River linking Disaster : Dam–Induced Seismic Activities



Each living organism on this planet is intelligent enough to engineer solutions for existence. But they never tread the path and cross their limits. Only humans cross limits.

With the advent of recent industrialization phase, humans are showing arrogance of being superior than nature! And decade after decade, we plan and execute MEGA projects with the help of machines!

Have we ever thought of the impact?

Let us discuss popular way of generating electricity. Dams. And now river linking, new form of Mega dams.

Spend millions of dollar in survey and project planning. Then spend billions in construction with rampant corruption. By the time projects are realized, they not only lose value but also become disaster for ecology.

More than three–quarters of 49 projects assessed in a 1990 World Bank study of hydropower construction costs were found to have experienced unexpected geological problems of some kind. The study concluded that for hydrodams “the absence of geological problems should be treated as the exception rather than the norm.” 🙂

I will quote few references  to bring the point to the table that dams increases possibilities of earth-quakes!

Man’s engineering efforts impact the way crustal stresses are released in earthquakes; these includes deep artificial water reservoirs, underground mining, high pressure fluid injection, removing underground fluids like gas, water and oil.

The largest reservoir triggered earth-quake is of magnitude 6.

Other activities triggered earth-quake of magnitude 5

There are more than 70 examples of reservoir induced Seismic Activities.

First known example Hoover Dam, USA.

For a long time, the role of reservoirs in inducing earthquakes was not  well understood. Investigation of fluid injection induced earthquakes at the  Rocky Mountain Arsenal near Denver, Colorado during the early 1960’s  and application of Hubbert and Rubey’s (1959) work by Evans (1966)  on the mechanism of triggering earthquakes by increase of fluid pressure,  laid the foundation for understanding the phenomenon of reservoir-induced  seismicity. Gough and Gough (1970a, b) explained triggering of earthquakes  due to incremental stress caused by the load of the reservoir. Gupta  et al. (1972a) identified the rate of increase of water level, duration  of loading, maximum levels reached, and duration of retention of high  water levels among the important factors affecting the frequency and  magnitude of earthquakes near artificial reservoirs, The influence of pore  fluid pressures in inducing earthquakes in simple reservoir models was  investigated by Snow (1972). More sophisticated models of the effects  of reservoir impounding on inducing earthquakes based on Biot’s (1941)  consolidation theory (Rice and Cleary 1976) are provided by Withers and  Nyland (1976) and Bell and Nur (1978). The three main effects of reservoir  loading relevant to inducing earthquakes are: (a) the elastic stress increase  that follows the filling of the reservoir; (b) the increase in pore fluid  pressure in saturated rocks (due to the decrease in pore volume caused by  compaction) in response to the elastic stress increase; and (c) pore pressure  changes related to fluid migration.

Earthquakes are associated with shear fracturing of rocks. The shear strength of rocks is related to the ratio of the shear stress along the fault to the normal effective stress across the fault. The effective normal stress is equal to the normal stress minus the pore pressure. When the pore  pressure increases, the shear stress is not changed, but the effective stress  decreases by the amount of the pore pressure. Therefore, the ratio of shear  to normal stress increases. If rocks are under an initial shear stress, an  increase in fluid pressure can trigger shear failure. At Oroville, Bell and  Nur (1978) calculated a maximum drop in strength to be about 40% of  the maximum water load. When the fault zone is highly permeable, the  strength drop could be as high at 70%. For the Oroville Reservoir, with a  water depth of 200 m, these values would translate into drops of 8 and 14  bars. Earthquakes are known to have been triggered consequent to fluid  injection and pore pressure changes of 35 bars at Rangely, Colorado (Raleigh  et al., 1972, 1976), whereas during a fluid injection experiment only 14  bars pumping pressure was required to trigger earthquakes at Matsushiro,  Japan (Ohtake, 1974). Thus the earthquakes at Oroville and other sites  of induced seismicity may have been triggered by pore fluid pressure  changes.

Read it further and understand the artificial risk for even low seismic activity zones!

While asessing the seismic risk of induced earthquakes near a reservoir,  it is not the annual probability of ground shaking, but the acceptable  risk in terms of the lifetime of the reservoir, that should be assessed. A  more important effect of induced earthquakes is the change in temporal  distribution of seismicity (Simpson, 1986). Moreover, induced earthquakes  occur in the immediate vicinity of the reservoir. Areas of low natural  seismicity are most vulnerable since these are the sites where adequate  precautions are not taken to build structures to resist earthquakes; large  induced earthquakes have mostly occurred in such areas. In areas of high  seismicity, reservoirs may have less impact in changing the seismic regime  and civil works are designed to withstand natural earthquakes. In an  area of low seismicit where the return period of the maximum expected  earthquake may be thousands of years, an increase in the probability  of triggering the largest expected earthquake during the lifetime of the  reservoir will alter the risk estimate significantly.

Reference: Reservoir Induced Earthquakes By H.K. Gupta

Pore Pressure Diffusion and the Mechanism of Reservoir-Induced Seismicity


The study of reservoir-induced seismicity offers a controlled setting to understand the physics of the earthquake process. Data from detailed investigations at reservoirs in South Carolina suggested that the mechanism of transmission of stress to hypocentral locations is by a process of diffusion of pore pressure (Pp). These results were compared with available worldwide data. The ‘seismic’ hydraulic diffusivity, αs, was estimated from various seismological observations, and was found to be a good estimate of the material hydraulic diffusivity, α. Application of these results to a dedicated experiment to understand RIS at Monticello Reservoir, S.C., suggested that the diffusing Pp front plays a dual role in the triggering of seismicity. The spatial and temporal pattern of RIS can be explained by the mechanical effect of diffusion of Pp with a characteristic hydraulic diffusivity within an order of magnitude of 5 × 104 cm2/s, corresponding to permeability values in the mtl¨¹darcy range. The triggering of seismicity is due to the combined mechanical effect of Pp in reducing the strength and, possibly, the chemical effect in reducing the coëfficiënt of friction between the clays in the pre-existing fractures and the rocks that enclose these fractures.

