WATER

WATER

River Linking Disaster : Why England & USA are removing dams?

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Dam Removals

Most pompous govt of Indian project i.e. River linking will build numerous dams and reservoirs across India.

The prolonged history of industrialization, flood control, and hydropower production has led to the construction of 80,000 dams across the U.S. generating significant hydrologic, ecological, and social adjustments.

Now that they are facing ecological disasters, aging infrastructure, risks and costs associated with safety and maintenance, and environmental concerns, England and USA are removing dams one by one!

Instead of learning from their blunders, India is planning to build yet another network of dams and reservoirs!


Research


River restoration by dam removal: Enhancing connectivity at watershed scales

https://www.elementascience.org/articles/10.12952/journal.elementa.000108/

One of the pressing challenges facing biophysical scientists, policy makers, environmental managers, and environmental advocates is how to rehabilitate ecological systems that are increasingly characterized by long-term, significant, and complex anthropogenic changes.

Over the past several decades, more than 1,100 dams have been removed nationally!

Recent estimates indicate that more than 60 dams are being removed per year (Service, 2011a)

Because dam removal can minimize habitat fragmentation and re-establish longitudinal and lateral connectivity (Bednarek, 2001Hart et al., 2002), many ecologists and environmentalists embrace dam removal as a key component of river restoration.

Regional benefits from dam removal

Our region-wide analysis points to the greater scale of restoration associated with dam removal, and its ability to regenerate a suite of riverine processes including enhanced sediment connectivity, unfragmenting watersheds to allow fish passage, and the opening up significant river length and important habitat for resident and diadromous fish. Dam removal is progressively becoming part of the management toolkit nationally, and our results point to the greater potential for re-connectivity at the watershed scale and, perhaps more importantly, for enhanced watershed resilience. Accordingly, our results point to some unexpected biophysical benefits of undamming New England rivers. Dam removal is at best presented by restoration advocates as a means of enhancing fish passage and returning watersheds to some previous state that is virtually impossible to determine with precision. Some of these claims are accurate, but there is a value added to dam removal that is rarely voiced. This value is related to the capacity of dam removal to increase watershed resilience—as evidenced by the opening up of critical upstream habitats for certain fish species—in the context of large-scale and enduring anthropogenic changes (e.g., climate change).

Myth of 8 glasses per day water intake

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Myth of 8 glasses per day water intake
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There are many simpleton sentimental social campaigns going on online. Never trust them blindly. One such campaign is ” Drink plenty of water! Drink 8 glasses per day!” 😀
 
Don’t be robotic. Respect your natural urge. Never impose unscientific rules.
 
“If we just do what our body demands us to we’ll probably get it right – just drink according to thirst rather than an elaborate schedule,” Associate Professor Farrell said.
 
Building on a previous study, the researchers asked participants to rate the amount of effort required to swallow water under two conditions; following exercise when they were thirsty and later after they were persuaded to drink an excess amount of water.
 
The results showed a three-fold increase in effort after over-drinking.
 
“Here for the first time we found effort-full swallowing after drinking excess water which meant they were having to overcome some sort of resistance,” Associate Professor Farrell said.
 
“This was compatible with our notion that the swallowing reflex becomes inhibited once enough water has been drunk.”
 
Associate Professor Farrell, who works in the Monash University Department of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure activity in various parts of the brain, focusing on the brief period just before swallowing.
 
The fMRI showed the right prefrontal areas of the brain were much more active when participants were trying to swallow with much effort, suggesting the frontal cortex steps in to override the swallowing inhibition so drinking could occur according to the researchers’ instructions.
 
“There have been cases when athletes in marathons were told to load up with water and died, in certain circumstances, because they slavishly followed these recommendations and drank far in excess of need,” he said.
 
Drinking too much water in the body puts it in danger of water intoxication or hyponatremia, when vital levels of sodium in the blood become abnormally low potentially causing symptoms ranging from lethargy and nausea to convulsions and coma.
 
https://www.monash.edu/discovery-institute/news-and-events/news/study-challenges-idea-of-mandatory-water-intake
 
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So what is the right way? How much?
 
As much body demands! At right time!
 
Never drink water immediately after having meals.
 
