WATER

WATER

Water is disappearing, do we care?

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ground-water_1_1_0

Many organisms invaded and occupied terrestrial and aerial niches, but none gained true independence from water.
Water connects the dots.
Water is life line.
Water is God!

Water is truly a crucial determinant of the fitness of the environment. In a very real sense, organisms are aqueous systems in a watery world.
And we thought, its coffee(or cola or other beverages) that makes our day! lol !
Do you enjoy drinking water? Or your senses are weakened enough and need special ingredients coffee, tea and cola!

True! Need of the hour! Where is purest water resource?? One more area where focus should shift soon, immediately! Pure do cure!

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||मित्र-वारुणी विध्या||

अप्स्वन्तरमृतमप्सु भेषजमपामुत प्रशस्तये। देवा भवत वाजिनः॥१९॥
जल मे अमृतोपम गुण है। जल मे औषधीय गुण है। हे देवो! ऐसे जल की प्रशंसा से आप उत्साह प्राप्त करें॥१९॥
-ऋग्वेद

Imagine the world with no ground water. Look at the map. It is already happening. No water, no life.

Our modern life is designed to create isolated silos. We are disconnected from our basic necessity sources. The technology-progress arrogance is so high that we really don’t care about being part of the natural cycle.

In luxury bath, you will waste plenty of water because for you, supply is unlimited!

I see new generation apartments and homes using guzzling amount of water from bore-well with absolutely no activity related to water re-charge.

And when we talk to them, selfish scums will reply: “Who cares? We pay for the water bill. We must get our share! You go to hell!”

Teach your kids importance of natural resources. Don’t raise them in urban silos. Expose them to harsh realities of this planet.

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May be, we (our kids) will need yet another Bhagirath (भागीरथ – extreme) efforts to welcome Maa Ganga again. Our generation is foolish enough to waste water.


Water is disappearing. Use it moderately. Train kids to use water frugally.

In many parts of the world, in particular in the dry, mid-latitudes, far more water is used than is available on an annual, renewable basis. Precipitation, snowmelt, and streamflow are no longer enough to supply the multiple, competing demands for society’s water needs. Because the gap between supply and demand is routinely bridged with non-renewable groundwater, even more so during drought, groundwater supplies in some major aquifers will be depleted in a matter of decades. The myth of limitless water and the free-for-all mentality that has pervaded groundwater use must now come to an end.

Earth’s Disappearing Groundwater

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/blogs/earthmatters/2014/11/05/earths-disapearing-groundwater/?utm_content=bufferf656a&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter.com&utm_campaign=buffer

Rain : Remedy for Spiritual Numbness

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Random notes on water.

Rain

The waters which are from heaven, and which flow after
being dug, and even those that spring by themselves, the
bright pure waters which lead to the sea, may those divine waters protect me here.’
– Rigved

How beautiful is the rain!
After the dust and the heat,
In the broad and fiery street,
In the narrow lane,How beautiful is the rain!
~ Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Summer rain is here, feel the rain, resonate with rain,
dance on the beats of rhythm divine & bring purest soul home


अथर्ववेदीय जल सूक्त


(१,४.१अ) अम्बयो यन्त्यध्वभिर्जामयो अध्वरीयतां । (१,४.१च्) पृञ्चतीर्मधुना पयः । ।१ । ।

(१,४.२अ) अमूर्या उप सूर्ये याभिर्वा सूर्यः सह । (१,४.२च्) ता नो हिन्वन्त्वध्वरं । ।२ । ।

(१,४.३अ) अपो देवीरुप ह्वये यत्र गावः पिबन्ति नः । (१,४.३च्) सिन्धुभ्यः कर्त्वं हविः । ।३ । ।

(१,४.४अ) अप्स्वन्तरमृतं अप्सु भेषजं । (१,४.४च्) अपां उत प्रशस्तिभिरश्वा भवथ वाजिनो गावो भवथ वाजिनीः । ।४ । ।

(१,५.१अ) आपो हि ष्ठा मयोभुवस्ता न ऊर्जे दधातन । (१,५.१च्) महे रणाय चक्षसे । ।१ । ।

