WATER

WATER

Essential Habit: Water Intake

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Water

Our human body is the most sophisticated machine made of five elements – earth, water, fire, air and space. All these five elements have their own memory. That’s why they behave uniquely in their own way.

It has also been proved scientifically by our modern scientists that water has a memory. Water can remember the touch of anything. In the Hindu temples, the priest gives 3 drops of water, as it remembers the holy vibrations of the divine idol. This water is called as “Theerth” by Hindus. When the people have this water, they can remember the divine vibrations within them. The same water which is the composition of H2O can be poison depending upon the memories carried by it.

Because of this fact, we should concern about its storage. If we store water in a copper vessel, all over the night or at least 4 to 5 hours, it acquires certain qualities of Copper which is very good for health and also energy.

Benefits of water stored in a copper vessel:

• Helps to produce melanin in the body, which is very much useful for the skin to prevent from harmful UV rays as it causes skin burns and skin cancer.
• Copper mineral has a unique quality which prevents the growth of harmful bacteria.
• It detoxifies the liver.
• It helps to maintain healthy bones, powerful immune system and good digestion power.
• Copper is also an antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic that prevents cell damage and slows aging.
• Copper may prevent degenerative diseases, heart diseases, autoimmune diseases, arthritis, cataracts, Alzheimer’s disease, and diabetes.
• Copper can reduce bad cholesterol level and helps in increasing beneficial cholesterol.
• It especially helps for the people who travel frequently as it detoxifies the body.

Once we get awareness of the functionality of five elements of the body then we understand our body very well which leads to love our life with more ease.
Since we all know that health is wealth. But it is not about to be super being, it is all about to realize that being human is a superb experience… 🙂

NOTE : While drinking water from a copper vessel one should not be barefoot !!!
In case you are regularly taking in water kept in copper pot then you should stop for a couple of weeks after 3 mths of continuous usage.

Demineralized Water: Silent epidemic

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Demineralized Water
Demineralized Water

First pollute natural water resources. Dam them. And then come up with costly purification methods.

This is how Greed-based, GDP-obsessed society take care of basic necessities. (Now they have come up with Air purifier for home!! Selling Air to you and me 😀 😀 )

And poorer of the poor suffer. The so called bottom of the pyramid as described by armchair intellectuals and brain-dead economists with no common sense.

From Hemamalini to Shabana Aazami, all are fooling you by selling purest RO water plants. Some of them demean natural purification methods like boiling. Some co-relate it with price of Gas bottles! Builders use RO as catch word to sell their properties. Corporates, emerging water mafias, sell costly water in villages! Ha! ROna or RO – naa!

Since this part of RO plant is exposed, they are now here with new technology! RO + all minerals 😀 😀. Or Ionized water! 😀 😀

Demineralized Water Impact
Demineralized Water Impact

My dear friend, all this costs us. Severe cost of environmental degradation. And hidden health costs due to modification of natural form of water.

In rural India, these companies have already started selling RO water. Expect flood of malnutrition-led sicknesses from this area.

Here are the side effects of drinking demineralized drinking water. Doctors in my city suggest patients with vitamin deficiency to first unplug RO machines at home.

Imagine children growing in these homes! Hampered development!

Free water is fundamental human right. Selling it, polluting it, restricting it, should be crime of the highest order.

Free drinking water is possible. If we all try collectively. Zombies act individually. Like we do. So no free water for us.

Read more here: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/nutrientsindw.pdf#page=157

Shri Krishna : Mightiest Water Activist/Warrior and River Protector!

Krishna-Kaliya-damanmardan-hindi-story1-600x410

‘Kaliya’ is an epitome of illegal mining of all sort. From river front to sea, from Himalaya to Konkan, from Kashmir to Kanyakumari, Kaliya represent mining mafia. Kaliya  represent Politician-Babu-Contractor nexus who are hell-bent on destroying rivers by idiotic ideas like river-linking!

Like Gau, Krishna loved Rivers. Without River and Gau, no civilization can sustain for long. 
 
Next time when you visit river side, make sure you educate at least 2 of your best friends/family members and stop nonsensical pollution. That is real कृष्ण भक्ति!
 
This is not enough. We want govt to control industrial pollution. Let there be strong voice emerged from within society against all pollution-generating industries.
No action – No vote.

Don’t call yourself Krishna-follower/Bhakt until you have guts to protest against rapists who exploit mother Earth like insects.