Reason : Our body’s center is stomach. Body is run by the energy produced by stomach and stomach gets this energy from whatever food items we eat. Stomach contains a part called Aamashay or Jathar(epigastrium). So whenever food reaches aamashay it ignites flames which is called Jathar Agni(JatAgni). This flames are similar to the flames of cooking stove. This heat ignites as soon as first bite goes in aamashay. This jatharagni continuos to generate till the food gets digest.
 
Now when you drink water after having food what happens is the heat which was generated gets extinguish. Hence the digestion process slows down or gets stopped. In stomach only two process takes place , one is digestion(pachna) and other is fermentation(Sadhna). If heat ignites then only food will digest, it will get converted in juices(ras as per Ayurveda). From this ras – flesh, majja, blood, sperms, bones, excreta, urine will be formed. All this will happen only when food get digested.
 
Now if flames do not generate, food won’t be digest and it will start to rotten in stomach and it will create toxic enzymes like uric acid, Low density Lipo-protein(Cholesterol), Very Low Density Lipo-Protein, triglycerides and other 103 types of toxins.
 
So if you anytime get to know that these toxins are present in your body that means the food is not getting digested properly. So we have to make sure that the food is digested properly and for that jatar-agni should be generated continuously. So allowing food to digest properly is more important then eating food.
 
So please don’t drink water immediately after having your food.
 
When to Drink Water:
 
1.5 hours after having your meals.
 
Reason : The food that we eat has three stages of digestion. The first stage is that whatever solid and liquid we eat it gets mixed and a paste is created. This process takes place for 1hour and 30 mins . Heat is also produced till 1hour and 30 mins only as the most important work of heat flames is to create this paste. So after 1.5 hours intensity of this heat reduces but it does not get extinguish. After 1.5 hours second stage starts.
 
In second stage Ras(juices) formation takes place. Now as we all know whenever we prepare juice of anything then at that time only we require water. For some people ras preparation starts after 1 hour, these are the people who does lots of physical hard work.
 
How much water to Drink after meals: As much as you feel. But drink it Sip by Sip.
 
Can we drink water before meals? Yes, as much you feel but 48 mins before meals.
 
Reason: when we drink water it goes into entire body parts and surplus water gets deposited in urinary bladder. So this process to bring water to Urinary bladder takes 48 mins. So in Ayurveda it is told that when this process completes and all surplus water is in bladder at that time stomach gets free from water too.
 
Can we drink water in between meal? Yes. If you feel any necessity, you can drink 1 or 2 sips only. If you are eating more than 1 grains together , for eg: wheat roti and rice. So whenever you are eating 2 types grain so drink 1 or 2 sips of water before eating 2nd type of grain.
 
What we can drink immediately after Meals: Any Fruit juices(only after breakfast, because enzymes to digest fruits are present in morning), lassi(after afternoon meals) and Milk (after dinner).
 
Watch this video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=viqDpqaltmQ

Water is disappearing, do we care?

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ground-water_1_1_0

Many organisms invaded and occupied terrestrial and aerial niches, but none gained true independence from water.
Water connects the dots.
Water is life line.
Water is God!

Water is truly a crucial determinant of the fitness of the environment. In a very real sense, organisms are aqueous systems in a watery world.
And we thought, its coffee(or cola or other beverages) that makes our day! lol !
Do you enjoy drinking water? Or your senses are weakened enough and need special ingredients coffee, tea and cola!

True! Need of the hour! Where is purest water resource?? One more area where focus should shift soon, immediately! Pure do cure!

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||मित्र-वारुणी विध्या||

अप्स्वन्तरमृतमप्सु भेषजमपामुत प्रशस्तये। देवा भवत वाजिनः॥१९॥
जल मे अमृतोपम गुण है। जल मे औषधीय गुण है। हे देवो! ऐसे जल की प्रशंसा से आप उत्साह प्राप्त करें॥१९॥
-ऋग्वेद

Imagine the world with no ground water. Look at the map. It is already happening. No water, no life.

Our modern life is designed to create isolated silos. We are disconnected from our basic necessity sources. The technology-progress arrogance is so high that we really don’t care about being part of the natural cycle.

In luxury bath, you will waste plenty of water because for you, supply is unlimited!

I see new generation apartments and homes using guzzling amount of water from bore-well with absolutely no activity related to water re-charge.