(१,५.२अ) यो वः शिवतमो रसस्तस्य भाजयतेह नः । (१,५.२च्) उशतीरिव मातरः । ।२ । ।

(१,५.३अ) तस्मा अरं गमाम वो यस्य क्षयाय जिन्वथ । (१,५.३च्) आपो जनयथा च नः । ।३ । ।

(१,५.४अ) ईशाना वार्याणां क्षयन्तीश्चर्षणीनां । (१,५.४च्) अपो याचामि भेषजं । ।४ । ।

(१,६.१अ) शं नो देवीरभिष्टय आपो भवन्तु पीतये । (१,६.१च्) शं योरभि स्रवन्तु नः । ।१ । ।

(१,६.२अ) अप्सु मे सोमो अब्रवीदन्तर्विश्वानि भेषजा । (१,६.२च्) अग्निं च विश्वशंभुवं । ।२ । ।

(१,६.३अ) आपः पृणीत भेषजं वरूथं तन्वे मम । (१,६.३च्) ज्योक्च सूर्यं दृशे । ।३ । ।

(१,६.४अ) शं न आपो धन्वन्याः शं उ सन्त्वनूप्याः । (१,६.४च्) शं नः खनित्रिमा आपः शं उ याः कुम्भ आभृताः । (१,६.४ए) शिवा नः सन्तु वार्षिकीः । ।४ । ।

  • Water is mother and sister for those who know right usage of water.
  • Rivers are flowing like honey is mixed with milk
  • That water is good for health which is blessed by Sun Rays
  • Those rivers where our cows drink water, from we prepare Havi, should be praised.
  • Water is nectar. Water is medicine. Due to water’s qualities, horses and cows gain strength.
  • O Water! Please replenish us with your nectar!

 

How to drink water, do we really know?

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Drinking Water and Role of Saliva
Drinking Water and Role of Saliva

Since Reverse Osmosis (RO) water is debunked by many, including doctors for their inability to provide correct composition of water, there is new trend emerging. By hook or crook, we must sell water solutions! 😀

Ionized water. Yes! Magic machine that can ionize your water! 🙂 So when you drink such water with alkaline composition, you can slowdown aging and all.

This is the problem of human mimicry of mother nature. Once we learn the benefit of certain phenomenon, we try to build solution with larger than life model. We actually fool ourselves by claiming perfect mimic of the mother nature. Such alkaline water may be good for some for some days but not always because same PH cannot work for all family members! 😀

Instead of spending Rs 15000+ in buying this magic machine, here is the free of cost solution to make your food alkaline and control stomach acidity and by the save self from all unforeseen issues like ulcer and cancer.

1) Drink water sip by sip. Slowly. Very slow. As if you are chewing water.
2) Chew food as much as possible. As many times as teeth you have. If you have 28, 28 times. 32 => 32 times.

Try it for 90 days and give me feedback. 🙂

Our saliva is ninety-nine per cent water. The remaining one per cent, however, contains numerous substances important for digestion, dental health and control of microbial growth in the mouth.

This 1% of Saliva knows very well how to make your food or water alkaline. The salivary glands in our mouth produce about 1-2 litres of saliva daily. Blood plasma is used as the basis, from which the salivary glands extract some substances and add various others. The list of ingredients found so far in saliva is long, and growing. Just as varied are the many functions, of which only a few major ones will be outlined below.

There are many benefits but let us focus on Ionization of water and food. As you start helping your food and water to stay longer in the mouth, you sprinkle them with nectar called ‘Saliva’.

Saliva is full of Ions. It is ion reservoir. More time food and water spend in mouth, better amalgamation of ions with it. Making it more alkaline.

Hydroxyapatite only forms when enough hydroxyl (OH-) and phosphate (PO43-) ions are present. Such conditions prevail at alkaline pH (pH>7). Under acidic conditions the OH- ions turn to water and the phosphate ions to mono-, di-, and trihydrogen phosphates. These do not fit into the crystal lattice and are washed away.7 Our saliva prevents this through buffering substances that keep the pH near neutral, i.e. around 7. If the pH is too alkaline over a prolonged period, the hydroxyapatite grows too quickly, leading to scale (dental calculus). In contrast, continued exposure to acidic fluids (pH<7), e.g. when sucking juice from a baby bottle, leads to porous, thin enamel.

