे निवेदन करता हूँ कि आपने अब तक जो भी अध्ययन किया है उसका “सिंहावलोकन” कर लें। जैसे सिंह अपने मार्ग पर जाते हुए बीच बीच में रुककर पीछे मुड़कर देख लेता है, उसी प्रकार आपको भी चाहिए कि अधीत विषय को एक बार पीछे मुड़कर देखते चलें। इस प्रक्रिया को “सिंहावलोकन” कहते हैं। इससे अधीत विषय पूर्णरूपेण बुद्धि में स्थिर हो जाता है।

१) आज आपको शब्दरूपों के विषय में थोड़ा सा बतायेंगे। यह विषय बिल्कुल सरल है और अभ्यास पर आश्रित है। आपको बताया गया था कि संस्कृत में प्रत्येक शब्द के रूप चलते हैं। सात विभक्तियाँ और तीन वचन। साथ ही प्रत्येक शब्द का लिंग भी निश्चित होता है कि वह पुँल्लिंग है अथवा स्त्रीलिंग अथवा नपुसंकलिंग।

२) सबसे पहले अकरान्त पुँल्लिंग ‘राम’ शब्द, आकारान्त स्त्रीलिंग ‘रमा’ शब्द और अकारान्त नपुसंकलिंग ‘पुस्तक’ शब्द के रूप बताते हैं।

३) संस्कृत भाषा में जितने भी अकारान्त (जिसके अन्त में अकार हो) पुँल्लिंग शब्द हैं , उन सबके रूप ‘राम’ शब्द की भाँति ही चलेंगे। आपको “रामो राजमणिः सदा विजयते रामं रमेशं भजे”– वाला श्लोक तो याद ही होगा , तो बस ये रूप याद करना एकदम आसान है।

विभक्ति/कारक एकवचन द्विवचन बहुवचन
१/कर्त्ता रामः रामौ रामाः
२/कर्म रामम् रामौ रामान्
३/करण रामेण रामाभ्याम् रामैः
४/सम्प्रदान रामाय रामाभ्याम् रामेभ्यः
५/अपादान रामात् रामाभ्याम् रामेभ्यः
६/सम्बन्ध* रामस्य रामयोः रामाणाम्
७/अधिकरण रामे रामयोः रामेषु
१/सम्बोधन हे राम ! हे रामौ ! हे रामाः !

४) आकारान्त स्त्रीलिंग ‘रमा’ की भाँति ही समस्त आकारान्त स्त्रीलिंग शब्दों के रूप चलेंगे-

रमा रमे रमाः
रमाम् रमे रमाः
रमया रमाभ्याम् रमाभिः
रमायै रमाभ्याम् रमाभ्यः
रमायाः रमाभ्याम् रमाभ्यः
रमायाः रमयोः रमाणाम्
रमायाम् रमयोः रमासु
हे रमे ! हे रमे ! हे रमाः

५) अकारान्त नपुसंकलिंग शब्दों के रूप आपको केवल दो विभक्तियों ‘प्रथमा’ और ‘द्वितीया’ के याद करने हैं, शेष सभी विभक्तियों में पुँल्लिंग की भाँति ही चलेंगे-

पुस्तकम् पुस्तके पुस्तकानि
पुस्तकम् पुस्तके पुस्तकानि
_______________________________________

वाक्य अभ्यास :
===========

आप शीतकाल में आइस्क्रीम क्यों खाते हैं ?
= भवान् शीतकाले पयोहिमं कथं खादति ?

मैं शीतकाल में गाय का दूध पीता हूँ।
= अहं शीतकाले धेनोः दुग्धं पिबामि।

तुम दोनो माघ मास में गंगा यमुना के संगम में नहाते हो।
= युवां माघमासे गङ्गायमुनयोः सङ्गमे मज्जथः।

मैं प्रयागराज में रहता हूँ।
= अहं प्रयागराजे वसामि।

तुम सब कहाँ रहते हो ?
= यूयं कुत्रं निवसथ ?