And when we talk to them, selfish scums will reply: “Who cares? We pay for the water bill. We must get our share! You go to hell!”

Teach your kids importance of natural resources. Don’t raise them in urban silos. Expose them to harsh realities of this planet.

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May be, we (our kids) will need yet another Bhagirath (भागीरथ – extreme) efforts to welcome Maa Ganga again. Our generation is foolish enough to waste water.


Water is disappearing. Use it moderately. Train kids to use water frugally.

In many parts of the world, in particular in the dry, mid-latitudes, far more water is used than is available on an annual, renewable basis. Precipitation, snowmelt, and streamflow are no longer enough to supply the multiple, competing demands for society’s water needs. Because the gap between supply and demand is routinely bridged with non-renewable groundwater, even more so during drought, groundwater supplies in some major aquifers will be depleted in a matter of decades. The myth of limitless water and the free-for-all mentality that has pervaded groundwater use must now come to an end.

Earth’s Disappearing Groundwater

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/blogs/earthmatters/2014/11/05/earths-disapearing-groundwater/?utm_content=bufferf656a&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter.com&utm_campaign=buffer

Learn सखत्व from Water(H2O)

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“पानी अपना रास्ता कर ही लेता है|” – “Water always makes its way out.”
 
Water molecules can find their own way because their bonding has intense सखत्व (Friendship). This bonding helps them to find out a way. H2O molecules are सहह्रदयी.
 
Why this example?
 
There are N numbers of problem modern life style has. Solutions demand group efforts. Community responses. Individuals cannot walk further like an isolated water drop.
 
So what baby steps we can take?
 
1) Find like-minded water droplets. And walk together in local environment. Together, there will surely a way out.
2) Share experiences so that like-minded water droplets in different regions may get hints and they too start finding way out. Of course, locally. There is no imitation scope.
 
So my presence in FB : I am sure, there is not mass change possible. 99% will ignore as they are not सहह्रदयी. To create impact on non-सहह्रदयी, one needs to be in the form of Sea. 🙂 We are not sea yet. So, baby-step is to become rivulet out of individual dammed droplets and then flow towards the sea. Those who are adamant to connect (which 99% are), will submit sooner or later.
 
🙂
 
Channelize energy in finding next droplet with same urge to become sea one day in this or some other next birth and nurture that relation. I personally work only with 2-3 droplets and we adjust our life to create strong flow ahead.

Rain : Remedy for Spiritual Numbness

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Random notes on water.

Rain

The waters which are from heaven, and which flow after
being dug, and even those that spring by themselves, the
bright pure waters which lead to the sea, may those divine waters protect me here.’
– Rigved

How beautiful is the rain!
After the dust and the heat,
In the broad and fiery street,
In the narrow lane,How beautiful is the rain!
~ Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Summer rain is here, feel the rain, resonate with rain,
dance on the beats of rhythm divine & bring purest soul home


अथर्ववेदीय जल सूक्त


(१,४.१अ) अम्बयो यन्त्यध्वभिर्जामयो अध्वरीयतां । (१,४.१च्) पृञ्चतीर्मधुना पयः । ।१ । ।

(१,४.२अ) अमूर्या उप सूर्ये याभिर्वा सूर्यः सह । (१,४.२च्) ता नो हिन्वन्त्वध्वरं । ।२ । ।

(१,४.३अ) अपो देवीरुप ह्वये यत्र गावः पिबन्ति नः । (१,४.३च्) सिन्धुभ्यः कर्त्वं हविः । ।३ । ।

(१,४.४अ) अप्स्वन्तरमृतं अप्सु भेषजं । (१,४.४च्) अपां उत प्रशस्तिभिरश्वा भवथ वाजिनो गावो भवथ वाजिनीः । ।४ । ।

(१,५.१अ) आपो हि ष्ठा मयोभुवस्ता न ऊर्जे दधातन । (१,५.१च्) महे रणाय चक्षसे । ।१ । ।

(१,५.२अ) यो वः शिवतमो रसस्तस्य भाजयतेह नः । (१,५.२च्) उशतीरिव मातरः । ।२ । ।

(१,५.३अ) तस्मा अरं गमाम वो यस्य क्षयाय जिन्वथ । (१,५.३च्) आपो जनयथा च नः । ।३ । ।

