Post world war-2, there was question of managing unused raw material planned for bombs. How to use it? Typical profit devil. Sell it to third world slave countries as fertilizers! Make them believe that their land can’t produce enough to feed the population and then on based on this false narrative, sell them fertilizers! And since it became profitable model, more and more money was invested in wrong direction of science.

We don’t consider (We as in Sanatana dharma followers, popularly known as Hindus) mother earth dead or mere a component in a cycle. She is alive. She breathes. She has prana. Her prana is something that decides specific part’s fertility. It is job of her son to maintain the prana of her body. We used to do it with the help of cow-dung and urine. Enough. We mastered the ecology. Just one weak point : Gullible mass and selfish leaders. We lost to market forces and ruined out golden land! 🙁

Now, read the research



“When we change the nutrient environment that plants are in, we are fundamentally altering the plant-microbiome interaction and also, importantly, the microbiome-mediated protection of natural plant/microbe interactions,” said senior author Britt Koskella, a UC Berkeley assistant professor of integrative biology.

The fertilizer effect was not the only surprise from the study, Koskella said. She and co-author Maureen Berg, a graduate student, were investigating how the density of the microbial community on the leaves affected the plants’ resistance to disease and discovered that a lower dose of beneficial microbes sprayed on the leaves was often more effective in protecting the plants from infection than higher doses. Berg sprayed leaves with an artificial microbial community composed of 12 species of bacteria taken from the natural microbiome of healthy tomatoes.

“We found that the most protective community was the most dilute, the least concentrated, the lowest dose,” she said. “This was completely nonintuitive. A medium dose gave medium protection and the highest dose was the least protective.”

microbes from a leaf growing on an agar gel

Microbes growing in hundreds of small yellow colonies on a plate of Kings Broth agar in the shape of the leaf that was previously laid on the surface to illustrate bacterial density and diversity. (Shirley Zhang photo, Koskella Lab)

“The fact that we saw this lower-dose/higher-protection effect suggests it is not as simple as just throwing on more microbes,” Koskella said. “There is a lot of work to be done understanding how to apply a plant probiotic.”

She and Berg will report their findings in the Aug. 6 print edition of the journal Current Biology; the article will be posted online July 26.

Koskella focuses on plants’ above-ground microbiomes, or the phyllosphere, a poorly understood community compared to the well-studied below-ground microbiome associated with plant roots, the rhizosphere. Researchers are finding unsuspected activity within phyllosphere microbes, including that some of the bacteria fix nitrogen from the air like root-associated bacteria. Many studies have demonstrated that microbial communities in the roots can promote plants’ nutrient uptake, growth and resistance to disease, and Koskella is investigating whether this also holds true for the above-ground microbiome.