Do not just celebrate fake and hollow festival until you prepare micro version of warrior and fearless Krishna within you and your tribe (close circle of friends and family). If at all there is celebration, it must instill warrior Krishna’s character in you otherwise it is waste of time.

What is the purpose of celebrating if there is no substantial reason of triumph?

Fight Kaliya(s) and revere Krishna in true sense.

Bottled Water and Hormonal rage

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Estrogen epidemic  https://draxe.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/EstrogenEpidemicArticleMeme.jpg
Estrogen epidemic

https://draxe.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/EstrogenEpidemicArticleMeme.jpg

So when you aboard a train or a bus or go on long drive, you prefer to carry bottled water with you. This relatively new habit (20-25 years old in society.) started becoming norm in last decade. Recent research  identified some 24,520 different chemicals present in the tested water. Some of them hampering hormonal balance. Great, right? Buy hormonal imbalance in name of pure water with 300% oxygen rich!

Remember one thing, never get blindfolded by technology. 🙂 Be sensitive for life style. Rely on natural source, as much as possible.

Some dots to connect:

  1. Ever wondered why children in elite class grow abnormally faster and reach puberty early?
  2. Ever wondered why in general, there is estrogen rage? Early puberty for girls, girlish men and abnormal sexual inclination?

Following researches are the answer.


Research


http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0072472

Identification of Putative Steroid Receptor Antagonists in Bottled Water: Combining Bioassays and High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are man-made compounds interfering with hormone signaling and thereby adversely affecting human health. Recent reports provide evidence for the presence of EDCs in commercially available bottled water, including steroid receptor agonists and antagonists. However, since these findings are based on biological data the causative chemicals remain unidentified and, therefore, inaccessible for toxicological evaluation. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess the antiestrogenic and antiandrogenic activity of bottled water and to identify the causative steroid receptor antagonists. We evaluated the antiestrogenic and antiandrogenic activity of 18 bottled water products in reporter gene assays for human estrogen receptor alpha and androgen receptor. Using nontarget high-resolution mass spectrometry (LTQ-Orbitrap Velos), we acquired corresponding analytical data. We combined the biological and chemical information to determine the exact mass of the tentative steroid receptor antagonist. Further MSn experiments elucidated the molecule’s structure and enabled its identification. We detected significant antiestrogenicity in 13 of 18 products. 16 samples were antiandrogenic inhibiting the androgen receptor by up to 90%. Nontarget chemical analysis revealed that out of 24520 candidates present in bottled water one was consistently correlated with the antagonistic activity. By combining experimental and in silico MSn data we identified this compound as di(2-ethylhexyl) fumarate (DEHF). We confirmed the identity and biological activity of DEHF and additional isomers of dioctyl fumarate and maleate using authentic standards. Since DEHF is antiestrogenic but not antiandrogenic we conclude that additional, yet unidentified EDCs must contribute to the antagonistic effect of bottled water. Applying a novel approach to combine biological and chemical analysis this is the first study to identify so far unknown EDCs in bottled water. Notably, dioctyl fumarates and maleates have been overlooked by science and regulation to date. This illustrates the need to identify novel toxicologically relevant compounds to establish a more holistic picture of the human exposome.

ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS: Estrogens in a Bottle?

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2702426/

Much of our exposure to endocrine disruptors occurs through what we eat and drink—in some cases, chemicals such as plasticizers may have migrated from food or beverage packaging. The possibility that these chemicals end up in commonly consumed beverages was the focus of two recent European studies that found evidence of estrogenic activity in mineral water. Both studies focused on the estrogenic potential of mineral water bottled in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic, the material constituting most convenience−size beverage bottles sold in the United States today.

In the first study, published in the March 2009 International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, a recombinant yeast−based in vitro assay was used to assess estrogenic activity in 30 PET−bottled mineral water samples. Ninety percent of the samples tested negative for estrogenic activity. Of the remaining samples, most showed measurements corresponding to a range of 14–23 ng/L estradiol equivalents—similar to the estrogen burden posed by treated drinking water derived from groundwater and river water (15 and 17 ng/L estradiol equivalents, respectively).

Of the estrogen−positive samples, authors Barbara Pinto and Daniela Reali, investigators in the University of Pisa Department of Experimental Pathology, say the water may have been contaminated at its source, during processing, or after bottling. They cite several studies showing that suboptimal storage conditions—such as prolonged exposure to sunlight and high temperatures—can cause leaching of chemicals from PET bottles into fluid contents, and point out that “cell toxicity was observed for water samples of the same lot of three different brands purchased from the same retailer.”