(१,५.४अ) ईशाना वार्याणां क्षयन्तीश्चर्षणीनां । (१,५.४च्) अपो याचामि भेषजं । ।४ । ।

(१,६.१अ) शं नो देवीरभिष्टय आपो भवन्तु पीतये । (१,६.१च्) शं योरभि स्रवन्तु नः । ।१ । ।

(१,६.२अ) अप्सु मे सोमो अब्रवीदन्तर्विश्वानि भेषजा । (१,६.२च्) अग्निं च विश्वशंभुवं । ।२ । ।

(१,६.३अ) आपः पृणीत भेषजं वरूथं तन्वे मम । (१,६.३च्) ज्योक्च सूर्यं दृशे । ।३ । ।

(१,६.४अ) शं न आपो धन्वन्याः शं उ सन्त्वनूप्याः । (१,६.४च्) शं नः खनित्रिमा आपः शं उ याः कुम्भ आभृताः । (१,६.४ए) शिवा नः सन्तु वार्षिकीः । ।४ । ।

  • Water is mother and sister for those who know right usage of water.
  • Rivers are flowing like honey is mixed with milk
  • That water is good for health which is blessed by Sun Rays
  • Those rivers where our cows drink water, from we prepare Havi, should be praised.
  • Water is nectar. Water is medicine. Due to water’s qualities, horses and cows gain strength.
  • O Water! Please replenish us with your nectar!

 

Upstream Damming Disaster: Declining Sediments and Increasing Sea level

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Dams Delta

Water attracts water. When rivers are reduced to token gesture flow due to upstream damming, they no more attract rain. When rivers are impotent to attract rain, tropical rain storms change their patterns and behave randomly, ignoring river.

When there is no rain in tropic, there is no flood-flush effect which can clean mud and sediments into delta area. This results into increase sea level against land.

One in-dept research points it out.

The world’s rivers deliver 19 billion tonnes of sediment to the coastal zone annually1, with a considerable fraction being sequestered in large deltas, home to over 500 million people. Most (more than 70 per cent) large deltas are under threat from a combination of rising sea levels, ground surface subsidence and anthropogenic sediment trapping.

Research by the University of Southampton shows that a change in the patterns of tropical storms is threatening the future of the Mekong River delta in Vietnam, indicating a similar risk to other deltas around the world.

Deltas are landforms made from sediment washed into rivers and carried downstream. The sediment builds up where the river meets slow moving or still water, such as seas or lakes. Deltas naturally subside under their own weight, so a constant flow of new deposits is vital to offset these changes and prevent flooding which could be disastrous to agriculture and the environment.

Their data shows that of all the sediment transported to the delta, one third is due to tropical cyclones. It also shows that the Mekong’s sediment load has declined markedly in recent years – largely due to changes in the location and intensity of storms tracking across the upstream rivers that feed the delta.

Sand mining is already reducing the sediment being delivered to the Mekong delta and further reductions are anticipated as a result of future damming upstream. Therefore, if the storm projections are correct and even less sediment is washed downstream, the delta’s prospects look bleak.

Our study is the first to show the significant role tropical storms can have in the delivery of sediment to large river deltas. This has implications for a range of other major rivers, such as the Ganges in Bangladesh, the Yangtze in China, and the Mississippi in the US. All of these have catchments that are regularly struck by tropical storms. Some 500 million people live and work in the world’s major river deltas – and our work shows we can’t evaluate their future vulnerability to sea-level rise without also considering changes in the storms that feed the deltas.

www.thethirdpole.net/2016/10/27/vanishing-mekong-shifting-tropical-storms-threaten-a-great-river-delta/

 


Research


Fluvial sediment supply to a mega-delta reduced by shifting tropical-cyclone activity

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v539/n7628/full/nature19809.html?foxtrotcallback=true

Here we combine suspended sediment load data from the Mekong River with hydrological model simulations to isolate the role of tropical cyclones in transmitting suspended sediment to one of the world’s great deltas. We demonstrate that spatial variations in the Mekong’s suspended sediment load are correlated (r = 0.765, P < 0.1) with observed variations in tropical-cyclone climatology, and that a substantial portion (32 per cent) of the suspended sediment load reaching the delta is delivered by runoff generated by rainfall associated with tropical cyclones. Furthermore, we estimate that the suspended load to the delta has declined by 52.6 ± 10.2 megatonnes over recent years (1981–2005), of which 33.0 ± 7.1 megatonnes is due to a shift in tropical-cyclone climatology. Consequently, tropical cyclones have a key role in controlling the magnitude of, and variability in, transmission of suspended sediment to the coast. It is likely that anthropogenic sediment trapping in upstream reservoirs is a dominant factor in explaining past567, and anticipating future89, declines in suspended sediment loads reaching the world’s major deltas. However, our study shows that changes in tropical-cyclone climatology affect trends in fluvial suspended sediment loads and thus are also key to fully assessing the risk posed to vulnerable coastal systems.

