First refrigerator was introduced with set of toxic gases for cooling. As soon toxicity was exposed and realized by mass, more toxic gases were introduced. And now they claim it being really green gas! 😀   This is how half-baked technology rule the world.

Same is the case of plastic. Whenever I have talked about plastic issues, complacent urban educated Indians reply : Oh! Not to worry, we use best quality BPA-free plastic! 😀

What a grand illusion!

“Twenty years ago, researchers made the accidental discovery that BPA had leached out of plastic cages used to house female mice in the lab, causing an increase in chromosomally abnormal eggs. Now, the same team is back to report that the array of alternative bisphenols now used to replace BPA in BPA-free bottles, cups, cages, and other items appear to come with similar problems for their mice.”


Replacement Bisphenols Adversely Affect Mouse Gametogenesis with Consequences for Subsequent Generations


  • Replacement bisphenols are structural BPA variants with similar biological effects
  • Common bisphenols are germline toxicants that induce meiotic effects in both sexes
  • Genotoxic bisphenol exposure effects may persist for several generations in males
  • Environmental contaminants can undermine science by affecting data and conclusions

20 years ago, accidental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure caused a sudden increase in chromosomally abnormal eggs from our control mice [1]. Subsequent rodent studies demonstrated developmental effects of exposure with repercussions on adult health and fertility (e.g., [2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9]; reviewed in [10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17]). Studies in monkeys, humans, fish, and worms suggest BPA effects extend across species (e.g., [18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30]; reviewed in [31,32,33]). Widespread use has resulted in ubiquitous environmental contamination and human BPA exposure. Consumer concern resulted in “BPA-free” products produced using structurally similar bisphenols that are now detectable environmental and human contaminants (e.g., [34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41]). We report here studies initiated by meiotic changes mirroring our previous BPA experience and implicating exposure to BPS (a common BPA replacement) from damaged polysulfone cages. Like with BPA [1,2,5], our data show that exposure to common replacement bisphenols induces germline effects in both sexes that may affect multiple generations. These findings add to growing evidence of the biological risks posed by this class of chemicals. Rapid production of structural variants of BPA and other EDCs circumvents efforts to eliminate dangerous chemicals, exacerbates the regulatory burden of safety assessment, and increases environmental contamination. Our experience suggests that these environmental contaminants pose a risk not only to reproductive health but also to the integrity of the research environment. EDCs, like endogenous hormones, can affect diverse processes. The sensitivity of the germline allows us to detect effects that, although not immediately apparent in other systems, may induce variability that undermines experimental reproducibility and impedes scientific advancement.

“The ability to rapidly enhance the properties of a chemical has tremendous potential for treating cancer, enhancing medical and structural materials, and controlling dangerous infectious agents,” the researchers write. “Importantly, this technology has paved the way for ‘green chemistry,’ a healthier future achieved by engineering chemicals to ensure against hazardous effects. Currently, however, regulatory agencies charged with assessing chemical safety cannot keep pace with the introduction of new chemicals. Further, as replacement bisphenols illustrate, it is easier and more cost effective under current chemical regulations to replace a chemical of concern with structural analogs rather than determine the attributes that make it hazardous.”