For Mother’s gift (our body), there is always motherly solution. 🙂 And mother never charge. She only expects dharma from us. 🙂


Research


Saliva – more than just water in your mouth

http://www.eufic.org/article/en/artid/Saliva-more-than-just-water-in-your-mouth/

Saliva as a builder

The hard matter of our teeth – enamel and dentine – consists of a very hard crystal called hydroxyapatite. Hydroxyapatite is made from calcium, phosphate and hydroxyl ions. Additionally, it contains organic molecules, mainly collagen, and in the case of dentine also cellular projections from odontoblasts (cells that produce dentine).

Source of building blocks

Because of its specific properties water can dissolve out ions from salt crystals. Table salt for example quickly disintegrates in water into its constituent sodium and chloride ions. Although in hydroxyapatite the ions are bound very tightly, in water the crystal would steadily lose ions from the surface and shrink. To reverse this process, our saliva is saturated with calcium and phosphate ions. These occupy the spaces freed up in the crystal lattice and thus prevent continuous corrosion of the enamel surface. If our saliva was constantly diluted with water, the concentration of calcium phosphate would be insufficient and the tooth enamel would start to erode. This happens for example in the so-called nursing bottle syndrome seen in infants. Due to prolonged sucking on the baby bottle, even if only filled with water, the teeth become porous and typical caries on the upper front teeth develops.5 Good oral hygiene including twice daily brushing of teeth with fluoride-containing toothpaste, and minimising prolonged exposure of teeth to drinks with fermentable carbohydrates (e.g. juice, milk, formula) are some of the strategies that may help reduce the risk.6

Neutralisation of acids

Hydroxyapatite only forms when enough hydroxyl (OH) and phosphate (PO43-) ions are present. Such conditions prevail at alkaline pH (pH>7). Under acidic conditions the OH ions turn to water and the phosphate ions to mono-, di-, and trihydrogen phosphates. These do not fit into the crystal lattice and are washed away.7 Our saliva prevents this through buffering substances that keep the pH near neutral, i.e. around 7. If the pH is too alkaline over a prolonged period, the hydroxyapatite grows too quickly, leading to scale (dental calculus). In contrast, continued exposure to acidic fluids (pH<7), e.g. when sucking juice from a baby bottle, leads to porous, thin enamel.5

 

 

River linking Disaster : Dam–Induced Seismic Activities

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RiverLinking

Each living organism on this planet is intelligent enough to engineer solutions for existence. But they never tread the path and cross their limits. Only humans cross limits.

With the advent of recent industrialization phase, humans are showing arrogance of being superior than nature! And decade after decade, we plan and execute MEGA projects with the help of machines!

Have we ever thought of the impact?

Let us discuss popular way of generating electricity. Dams. And now river linking, new form of Mega dams.

Spend millions of dollar in survey and project planning. Then spend billions in construction with rampant corruption. By the time projects are realized, they not only lose value but also become disaster for ecology.

More than three–quarters of 49 projects assessed in a 1990 World Bank study of hydropower construction costs were found to have experienced unexpected geological problems of some kind. The study concluded that for hydrodams “the absence of geological problems should be treated as the exception rather than the norm.” 🙂

I will quote few references  to bring the point to the table that dams increases possibilities of earth-quakes!

Man’s engineering efforts impact the way crustal stresses are released in earthquakes; these includes deep artificial water reservoirs, underground mining, high pressure fluid injection, removing underground fluids like gas, water and oil.

The largest reservoir triggered earth-quake is of magnitude 6.

Other activities triggered earth-quake of magnitude 5

There are more than 70 examples of reservoir induced Seismic Activities.

First known example Hoover Dam, USA.