 

Sediment-related impacts due to upstream reservoir trapping, the Lower Mekong River

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169555X06003229

A sharp decrease in total suspended solids (TSS) concentration has occurred in the Mekong River after the closure of the Manwan Dam in China in 1993, the first of a planned cascade of eight dams. This paper describes the upstream developments on the Mekong River, concentrating on the effects of hydropower dams and reservoirs. The reservoir-related changes in total suspended solids, suspended sediment concentration (SSC), and hydrology have been analyzed, and the impacts of such possible changes on the Lower Mekong Basin discussed. The theoretical trapping efficiency of the proposed dams has been computed and the amount of sediment to be trapped in the reservoirs estimated. The reservoir trapping of sediments and the changing of natural flow patterns will impact the countries downstream in this international river basin. Both positive and negative possible effects of such impacts have been reviewed, based on the available data from the Mekong and studies on other basins.

Water Pipes, Microbes and Prana

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capture

 

This helps my hypothesis that there are actually no bad bacteria 🙂 There are manifestation of प्राण, doing their job. Their duties as per their धर्म.
 
If you are living selfish and अधार्मिक life, their duties may look like bad for you.
 
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Researchers from Lund University in Sweden have discovered that our drinking water is to a large extent purified by millions of “good bacteria” found in water pipes and purification plants.
 
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This is the reason, our culture teaches to drink water from different sources (Well/River/Pond) in different seasons so that different forms of प्राण bless the water.प्राण
 
This is the reason, Ashtang Hrudayam prescribes water pot in home should have access to sunlight and wind.प्राण
This is the reason why we do pure desi cow ghee’s diya near water-place in the kitchen.प्राण
 
This is the reason why Vastu Shashtra prescribes kitchen and well in specific direction.प्राण
 
This is the reason why we grow specific grass near water bodies.प्राण
 
This is the reason we worship grass like durva. प्राण
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Bacteria in pipes to ghee lamp – One thing common : प्राण
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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XNMDHaZJVLo
11553710-a-broken-pipe-that-leaks-water-in-all-directions-stock-photo-plumbing

Our water pipes crawl with millions of bacteria

Researchers from Lund University in Sweden have discovered that our drinking water is to a large extent purified by millions of “good bacteria” found in water pipes and purification plants. So far, the knowledge about them has been practically non-existent, but this new research is about to change that.

 

 
http://www.lunduniversity.lu.se/article/our-water-pipes-crawl-with-millions-of-bacteria

 

Organized Dairy : Excess Water Usage

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Thanks to our living under continuous mass media influence, we see solutions to real problems in sentiments.

Milk production in factory like Cold-drinks and sugar production, is water intensive enterprise. Sane society would not prefer it. Esp. when we are under extreme drought conditions.

Organized dairy is one of many heavy water using industry. UNLIKE many countries, New Zealand is blessed with abundant fresh water.

Growing Chinese demand for milk powder means farmers are increasingly switching from meat production to dairy, thereby increasing their water use. Dairy farming is also polluting freshwater supplies, as phosphates and nitrates seep into groundwater. This has become a political issue, not just for the Maori: many of the rivers and lakes loved by all Kiwis are no longer safe to swim in. The most likely outcome is a fudge that avoids saying anyone owns New Zealand’s fresh water. But the Maori may get more influence over some water, or even an allocation.

Same story in India. Amul like organized dairies are no different than Coca cola and pepsi plants, polluting water and using lot of it.


