Even signal to stop EATING comes from our microbe friends! 🙂
Now you know why so many of us are voracious eaters. 🙂 (Lack or faulty microbial alert)
“Twenty minutes after a meal, gut microbes produce proteins that can suppress food intake in animals, reports a study.”
But we eat so fast that before such natural STOP alert is caught by brain, we eat over-capacity! 🙂 And this leads to indigestion, acidity, stomach-ache and all.
Eat slow! Respect microbes! Don’t see enemy in bacteria! See bacteria as your friends! Your guides! Act to maintain healthy GUT!
Gut Commensal E. coli Proteins Activate Host Satiety Pathways following Nutrient-Induced Bacterial Growth
Don’t have room for dessert? The bacteria in your gut may be telling you something. Twenty minutes after a meal, gut microbes produce proteins that can suppress food intake in animals, reports a study published November 24 in Cell Metabolism. The researchers also show how these proteins injected into mice and rats act on the brain reducing appetite, suggesting that gut bacteria may help control when and how much we eat.
The new evidence coexists with current models of appetite control, which involve hormones from the gut signalling to brain circuits when we’re hungry or done eating. The bacterial proteins–produced by mutualistic E. coli after they’ve been satiated–were found for the first time to influence the release of gut-brain signals (e.g., GLP-1 and PYY) as well as activate appetite-regulated neurons in the brain.
“There are so many studies now that look at microbiota composition in different pathological conditions but they do not explore the mechanisms behind these associations,” says senior study author Sergueï Fetissov of Rouen University and INSERM’s Nutrition, Gut & Brain Laboratory in France. “Our study shows that bacterial proteins from E. coli can be involved in the same molecular pathways that are used by the body to signal satiety, and now we need to know how an altered gut microbiome can affect this physiology.”
Mealtime brings an influx of nutrients to the bacteria in your gut. In response, they divide and replace any members lost in the development of stool. The study raises an interesting theory: since gut microbes depend on us for a place to live, it is to their advantage for populations to remain stable. It would make sense, then, if they had a way to communicate to the host when they’re not full, promoting host to ingest nutrients again.
The composition of gut microbiota has been associated with host metabolic phenotypes, but it is not known if gut bacteria may influence host appetite. Here we show that regular nutrient provision stabilizes exponential growth of E. coli, with the stationary phase occurring 20 min after nutrient supply accompanied by bacterial proteome changes, suggesting involvement of bacterial proteins in host satiety. Indeed, intestinal infusions of E. coli stationary phase proteins increased plasma PYY and their intraperitoneal injections suppressed acutely food intake and activated c-Fos in hypothalamic POMC neurons, while their repeated administrations reduced meal size. ClpB, a bacterial protein mimetic of α-MSH, was upregulated in the E. coli stationary phase, was detected in plasma proportional to ClpB DNA in feces, and stimulated firing rate of hypothalamic POMC neurons. Thus, these data show that bacterial proteins produced after nutrient-induced E. coli growth may signal meal termination. Furthermore, continuous exposure to E. coli proteins may influence long-term meal pattern.