 

 

Myth of 8 glasses per day water intake

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Myth of 8 glasses per day water intake
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There are many simpleton sentimental social campaigns going on online. Never trust them blindly. One such campaign is ” Drink plenty of water! Drink 8 glasses per day!” 😀
 
Don’t be robotic. Respect your natural urge. Never impose unscientific rules.
 
“If we just do what our body demands us to we’ll probably get it right – just drink according to thirst rather than an elaborate schedule,” Associate Professor Farrell said.
 
Building on a previous study, the researchers asked participants to rate the amount of effort required to swallow water under two conditions; following exercise when they were thirsty and later after they were persuaded to drink an excess amount of water.
 
The results showed a three-fold increase in effort after over-drinking.
 
“Here for the first time we found effort-full swallowing after drinking excess water which meant they were having to overcome some sort of resistance,” Associate Professor Farrell said.
 
“This was compatible with our notion that the swallowing reflex becomes inhibited once enough water has been drunk.”
 
Associate Professor Farrell, who works in the Monash University Department of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure activity in various parts of the brain, focusing on the brief period just before swallowing.
 
The fMRI showed the right prefrontal areas of the brain were much more active when participants were trying to swallow with much effort, suggesting the frontal cortex steps in to override the swallowing inhibition so drinking could occur according to the researchers’ instructions.
 
“There have been cases when athletes in marathons were told to load up with water and died, in certain circumstances, because they slavishly followed these recommendations and drank far in excess of need,” he said.
 
Drinking too much water in the body puts it in danger of water intoxication or hyponatremia, when vital levels of sodium in the blood become abnormally low potentially causing symptoms ranging from lethargy and nausea to convulsions and coma.
 
https://www.monash.edu/discovery-institute/news-and-events/news/study-challenges-idea-of-mandatory-water-intake
 
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So what is the right way? How much?
 
As much body demands! At right time!
 
Never drink water immediately after having meals.
 
Reason : Our body’s center is stomach. Body is run by the energy produced by stomach and stomach gets this energy from whatever food items we eat. Stomach contains a part called Aamashay or Jathar(epigastrium). So whenever food reaches aamashay it ignites flames which is called Jathar Agni(JatAgni). This flames are similar to the flames of cooking stove. This heat ignites as soon as first bite goes in aamashay. This jatharagni continuos to generate till the food gets digest.
 
Now when you drink water after having food what happens is the heat which was generated gets extinguish. Hence the digestion process slows down or gets stopped. In stomach only two process takes place , one is digestion(pachna) and other is fermentation(Sadhna). If heat ignites then only food will digest, it will get converted in juices(ras as per Ayurveda). From this ras – flesh, majja, blood, sperms, bones, excreta, urine will be formed. All this will happen only when food get digested.
 
Now if flames do not generate, food won’t be digest and it will start to rotten in stomach and it will create toxic enzymes like uric acid, Low density Lipo-protein(Cholesterol), Very Low Density Lipo-Protein, triglycerides and other 103 types of toxins.
 
So if you anytime get to know that these toxins are present in your body that means the food is not getting digested properly. So we have to make sure that the food is digested properly and for that jatar-agni should be generated continuously. So allowing food to digest properly is more important then eating food.
 
So please don’t drink water immediately after having your food.
 
When to Drink Water:
 
1.5 hours after having your meals.
 
Reason : The food that we eat has three stages of digestion. The first stage is that whatever solid and liquid we eat it gets mixed and a paste is created. This process takes place for 1hour and 30 mins . Heat is also produced till 1hour and 30 mins only as the most important work of heat flames is to create this paste. So after 1.5 hours intensity of this heat reduces but it does not get extinguish. After 1.5 hours second stage starts.
 
In second stage Ras(juices) formation takes place. Now as we all know whenever we prepare juice of anything then at that time only we require water. For some people ras preparation starts after 1 hour, these are the people who does lots of physical hard work.
 
How much water to Drink after meals: As much as you feel. But drink it Sip by Sip.
 
Can we drink water before meals? Yes, as much you feel but 48 mins before meals.
 
Reason: when we drink water it goes into entire body parts and surplus water gets deposited in urinary bladder. So this process to bring water to Urinary bladder takes 48 mins. So in Ayurveda it is told that when this process completes and all surplus water is in bladder at that time stomach gets free from water too.
 
Can we drink water in between meal? Yes. If you feel any necessity, you can drink 1 or 2 sips only. If you are eating more than 1 grains together , for eg: wheat roti and rice. So whenever you are eating 2 types grain so drink 1 or 2 sips of water before eating 2nd type of grain.
 