मुदित राजस्थान के जयपुर नगर में रहता है।
= मुदितः राजस्थानस्य जयपुरनगरे वसति।

साकेत और अभय लखनऊ की लस्सी पीते हैं।
= साकेतः अभयः च लक्ष्मणपुरस्य दाधिकं पिबतः।

अरविंद केजरीवाल को कुमार विश्वास रायता देता है।
= अरविन्द-केजरीवालाय कुमारविश्वासः राज्यक्तं ददाति।

हम दोनों भरद्वाज का विमानशास्त्र पढ़ते हैं।
= आवां भरद्वाजस्य विमानशास्त्रं पठावः।

तुम दोनों भौतिकविज्ञान पढ़ते हो।
युवां भौतशास्त्रं पठथः।

हम सब चाणक्य का नीतिशास्त्र प्रतिदिन पढ़ते हैं।
वयं चाणक्यस्य नीतिशास्त्रं प्रतिदिनं पठामः।
_______________________________________

श्लोक :

*वृष्णीनां वासुदेवोऽस्मि
*पाण्डवानां धनञ्जयः।
*मुनीनाम् अप्यहं व्यासः
*कवीनाम् उशना कविः॥
(श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता १०।३७॥)

उपर्युक्त श्लोक में * चिह्न वाले शब्द षष्ठी बहुवचन के हैं। अन्य षष्ठी बहुवचन के रूप देखने के लिए श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता का दशम अध्याय पढ़िये।

॥शिवोऽवतु॥

Paracetamol & ibuprofen : Invite infertility for generations

0
PAracetamol
Culture of over-the counter drugs was promoted to increase pharma profits.
 
Who cares if the impact is realized in future generations?
 
Give them instant relief! भाड़में जाये बच्चे के बच्चे!
————–
Research
————–

Paracetamol in pregnancy may impact future fertility

https://www.scimex.org/newsfeed/paracetamol-in-pregnancy-may-impact-future-fertility

Taking paracetamol during pregnancy may impair the future fertility of female offspring, according to a review published in Endocrine Connections. The article reviews three separate rodent studies that all report altered development in the reproductive systems of female offspring from mothers given paracetamol during pregnancy, which may impair their fertility in adulthood.

Paracetamol, or acetaminophen, is an over-the-counter treatment for pain relief that is commonly taken by pregnant women worldwide. Recent studies have linked paracetamol use during pregnancy with disruptions in the development of the male reproductive system but the effects on female offspring had not yet been investigated. In this article, Dr David Kristensen and colleagues from Copenhagen University Hospital, review the findings from three individual rodent studies that evaluated the effects of paracetamol taken during pregnancy on the development of the reproductive system in female offspring.

It is well known that exposure to some chemicals during pregnancy can cause developmental effects that may not manifest until much later in life. In rodents and humans, females are born with a finite number of eggs for reproduction in the future. In these reviewed studies, rodents given paracetamol during pregnancy, at doses equivalent to those that a pregnant woman may take for pain relief, produced female offspring with fewer eggs. This means that in adulthood, they have fewer eggs available for fertilisation, which may reduce their chances of successful reproduction, particularly as they get older.

Dr Kristensen comments, “Although this may not be a severe impairment to fertility, it is still of real concern since data from three different labs all independently found that paracetamol may disrupt female reproductive development in this way, which indicates further investigation is needed to establish how this affects human fertility.”

Although there are parallels between rodent and human reproductive development, these findings have yet to be firmly established in humans. However, establishing a link between paracetamol taken by mothers during pregnancy and fertility problems much later in the adult life of the child will be difficult. Dr Kristensen recommends that an inter-disciplinary approach be taken to address this, “by combining epidemiological data from human studies with more experimental research on models, such as rodents, it may be possible to firmly establish this link and determine how it happens, so that pregnant women in pain can be successfully treated, without risk to their unborn children.”

Dr Kristensen states, “As scientists, we are not in the positon to make any medical recommendations and we would urge pregnant women in pain to consult with their general practitioner, midwife or pharmacist for professional advice.”

Male infertility among many side effects linked to ibuprofen – study

Men who dream of starting a family may want to pass on the ibuprofen the next time they have a headache. A new study says the well-known painkiller could cause fertility issues in males.

The study, published this week in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), monitored 31 healthy white men aged 18 to 35. The volunteers were interviewed, completed a questionnaire assessing their physical activity, and gave a blood sample. The men were then divided into two groups, 14 in an ibuprofen group and 17 in a placebo group.

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