Article


http://www.economist.com/news/asia/21650571-no-guarantee-against-squabbling-over-ownership-water-water-everywhere?frsc=dg%7Cd

Water, water everywhere

But no guarantee against squabbling over ownership

UNLIKE many countries, New Zealand is blessed with abundant fresh water. Its temperate climate, regular rainfall over much of the country, and thousands of lakes and rivers ensure a good supply. But who owns these larger bodies of water? The government’s answer is, no one: not the state, nor any group or individual. But some of those who have lived in New Zealand longest, the Maori, disagree.

The Maori claim a special relationship with New Zealand’s fresh water, based on their historical use of its rivers for drinking water, spiritual beliefs, fishing and shellfish harvest, transport and trade, among other things. Their case goes back to 1840, when the British Crown and most of the Maori tribes signed the Waitangi treaty, which first formalised the colonists’ settling of the islands. Maori rights were enshrined in the treaty. An interim ruling by the Waitangi tribunal, set up in 1975 to deal with Maori grievances about land and related issues, says that the Maori have freshwater rights “for which full ownership was the closest cultural equivalent in 1840.”

How to drink water, do we really know?

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Drinking Water and Role of Saliva
Drinking Water and Role of Saliva

Since Reverse Osmosis (RO) water is debunked by many, including doctors for their inability to provide correct composition of water, there is new trend emerging. By hook or crook, we must sell water solutions! 😀

Ionized water. Yes! Magic machine that can ionize your water! 🙂 So when you drink such water with alkaline composition, you can slowdown aging and all.

This is the problem of human mimicry of mother nature. Once we learn the benefit of certain phenomenon, we try to build solution with larger than life model. We actually fool ourselves by claiming perfect mimic of the mother nature. Such alkaline water may be good for some for some days but not always because same PH cannot work for all family members! 😀

Instead of spending Rs 15000+ in buying this magic machine, here is the free of cost solution to make your food alkaline and control stomach acidity and by the save self from all unforeseen issues like ulcer and cancer.

1) Drink water sip by sip. Slowly. Very slow. As if you are chewing water.
2) Chew food as much as possible. As many times as teeth you have. If you have 28, 28 times. 32 => 32 times.

Try it for 90 days and give me feedback. 🙂

Our saliva is ninety-nine per cent water. The remaining one per cent, however, contains numerous substances important for digestion, dental health and control of microbial growth in the mouth.

This 1% of Saliva knows very well how to make your food or water alkaline. The salivary glands in our mouth produce about 1-2 litres of saliva daily. Blood plasma is used as the basis, from which the salivary glands extract some substances and add various others. The list of ingredients found so far in saliva is long, and growing. Just as varied are the many functions, of which only a few major ones will be outlined below.

There are many benefits but let us focus on Ionization of water and food. As you start helping your food and water to stay longer in the mouth, you sprinkle them with nectar called ‘Saliva’.

Saliva is full of Ions. It is ion reservoir. More time food and water spend in mouth, better amalgamation of ions with it. Making it more alkaline.

Hydroxyapatite only forms when enough hydroxyl (OH-) and phosphate (PO43-) ions are present. Such conditions prevail at alkaline pH (pH>7). Under acidic conditions the OH- ions turn to water and the phosphate ions to mono-, di-, and trihydrogen phosphates. These do not fit into the crystal lattice and are washed away.7 Our saliva prevents this through buffering substances that keep the pH near neutral, i.e. around 7. If the pH is too alkaline over a prolonged period, the hydroxyapatite grows too quickly, leading to scale (dental calculus). In contrast, continued exposure to acidic fluids (pH<7), e.g. when sucking juice from a baby bottle, leads to porous, thin enamel.

For Mother’s gift (our body), there is always motherly solution. 🙂 And mother never charge. She only expects dharma from us. 🙂


Research


Saliva – more than just water in your mouth

http://www.eufic.org/article/en/artid/Saliva-more-than-just-water-in-your-mouth/

Saliva as a builder

The hard matter of our teeth – enamel and dentine – consists of a very hard crystal called hydroxyapatite. Hydroxyapatite is made from calcium, phosphate and hydroxyl ions. Additionally, it contains organic molecules, mainly collagen, and in the case of dentine also cellular projections from odontoblasts (cells that produce dentine).