What we can drink immediately after Meals: Any Fruit juices(only after breakfast, because enzymes to digest fruits are present in morning), lassi(after afternoon meals) and Milk (after dinner).
 
Watch this video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=viqDpqaltmQ

Learn सखत्व from Water(H2O)

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“पानी अपना रास्ता कर ही लेता है|” – “Water always makes its way out.”
 
Water molecules can find their own way because their bonding has intense सखत्व (Friendship). This bonding helps them to find out a way. H2O molecules are सहह्रदयी.
 
Why this example?
 
There are N numbers of problem modern life style has. Solutions demand group efforts. Community responses. Individuals cannot walk further like an isolated water drop.
 
So what baby steps we can take?
 
1) Find like-minded water droplets. And walk together in local environment. Together, there will surely a way out.
2) Share experiences so that like-minded water droplets in different regions may get hints and they too start finding way out. Of course, locally. There is no imitation scope.
 
So my presence in FB : I am sure, there is not mass change possible. 99% will ignore as they are not सहह्रदयी. To create impact on non-सहह्रदयी, one needs to be in the form of Sea. 🙂 We are not sea yet. So, baby-step is to become rivulet out of individual dammed droplets and then flow towards the sea. Those who are adamant to connect (which 99% are), will submit sooner or later.
 
🙂
 
Channelize energy in finding next droplet with same urge to become sea one day in this or some other next birth and nurture that relation. I personally work only with 2-3 droplets and we adjust our life to create strong flow ahead.

Toilet Obsession: Epic Water Waste

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Ambitious political schemes and govt campaigns often don’t consider crucial facts associated with mass level implementation.

When Central govt announced toilet schemes, I asked my self : “Is it really a Central Govt’s job to decide how I should defecate? Is it not local habits formed based by terrain and environment?”

Mind you, I am with the idea of highest possible sanitation. And against open defecation in highly dense urban centers. But you cannot impose same everywhere!

WaterlessToilets

waterless

Waterless toilet from old Architecture book of India.
Waterless toilet from old Architecture book of India.

First photo is from mexico. Water-less toilet. (Via Prof Anil Gupta’s twitter stream, IIMA)

Second photo is from a book published in 1950 (In Gujarati) on subject of Vastu Vidhya (Indian Architecture) where idea of water-less toilet is discussed. The result is सोन-खातर (Fertilizer worth Gold!) every six months! Idea is not discussed as some innovation but as normal practice! Book is for those who used to build homes for self.

What do we do now? We replace old sustainable designs with water guzzling western toilets! 🙂 And that too when we all sense acute scarcity of clean water!


References


How do waterless toilets work?

What is a waterless toilet?

Waterless toilets use urine diversion and the natural processes of decomposition and evaporation to breakdown and reduce the volume of human waste, transforming it into a soil-like compost material. The decomposition/composting and evaporation process can be thought of as what happens to a banana peel when left out in the open. It starts out yellow, moist and smelling like a banana with a relatively thick skin – after a few days it becomes a black, shriveled up, odor-less, dried out fraction of itself. That is decomposition/composting at work. Waste entering the toilets is over 90% water, which is evaporated and carried back to the atmosphere through the vent system. The urine diversion system carries sterile urine to storage containers to be diluted and used as fertilizer or discharged directly into the ground via a shallow soak pit.

http://toiletsforpeople.com/how-composting-toilets-work/

India Groundwater: a Valuable but Diminishing Resource

Groundwater in India is a critical resource. However, an increasing number of aquifers are reaching unsustainable levels of exploitation. If current trends continue, in 20 years about 60% of all India’s aquifers will be in a critical condition says a World Bank report, Deep Wells and Prudence. This will have serious implications for the sustainability of agriculture, long-term food security, livelihoods, and economic growth. It is estimated that over a quarter of the country’s harvest will be at risk. There is an urgent need to change the status quo.

http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2012/03/06/india-groundwater-critical-diminishing

गणेश चतुर्थी : Time to replace earthen water pots

 Pot Ganesh
Do you have earthen pot at home for water storage?
Do you replace it every year during गणेश चतुर्थी (at least once. Ideally once a six month replacement needed)? 

Every year, on Ganesh Chaturthi, one should break the pot and get new pot. This is to avoid graha peeda (pain) (We call it viral or bacterial infection) arises due to accumulation of doshic properties from water by pot soil, through out the year.

Pottery is a perfect life science.