For a long time, the role of reservoirs in inducing earthquakes was not  well understood. Investigation of fluid injection induced earthquakes at the  Rocky Mountain Arsenal near Denver, Colorado during the early 1960’s  and application of Hubbert and Rubey’s (1959) work by Evans (1966)  on the mechanism of triggering earthquakes by increase of fluid pressure,  laid the foundation for understanding the phenomenon of reservoir-induced  seismicity. Gough and Gough (1970a, b) explained triggering of earthquakes  due to incremental stress caused by the load of the reservoir. Gupta  et al. (1972a) identified the rate of increase of water level, duration  of loading, maximum levels reached, and duration of retention of high  water levels among the important factors affecting the frequency and  magnitude of earthquakes near artificial reservoirs, The influence of pore  fluid pressures in inducing earthquakes in simple reservoir models was  investigated by Snow (1972). More sophisticated models of the effects  of reservoir impounding on inducing earthquakes based on Biot’s (1941)  consolidation theory (Rice and Cleary 1976) are provided by Withers and  Nyland (1976) and Bell and Nur (1978). The three main effects of reservoir  loading relevant to inducing earthquakes are: (a) the elastic stress increase  that follows the filling of the reservoir; (b) the increase in pore fluid  pressure in saturated rocks (due to the decrease in pore volume caused by  compaction) in response to the elastic stress increase; and (c) pore pressure  changes related to fluid migration.

Earthquakes are associated with shear fracturing of rocks. The shear strength of rocks is related to the ratio of the shear stress along the fault to the normal effective stress across the fault. The effective normal stress is equal to the normal stress minus the pore pressure. When the pore  pressure increases, the shear stress is not changed, but the effective stress  decreases by the amount of the pore pressure. Therefore, the ratio of shear  to normal stress increases. If rocks are under an initial shear stress, an  increase in fluid pressure can trigger shear failure. At Oroville, Bell and  Nur (1978) calculated a maximum drop in strength to be about 40% of  the maximum water load. When the fault zone is highly permeable, the  strength drop could be as high at 70%. For the Oroville Reservoir, with a  water depth of 200 m, these values would translate into drops of 8 and 14  bars. Earthquakes are known to have been triggered consequent to fluid  injection and pore pressure changes of 35 bars at Rangely, Colorado (Raleigh  et al., 1972, 1976), whereas during a fluid injection experiment only 14  bars pumping pressure was required to trigger earthquakes at Matsushiro,  Japan (Ohtake, 1974). Thus the earthquakes at Oroville and other sites  of induced seismicity may have been triggered by pore fluid pressure  changes.

Read it further and understand the artificial risk for even low seismic activity zones!

While asessing the seismic risk of induced earthquakes near a reservoir,  it is not the annual probability of ground shaking, but the acceptable  risk in terms of the lifetime of the reservoir, that should be assessed. A  more important effect of induced earthquakes is the change in temporal  distribution of seismicity (Simpson, 1986). Moreover, induced earthquakes  occur in the immediate vicinity of the reservoir. Areas of low natural  seismicity are most vulnerable since these are the sites where adequate  precautions are not taken to build structures to resist earthquakes; large  induced earthquakes have mostly occurred in such areas. In areas of high  seismicity, reservoirs may have less impact in changing the seismic regime  and civil works are designed to withstand natural earthquakes. In an  area of low seismicit where the return period of the maximum expected  earthquake may be thousands of years, an increase in the probability  of triggering the largest expected earthquake during the lifetime of the  reservoir will alter the risk estimate significantly.

Reference: Reservoir Induced Earthquakes By H.K. Gupta

Pore Pressure Diffusion and the Mechanism of Reservoir-Induced Seismicity

https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-0348-6245-5_14

The study of reservoir-induced seismicity offers a controlled setting to understand the physics of the earthquake process. Data from detailed investigations at reservoirs in South Carolina suggested that the mechanism of transmission of stress to hypocentral locations is by a process of diffusion of pore pressure (Pp). These results were compared with available worldwide data. The ‘seismic’ hydraulic diffusivity, αs, was estimated from various seismological observations, and was found to be a good estimate of the material hydraulic diffusivity, α. Application of these results to a dedicated experiment to understand RIS at Monticello Reservoir, S.C., suggested that the diffusing Pp front plays a dual role in the triggering of seismicity. The spatial and temporal pattern of RIS can be explained by the mechanical effect of diffusion of Pp with a characteristic hydraulic diffusivity within an order of magnitude of 5 × 104 cm2/s, corresponding to permeability values in the mtl¨¹darcy range. The triggering of seismicity is due to the combined mechanical effect of Pp in reducing the strength and, possibly, the chemical effect in reducing the coëfficiënt of friction between the clays in the pre-existing fractures and the rocks that enclose these fractures.