Source of building blocks

Because of its specific properties water can dissolve out ions from salt crystals. Table salt for example quickly disintegrates in water into its constituent sodium and chloride ions. Although in hydroxyapatite the ions are bound very tightly, in water the crystal would steadily lose ions from the surface and shrink. To reverse this process, our saliva is saturated with calcium and phosphate ions. These occupy the spaces freed up in the crystal lattice and thus prevent continuous corrosion of the enamel surface. If our saliva was constantly diluted with water, the concentration of calcium phosphate would be insufficient and the tooth enamel would start to erode. This happens for example in the so-called nursing bottle syndrome seen in infants. Due to prolonged sucking on the baby bottle, even if only filled with water, the teeth become porous and typical caries on the upper front teeth develops.5 Good oral hygiene including twice daily brushing of teeth with fluoride-containing toothpaste, and minimising prolonged exposure of teeth to drinks with fermentable carbohydrates (e.g. juice, milk, formula) are some of the strategies that may help reduce the risk.6

Neutralisation of acids

Hydroxyapatite only forms when enough hydroxyl (OH) and phosphate (PO43-) ions are present. Such conditions prevail at alkaline pH (pH>7). Under acidic conditions the OH ions turn to water and the phosphate ions to mono-, di-, and trihydrogen phosphates. These do not fit into the crystal lattice and are washed away.7 Our saliva prevents this through buffering substances that keep the pH near neutral, i.e. around 7. If the pH is too alkaline over a prolonged period, the hydroxyapatite grows too quickly, leading to scale (dental calculus). In contrast, continued exposure to acidic fluids (pH<7), e.g. when sucking juice from a baby bottle, leads to porous, thin enamel.5

 

 

River linking Disaster : Dam–Induced Seismic Activities

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RiverLinking

Each living organism on this planet is intelligent enough to engineer solutions for existence. But they never tread the path and cross their limits. Only humans cross limits.

With the advent of recent industrialization phase, humans are showing arrogance of being superior than nature! And decade after decade, we plan and execute MEGA projects with the help of machines!

Have we ever thought of the impact?

Let us discuss popular way of generating electricity. Dams. And now river linking, new form of Mega dams.

Spend millions of dollar in survey and project planning. Then spend billions in construction with rampant corruption. By the time projects are realized, they not only lose value but also become disaster for ecology.

More than three–quarters of 49 projects assessed in a 1990 World Bank study of hydropower construction costs were found to have experienced unexpected geological problems of some kind. The study concluded that for hydrodams “the absence of geological problems should be treated as the exception rather than the norm.” 🙂

I will quote few references  to bring the point to the table that dams increases possibilities of earth-quakes!

Man’s engineering efforts impact the way crustal stresses are released in earthquakes; these includes deep artificial water reservoirs, underground mining, high pressure fluid injection, removing underground fluids like gas, water and oil.

The largest reservoir triggered earth-quake is of magnitude 6.

Other activities triggered earth-quake of magnitude 5

There are more than 70 examples of reservoir induced Seismic Activities.

First known example Hoover Dam, USA.

For a long time, the role of reservoirs in inducing earthquakes was not  well understood. Investigation of fluid injection induced earthquakes at the  Rocky Mountain Arsenal near Denver, Colorado during the early 1960’s  and application of Hubbert and Rubey’s (1959) work by Evans (1966)  on the mechanism of triggering earthquakes by increase of fluid pressure,  laid the foundation for understanding the phenomenon of reservoir-induced  seismicity. Gough and Gough (1970a, b) explained triggering of earthquakes  due to incremental stress caused by the load of the reservoir. Gupta  et al. (1972a) identified the rate of increase of water level, duration  of loading, maximum levels reached, and duration of retention of high  water levels among the important factors affecting the frequency and  magnitude of earthquakes near artificial reservoirs, The influence of pore  fluid pressures in inducing earthquakes in simple reservoir models was  investigated by Snow (1972). More sophisticated models of the effects  of reservoir impounding on inducing earthquakes based on Biot’s (1941)  consolidation theory (Rice and Cleary 1976) are provided by Withers and  Nyland (1976) and Bell and Nur (1978). The three main effects of reservoir  loading relevant to inducing earthquakes are: (a) the elastic stress increase  that follows the filling of the reservoir; (b) the increase in pore fluid  pressure in saturated rocks (due to the decrease in pore volume caused by  compaction) in response to the elastic stress increase; and (c) pore pressure  changes related to fluid migration.