 
Earthen Pot balances minerals in your drinking water.
Earthen Pot balances water dosha (Water in some region is naturally Kapha dominant or Vata dominant or Pitta dominant). If dosha is not balanced, you are more than likely having imbalance of dosha. Hair fall, acidity, infections – they are natural in imbalanced doshic body!.
 
Most of service class spend 12 hrs in office. In office, they drink water from RO plant. There is no earthen pot. 😉
 
Most household now have RO. They don’t have earthen pot at home. Even if they have POT, they don’t replace it every six months.
 
Mineral deficiency? Oh! Natural! 🙂
 
What type of modernity we proud of? 😉 :p
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Three reasons why we replace earthen water pot.

1) Sustainable economy for the families engaged in pottery
2) Cooling. Water in pot cools down
3) For better efficiency to absorb toxins/extra minerals

Fresh earthen pots have multitudinous and crisscross narrow channels running from inside to outside of their walls like in a sponge. Or, we say that the walls of fresh earthen pot are highly porous.

When water is held in such fresh earthen pot, part of the water bleeds out through these pores by capillarity and interfacial affinity and makes the outer surface of the pot rather wet.

However, the water from inside cannot gush out though these pores like a shower because of the crisscross nature and narrowness of the channels and the fineness of the pores.

Thus, the effective exposure area for water in a fresh earthen pot, is not only the top meniscus in the pot but also the wetness on the outer surface of the pot. When water evaporates from these surfaces, the molecules leaving the pot take along heat from the pot’s walls and the water in the pot becomes cooler.

Potable water is not pure water; it contains some minerals such as potassium, sodium, magnesium and calcium salts, suspended particles, dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide, etc among others.

During the course of usage, some of these calcium and magnesium ions in water tend to precipitate as insoluble carbonates and sulphates which gradually plug the pores and channels of the pot walls.

The suspended particles, dust collected inside and outside the pot during usage and some algal and moss growths also block these pores and discourage the development of wetness of the outer walls of the pot.

In the event of decreased net area of exposure, the rate of evaporation and the scope for loss of internal heat is drastically reduced.

That is why earthen pots lose their efficiency in keeping the water cool after being used for a few years.

PROF. A. RAMACHANDRAIAH

Department of Chemistry

National Institute of Technology Warangal

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So even if we clean their surface and give sun exposure, they are less efficient.

River Linking Disaster : Why England & USA are removing dams?

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Dam Removals

Most pompous govt of Indian project i.e. River linking will build numerous dams and reservoirs across India.

The prolonged history of industrialization, flood control, and hydropower production has led to the construction of 80,000 dams across the U.S. generating significant hydrologic, ecological, and social adjustments.

Now that they are facing ecological disasters, aging infrastructure, risks and costs associated with safety and maintenance, and environmental concerns, England and USA are removing dams one by one!

Instead of learning from their blunders, India is planning to build yet another network of dams and reservoirs!


Research


River restoration by dam removal: Enhancing connectivity at watershed scales

https://www.elementascience.org/articles/10.12952/journal.elementa.000108/

One of the pressing challenges facing biophysical scientists, policy makers, environmental managers, and environmental advocates is how to rehabilitate ecological systems that are increasingly characterized by long-term, significant, and complex anthropogenic changes.

Over the past several decades, more than 1,100 dams have been removed nationally!

Recent estimates indicate that more than 60 dams are being removed per year (Service, 2011a)

Because dam removal can minimize habitat fragmentation and re-establish longitudinal and lateral connectivity (Bednarek, 2001Hart et al., 2002), many ecologists and environmentalists embrace dam removal as a key component of river restoration.

Regional benefits from dam removal

Our region-wide analysis points to the greater scale of restoration associated with dam removal, and its ability to regenerate a suite of riverine processes including enhanced sediment connectivity, unfragmenting watersheds to allow fish passage, and the opening up significant river length and important habitat for resident and diadromous fish. Dam removal is progressively becoming part of the management toolkit nationally, and our results point to the greater potential for re-connectivity at the watershed scale and, perhaps more importantly, for enhanced watershed resilience. Accordingly, our results point to some unexpected biophysical benefits of undamming New England rivers. Dam removal is at best presented by restoration advocates as a means of enhancing fish passage and returning watersheds to some previous state that is virtually impossible to determine with precision. Some of these claims are accurate, but there is a value added to dam removal that is rarely voiced. This value is related to the capacity of dam removal to increase watershed resilience—as evidenced by the opening up of critical upstream habitats for certain fish species—in the context of large-scale and enduring anthropogenic changes (e.g., climate change).