Dam–Induced Seismicity

Excerpt from Silenced Rivers: The Ecology and Politics of Large Dams,
by Patrick McCully, Zed Books, London, 1996

The most widely accepted explanation of how dams cause earthquakes is related to the extra water pressure created in the microcracks and fissures in the ground under and near a reservoir. When the pressure of the water in the rocks increases, it acts to lubricate faults which are already under tectonic strain, but are prevented from slipping by the friction of the rock surfaces.

For most well–studied cases of RIS, the intensity of seismic activity increased within around 25 kilometres of the reservoir as it was filled. The strongest shocks normally occured relatively soon – often within days but sometimes within several years – after the reservoir reached its greatest depth. After the initial filling of the reservoir, RIS events normally continued as the water level rose and fell but usually with less frequency and strength than before. The pattern of RIS is, however, unique for every reservoir.

https://www.internationalrivers.org/de/dam%E2%80%93induced-seismicity

Small Dams Damage : Case Study of Nu River, China

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Small Dams

News report (https://news.agu.org/press-release/small-dams-on-chinese-river-harm-environment-more-than-expected-study-finds/) writes:

A fresh look at the environmental impacts of dams on an ecologically diverse and partially protected river in China found that small dams can pose a greater threat to ecosystems and natural landscapes than large dams. Although large dams are generally considered more harmful than their smaller counterparts, the research team’s surveys of habitat loss and damage at several dam sites on the Nu River and its tributaries in Yunnan Province revealed that, watt-for-watt, the environmental harm from small dams was often greater—sometimes by several orders of magnitude—than from large dams.

One particularly detrimental impact of the small dams observed in this study is that they often divert the flow of the river to hydropower stations, leaving several kilometers of river bed dewatered, Kibler explained.

Small dams in China “often lack sufficient enforcement of environmental regulations” because they are “left to the jurisdiction of the province,” said Guy Ziv, lead scientist for the Natural Capital Project, an organization which develops tools to assess and quantify natural resources, and a researcher for the Woods Institute for the Environment at Stanford University. This study, he added, is “an important contribution to the field of natural resource management.”

The lack of regulation paired with a dearth of communication between small dam projects in China allows for the impacts to multiply and accumulate through several dam sites, the study authors write.

References:

Cumulative biophysical impact of small and large hydropower development in Nu River, China

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/wrcr.20243/abstract;jsessionid=411B21E0F362E3529BE2B1A6EFE2606A.f03t01

Abstract

[1] Support for low-carbon energy and opposition to new large dams encourages global development of small hydropower facilities. This support is manifested in national and international energy and development policies designed to incentivize growth in the small hydropower sector while curtailing large dam construction. However, the preference of small to large dams assumes, without justification, that small hydropower dams entail fewer and less severe environmental and social externalities than large hydropower dams. With the objective to evaluate the validity of this assumption, we investigate cumulative biophysical effects of small (<50 MW) and large hydropower dams in China’s Nu River basin, and compare effects normalized per megawatt of power produced. Results reveal that biophysical impacts of small hydropower may exceed those of large hydropower, particularly with regard to habitat and hydrologic change. These results indicate that more comprehensive standards for impact assessment and governance of small hydropower projects may be necessary to encourage low-impact energy development.

===============

Now, there is a news from 2016 that China is planning to shelve idea of building dams on last wild river left in country i.e. Nu river.

China May Shelve Plans to Build Dams on Its Last Wild River

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/05/160512-china-nu-river-dams-environment/

 

Shri Krishna : Mightiest Water Activist/Warrior and River Protector!