Earthquakes are associated with shear fracturing of rocks. The shear strength of rocks is related to the ratio of the shear stress along the fault to the normal effective stress across the fault. The effective normal stress is equal to the normal stress minus the pore pressure. When the pore  pressure increases, the shear stress is not changed, but the effective stress  decreases by the amount of the pore pressure. Therefore, the ratio of shear  to normal stress increases. If rocks are under an initial shear stress, an  increase in fluid pressure can trigger shear failure. At Oroville, Bell and  Nur (1978) calculated a maximum drop in strength to be about 40% of  the maximum water load. When the fault zone is highly permeable, the  strength drop could be as high at 70%. For the Oroville Reservoir, with a  water depth of 200 m, these values would translate into drops of 8 and 14  bars. Earthquakes are known to have been triggered consequent to fluid  injection and pore pressure changes of 35 bars at Rangely, Colorado (Raleigh  et al., 1972, 1976), whereas during a fluid injection experiment only 14  bars pumping pressure was required to trigger earthquakes at Matsushiro,  Japan (Ohtake, 1974). Thus the earthquakes at Oroville and other sites  of induced seismicity may have been triggered by pore fluid pressure  changes.

Read it further and understand the artificial risk for even low seismic activity zones!

While asessing the seismic risk of induced earthquakes near a reservoir,  it is not the annual probability of ground shaking, but the acceptable  risk in terms of the lifetime of the reservoir, that should be assessed. A  more important effect of induced earthquakes is the change in temporal  distribution of seismicity (Simpson, 1986). Moreover, induced earthquakes  occur in the immediate vicinity of the reservoir. Areas of low natural  seismicity are most vulnerable since these are the sites where adequate  precautions are not taken to build structures to resist earthquakes; large  induced earthquakes have mostly occurred in such areas. In areas of high  seismicity, reservoirs may have less impact in changing the seismic regime  and civil works are designed to withstand natural earthquakes. In an  area of low seismicit where the return period of the maximum expected  earthquake may be thousands of years, an increase in the probability  of triggering the largest expected earthquake during the lifetime of the  reservoir will alter the risk estimate significantly.

Reference: Reservoir Induced Earthquakes By H.K. Gupta

Pore Pressure Diffusion and the Mechanism of Reservoir-Induced Seismicity

https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-0348-6245-5_14

The study of reservoir-induced seismicity offers a controlled setting to understand the physics of the earthquake process. Data from detailed investigations at reservoirs in South Carolina suggested that the mechanism of transmission of stress to hypocentral locations is by a process of diffusion of pore pressure (Pp). These results were compared with available worldwide data. The ‘seismic’ hydraulic diffusivity, αs, was estimated from various seismological observations, and was found to be a good estimate of the material hydraulic diffusivity, α. Application of these results to a dedicated experiment to understand RIS at Monticello Reservoir, S.C., suggested that the diffusing Pp front plays a dual role in the triggering of seismicity. The spatial and temporal pattern of RIS can be explained by the mechanical effect of diffusion of Pp with a characteristic hydraulic diffusivity within an order of magnitude of 5 × 104 cm2/s, corresponding to permeability values in the mtl¨¹darcy range. The triggering of seismicity is due to the combined mechanical effect of Pp in reducing the strength and, possibly, the chemical effect in reducing the coëfficiënt of friction between the clays in the pre-existing fractures and the rocks that enclose these fractures.


Dam–Induced Seismicity

Excerpt from Silenced Rivers: The Ecology and Politics of Large Dams,
by Patrick McCully, Zed Books, London, 1996

The most widely accepted explanation of how dams cause earthquakes is related to the extra water pressure created in the microcracks and fissures in the ground under and near a reservoir. When the pressure of the water in the rocks increases, it acts to lubricate faults which are already under tectonic strain, but are prevented from slipping by the friction of the rock surfaces.

For most well–studied cases of RIS, the intensity of seismic activity increased within around 25 kilometres of the reservoir as it was filled. The strongest shocks normally occured relatively soon – often within days but sometimes within several years – after the reservoir reached its greatest depth. After the initial filling of the reservoir, RIS events normally continued as the water level rose and fell but usually with less frequency and strength than before. The pattern of RIS is, however, unique for every reservoir.

https://www.internationalrivers.org/de/dam%E2%80%93induced-seismicity

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