Upstream Damming Disaster: Declining Sediments and Increasing Sea level

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Dams Delta

Water attracts water. When rivers are reduced to token gesture flow due to upstream damming, they no more attract rain. When rivers are impotent to attract rain, tropical rain storms change their patterns and behave randomly, ignoring river.

When there is no rain in tropic, there is no flood-flush effect which can clean mud and sediments into delta area. This results into increase sea level against land.

One in-dept research points it out.

The world’s rivers deliver 19 billion tonnes of sediment to the coastal zone annually1, with a considerable fraction being sequestered in large deltas, home to over 500 million people. Most (more than 70 per cent) large deltas are under threat from a combination of rising sea levels, ground surface subsidence and anthropogenic sediment trapping.

Research by the University of Southampton shows that a change in the patterns of tropical storms is threatening the future of the Mekong River delta in Vietnam, indicating a similar risk to other deltas around the world.

Deltas are landforms made from sediment washed into rivers and carried downstream. The sediment builds up where the river meets slow moving or still water, such as seas or lakes. Deltas naturally subside under their own weight, so a constant flow of new deposits is vital to offset these changes and prevent flooding which could be disastrous to agriculture and the environment.

Their data shows that of all the sediment transported to the delta, one third is due to tropical cyclones. It also shows that the Mekong’s sediment load has declined markedly in recent years – largely due to changes in the location and intensity of storms tracking across the upstream rivers that feed the delta.

Sand mining is already reducing the sediment being delivered to the Mekong delta and further reductions are anticipated as a result of future damming upstream. Therefore, if the storm projections are correct and even less sediment is washed downstream, the delta’s prospects look bleak.

Our study is the first to show the significant role tropical storms can have in the delivery of sediment to large river deltas. This has implications for a range of other major rivers, such as the Ganges in Bangladesh, the Yangtze in China, and the Mississippi in the US. All of these have catchments that are regularly struck by tropical storms. Some 500 million people live and work in the world’s major river deltas – and our work shows we can’t evaluate their future vulnerability to sea-level rise without also considering changes in the storms that feed the deltas.

www.thethirdpole.net/2016/10/27/vanishing-mekong-shifting-tropical-storms-threaten-a-great-river-delta/

 


Research


Fluvial sediment supply to a mega-delta reduced by shifting tropical-cyclone activity

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v539/n7628/full/nature19809.html?foxtrotcallback=true

Here we combine suspended sediment load data from the Mekong River with hydrological model simulations to isolate the role of tropical cyclones in transmitting suspended sediment to one of the world’s great deltas. We demonstrate that spatial variations in the Mekong’s suspended sediment load are correlated (r = 0.765, P < 0.1) with observed variations in tropical-cyclone climatology, and that a substantial portion (32 per cent) of the suspended sediment load reaching the delta is delivered by runoff generated by rainfall associated with tropical cyclones. Furthermore, we estimate that the suspended load to the delta has declined by 52.6 ± 10.2 megatonnes over recent years (1981–2005), of which 33.0 ± 7.1 megatonnes is due to a shift in tropical-cyclone climatology. Consequently, tropical cyclones have a key role in controlling the magnitude of, and variability in, transmission of suspended sediment to the coast. It is likely that anthropogenic sediment trapping in upstream reservoirs is a dominant factor in explaining past567, and anticipating future89, declines in suspended sediment loads reaching the world’s major deltas. However, our study shows that changes in tropical-cyclone climatology affect trends in fluvial suspended sediment loads and thus are also key to fully assessing the risk posed to vulnerable coastal systems.

 

Sediment-related impacts due to upstream reservoir trapping, the Lower Mekong River

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169555X06003229

A sharp decrease in total suspended solids (TSS) concentration has occurred in the Mekong River after the closure of the Manwan Dam in China in 1993, the first of a planned cascade of eight dams. This paper describes the upstream developments on the Mekong River, concentrating on the effects of hydropower dams and reservoirs. The reservoir-related changes in total suspended solids, suspended sediment concentration (SSC), and hydrology have been analyzed, and the impacts of such possible changes on the Lower Mekong Basin discussed. The theoretical trapping efficiency of the proposed dams has been computed and the amount of sediment to be trapped in the reservoirs estimated. The reservoir trapping of sediments and the changing of natural flow patterns will impact the countries downstream in this international river basin. Both positive and negative possible effects of such impacts have been reviewed, based on the available data from the Mekong and studies on other basins.

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