Krishna-Kaliya-damanmardan-hindi-story1-600x410

‘Kaliya’ is an epitome of illegal mining of all sort. From river front to sea, from Himalaya to Konkan, from Kashmir to Kanyakumari, Kaliya represent mining mafia. Kaliya  represent Politician-Babu-Contractor nexus who are hell-bent on destroying rivers by idiotic ideas like river-linking!

Like Gau, Krishna loved Rivers. Without River and Gau, no civilization can sustain for long. 
 
Next time when you visit river side, make sure you educate at least 2 of your best friends/family members and stop nonsensical pollution. That is real कृष्ण भक्ति!
 
This is not enough. We want govt to control industrial pollution. Let there be strong voice emerged from within society against all pollution-generating industries.
No action – No vote.

Don’t call yourself Krishna-follower/Bhakt until you have guts to protest against rapists who exploit mother Earth like insects.

Do not just celebrate fake and hollow festival until you prepare micro version of warrior and fearless Krishna within you and your tribe (close circle of friends and family). If at all there is celebration, it must instill warrior Krishna’s character in you otherwise it is waste of time.

What is the purpose of celebrating if there is no substantial reason of triumph?

Fight Kaliya(s) and revere Krishna in true sense.

Essential Habit: Water Intake

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Water

Our human body is the most sophisticated machine made of five elements – earth, water, fire, air and space. All these five elements have their own memory. That’s why they behave uniquely in their own way.

It has also been proved scientifically by our modern scientists that water has a memory. Water can remember the touch of anything. In the Hindu temples, the priest gives 3 drops of water, as it remembers the holy vibrations of the divine idol. This water is called as “Theerth” by Hindus. When the people have this water, they can remember the divine vibrations within them. The same water which is the composition of H2O can be poison depending upon the memories carried by it.

Because of this fact, we should concern about its storage. If we store water in a copper vessel, all over the night or at least 4 to 5 hours, it acquires certain qualities of Copper which is very good for health and also energy.

Benefits of water stored in a copper vessel:

• Helps to produce melanin in the body, which is very much useful for the skin to prevent from harmful UV rays as it causes skin burns and skin cancer.
• Copper mineral has a unique quality which prevents the growth of harmful bacteria.
• It detoxifies the liver.
• It helps to maintain healthy bones, powerful immune system and good digestion power.
• Copper is also an antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic that prevents cell damage and slows aging.
• Copper may prevent degenerative diseases, heart diseases, autoimmune diseases, arthritis, cataracts, Alzheimer’s disease, and diabetes.
• Copper can reduce bad cholesterol level and helps in increasing beneficial cholesterol.
• It especially helps for the people who travel frequently as it detoxifies the body.

Once we get awareness of the functionality of five elements of the body then we understand our body very well which leads to love our life with more ease.
Since we all know that health is wealth. But it is not about to be super being, it is all about to realize that being human is a superb experience… 🙂

NOTE : While drinking water from a copper vessel one should not be barefoot !!!
In case you are regularly taking in water kept in copper pot then you should stop for a couple of weeks after 3 mths of continuous usage.

Bottled Water and Hormonal rage

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Estrogen epidemic  https://draxe.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/EstrogenEpidemicArticleMeme.jpg
Estrogen epidemic

https://draxe.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/EstrogenEpidemicArticleMeme.jpg

So when you aboard a train or a bus or go on long drive, you prefer to carry bottled water with you. This relatively new habit (20-25 years old in society.) started becoming norm in last decade. Recent research  identified some 24,520 different chemicals present in the tested water. Some of them hampering hormonal balance. Great, right? Buy hormonal imbalance in name of pure water with 300% oxygen rich!

Remember one thing, never get blindfolded by technology. 🙂 Be sensitive for life style. Rely on natural source, as much as possible.

Some dots to connect:

  1. Ever wondered why children in elite class grow abnormally faster and reach puberty early?
  2. Ever wondered why in general, there is estrogen rage? Early puberty for girls, girlish men and abnormal sexual inclination?

Following researches are the answer.


Research


http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0072472

Identification of Putative Steroid Receptor Antagonists in Bottled Water: Combining Bioassays and High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are man-made compounds interfering with hormone signaling and thereby adversely affecting human health. Recent reports provide evidence for the presence of EDCs in commercially available bottled water, including steroid receptor agonists and antagonists. However, since these findings are based on biological data the causative chemicals remain unidentified and, therefore, inaccessible for toxicological evaluation. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess the antiestrogenic and antiandrogenic activity of bottled water and to identify the causative steroid receptor antagonists. We evaluated the antiestrogenic and antiandrogenic activity of 18 bottled water products in reporter gene assays for human estrogen receptor alpha and androgen receptor. Using nontarget high-resolution mass spectrometry (LTQ-Orbitrap Velos), we acquired corresponding analytical data. We combined the biological and chemical information to determine the exact mass of the tentative steroid receptor antagonist. Further MSn experiments elucidated the molecule’s structure and enabled its identification. We detected significant antiestrogenicity in 13 of 18 products. 16 samples were antiandrogenic inhibiting the androgen receptor by up to 90%. Nontarget chemical analysis revealed that out of 24520 candidates present in bottled water one was consistently correlated with the antagonistic activity. By combining experimental and in silico MSn data we identified this compound as di(2-ethylhexyl) fumarate (DEHF). We confirmed the identity and biological activity of DEHF and additional isomers of dioctyl fumarate and maleate using authentic standards. Since DEHF is antiestrogenic but not antiandrogenic we conclude that additional, yet unidentified EDCs must contribute to the antagonistic effect of bottled water. Applying a novel approach to combine biological and chemical analysis this is the first study to identify so far unknown EDCs in bottled water. Notably, dioctyl fumarates and maleates have been overlooked by science and regulation to date. This illustrates the need to identify novel toxicologically relevant compounds to establish a more holistic picture of the human exposome.

ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS: Estrogens in a Bottle?

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2702426/

Much of our exposure to endocrine disruptors occurs through what we eat and drink—in some cases, chemicals such as plasticizers may have migrated from food or beverage packaging. The possibility that these chemicals end up in commonly consumed beverages was the focus of two recent European studies that found evidence of estrogenic activity in mineral water. Both studies focused on the estrogenic potential of mineral water bottled in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic, the material constituting most convenience−size beverage bottles sold in the United States today.

In the first study, published in the March 2009 International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, a recombinant yeast−based in vitro assay was used to assess estrogenic activity in 30 PET−bottled mineral water samples. Ninety percent of the samples tested negative for estrogenic activity. Of the remaining samples, most showed measurements corresponding to a range of 14–23 ng/L estradiol equivalents—similar to the estrogen burden posed by treated drinking water derived from groundwater and river water (15 and 17 ng/L estradiol equivalents, respectively).

Of the estrogen−positive samples, authors Barbara Pinto and Daniela Reali, investigators in the University of Pisa Department of Experimental Pathology, say the water may have been contaminated at its source, during processing, or after bottling. They cite several studies showing that suboptimal storage conditions—such as prolonged exposure to sunlight and high temperatures—can cause leaching of chemicals from PET bottles into fluid contents, and point out that “cell toxicity was observed for water samples of the same lot of three different brands purchased from the same retailer.”

 

 

गणेश चतुर्थी : Time to replace earthen water pots

 Pot Ganesh
Do you have earthen pot at home for water storage?
Do you replace it every year during गणेश चतुर्थी (at least once. Ideally once a six month replacement needed)? 

Every year, on Ganesh Chaturthi, one should break the pot and get new pot. This is to avoid graha peeda (pain) (We call it viral or bacterial infection) arises due to accumulation of doshic properties from water by pot soil, through out the year.

Pottery is a perfect life science.

 
Earthen Pot balances minerals in your drinking water.
Earthen Pot balances water dosha (Water in some region is naturally Kapha dominant or Vata dominant or Pitta dominant). If dosha is not balanced, you are more than likely having imbalance of dosha. Hair fall, acidity, infections – they are natural in imbalanced doshic body!.
 
Most of service class spend 12 hrs in office. In office, they drink water from RO plant. There is no earthen pot. 😉
 
Most household now have RO. They don’t have earthen pot at home. Even if they have POT, they don’t replace it every six months.
 
Mineral deficiency? Oh! Natural! 🙂
 
What type of modernity we proud of? 😉 :p
————–

Three reasons why we replace earthen water pot.

1) Sustainable economy for the families engaged in pottery
2) Cooling. Water in pot cools down
3) For better efficiency to absorb toxins/extra minerals

Fresh earthen pots have multitudinous and crisscross narrow channels running from inside to outside of their walls like in a sponge. Or, we say that the walls of fresh earthen pot are highly porous.

When water is held in such fresh earthen pot, part of the water bleeds out through these pores by capillarity and interfacial affinity and makes the outer surface of the pot rather wet.

However, the water from inside cannot gush out though these pores like a shower because of the crisscross nature and narrowness of the channels and the fineness of the pores.

Thus, the effective exposure area for water in a fresh earthen pot, is not only the top meniscus in the pot but also the wetness on the outer surface of the pot. When water evaporates from these surfaces, the molecules leaving the pot take along heat from the pot’s walls and the water in the pot becomes cooler.

Potable water is not pure water; it contains some minerals such as potassium, sodium, magnesium and calcium salts, suspended particles, dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide, etc among others.

During the course of usage, some of these calcium and magnesium ions in water tend to precipitate as insoluble carbonates and sulphates which gradually plug the pores and channels of the pot walls.

The suspended particles, dust collected inside and outside the pot during usage and some algal and moss growths also block these pores and discourage the development of wetness of the outer walls of the pot.

In the event of decreased net area of exposure, the rate of evaporation and the scope for loss of internal heat is drastically reduced.

That is why earthen pots lose their efficiency in keeping the water cool after being used for a few years.

PROF. A. RAMACHANDRAIAH

Department of Chemistry

National Institute of Technology Warangal

————————————

So even if we clean their surface and give sun exposure, they are less efficient.

Organized Dairy : Excess Water Usage

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DSC08016

Thanks to our living under continuous mass media influence, we see solutions to real problems in sentiments.

Milk production in factory like Cold-drinks and sugar production, is water intensive enterprise. Sane society would not prefer it. Esp. when we are under extreme drought conditions.

Organized dairy is one of many heavy water using industry. UNLIKE many countries, New Zealand is blessed with abundant fresh water.

Growing Chinese demand for milk powder means farmers are increasingly switching from meat production to dairy, thereby increasing their water use. Dairy farming is also polluting freshwater supplies, as phosphates and nitrates seep into groundwater. This has become a political issue, not just for the Maori: many of the rivers and lakes loved by all Kiwis are no longer safe to swim in. The most likely outcome is a fudge that avoids saying anyone owns New Zealand’s fresh water. But the Maori may get more influence over some water, or even an allocation.

Same story in India. Amul like organized dairies are no different than Coca cola and pepsi plants, polluting water and using lot of it.


Article


http://www.economist.com/news/asia/21650571-no-guarantee-against-squabbling-over-ownership-water-water-everywhere?frsc=dg%7Cd

Water, water everywhere

But no guarantee against squabbling over ownership

UNLIKE many countries, New Zealand is blessed with abundant fresh water. Its temperate climate, regular rainfall over much of the country, and thousands of lakes and rivers ensure a good supply. But who owns these larger bodies of water? The government’s answer is, no one: not the state, nor any group or individual. But some of those who have lived in New Zealand longest, the Maori, disagree.

The Maori claim a special relationship with New Zealand’s fresh water, based on their historical use of its rivers for drinking water, spiritual beliefs, fishing and shellfish harvest, transport and trade, among other things. Their case goes back to 1840, when the British Crown and most of the Maori tribes signed the Waitangi treaty, which first formalised the colonists’ settling of the islands. Maori rights were enshrined in the treaty. An interim ruling by the Waitangi tribunal, set up in 1975 to deal with Maori grievances about land and related issues, says that the Maori have freshwater rights “for which full ownership was the closest cultural equivalent in 1840.”

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