Dam–Induced Seismicity

Excerpt from Silenced Rivers: The Ecology and Politics of Large Dams,
by Patrick McCully, Zed Books, London, 1996

The most widely accepted explanation of how dams cause earthquakes is related to the extra water pressure created in the microcracks and fissures in the ground under and near a reservoir. When the pressure of the water in the rocks increases, it acts to lubricate faults which are already under tectonic strain, but are prevented from slipping by the friction of the rock surfaces.

For most well–studied cases of RIS, the intensity of seismic activity increased within around 25 kilometres of the reservoir as it was filled. The strongest shocks normally occured relatively soon – often within days but sometimes within several years – after the reservoir reached its greatest depth. After the initial filling of the reservoir, RIS events normally continued as the water level rose and fell but usually with less frequency and strength than before. The pattern of RIS is, however, unique for every reservoir.


गणेश चतुर्थी : Time to replace earthen water pots

 Pot Ganesh
Do you have earthen pot at home for water storage?
Do you replace it every year during गणेश चतुर्थी (at least once. Ideally once a six month replacement needed)? 

Every year, on Ganesh Chaturthi, one should break the pot and get new pot. This is to avoid graha peeda (pain) (We call it viral or bacterial infection) arises due to accumulation of doshic properties from water by pot soil, through out the year.

Pottery is a perfect life science.

Earthen Pot balances minerals in your drinking water.
Earthen Pot balances water dosha (Water in some region is naturally Kapha dominant or Vata dominant or Pitta dominant). If dosha is not balanced, you are more than likely having imbalance of dosha. Hair fall, acidity, infections – they are natural in imbalanced doshic body!.
Most of service class spend 12 hrs in office. In office, they drink water from RO plant. There is no earthen pot. 😉
Most household now have RO. They don’t have earthen pot at home. Even if they have POT, they don’t replace it every six months.
Mineral deficiency? Oh! Natural! 🙂
What type of modernity we proud of? 😉 :p

Three reasons why we replace earthen water pot.

1) Sustainable economy for the families engaged in pottery
2) Cooling. Water in pot cools down
3) For better efficiency to absorb toxins/extra minerals

Fresh earthen pots have multitudinous and crisscross narrow channels running from inside to outside of their walls like in a sponge. Or, we say that the walls of fresh earthen pot are highly porous.

When water is held in such fresh earthen pot, part of the water bleeds out through these pores by capillarity and interfacial affinity and makes the outer surface of the pot rather wet.

However, the water from inside cannot gush out though these pores like a shower because of the crisscross nature and narrowness of the channels and the fineness of the pores.

Thus, the effective exposure area for water in a fresh earthen pot, is not only the top meniscus in the pot but also the wetness on the outer surface of the pot. When water evaporates from these surfaces, the molecules leaving the pot take along heat from the pot’s walls and the water in the pot becomes cooler.

Potable water is not pure water; it contains some minerals such as potassium, sodium, magnesium and calcium salts, suspended particles, dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide, etc among others.

During the course of usage, some of these calcium and magnesium ions in water tend to precipitate as insoluble carbonates and sulphates which gradually plug the pores and channels of the pot walls.

The suspended particles, dust collected inside and outside the pot during usage and some algal and moss growths also block these pores and discourage the development of wetness of the outer walls of the pot.

In the event of decreased net area of exposure, the rate of evaporation and the scope for loss of internal heat is drastically reduced.

That is why earthen pots lose their efficiency in keeping the water cool after being used for a few years.


Department of Chemistry

National Institute of Technology Warangal


So even if we clean their surface and give sun exposure, they are less efficient.

Rain: Its not about water but the flow and cloud chaos


Couple of days back, I shared that plants and soil await rain, not just for water but the flow or Prana with it.

Does it matter? Is it really Prana that is awaited?

Let me add few more sentences to it.

Rain is not about water! It is about the travel of water with all cloud-chaos! Cellular intelligence(प्राण) travel with chaos.

Monsoon brings प्राणिक (प्राण) replenishment. Its not about rain. It is about the sun energy traveled with rain. सूर्य = प्राण.


2500 years back, Chanakya/Kautilya said

नदी वेगेन शुध्यति

It is common sense imparted to Indians by their Rishi-scientists that it is ideal to drink flowing water of river. Ganga jal is considered most sacred for her unique flow through fertile rocks of Himalaya.

Germany’s Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research finds relevant conclusion.

They say: Flowing water energises minerals.
We believe: Flowing water instills Prana in minerals.

But…wait…we have converted our rivers into gutters. We dammed rivers mindlessly. What a foolish and barbaric civilization we have become…


Flowing water energises minerals

The electric charge of mineral surfaces changes in flowing water – a finding that is also important for understanding geological processes



When water flows over glass or rock, the chemical changes that occur are more profound than had been previously assumed. Using a sophisticated spectroscopic method, a team from the Mainz-based Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research and the University of Namur in Belgium has discovered that the electric charge of mineral surfaces changes radically under a flow of water, as many ions are preferentially dissolved from the material. The type of mineral involved and the acidity or alkalinity of the flowing water determine whether and how strongly the surface is positively or negatively charged. However, the change in the charge can be so radical that it corresponds to a 100-fold change in the acid concentration. The change in the surface charge is directly linked to electrical activity and consequently changes the energy of the surface and its reactivity. This recent discovery could therefore have consequences for understanding numerous chemical processes in nature and in industry.

The Monsoon Wait : Vedic Sukta



Eagerly waiting for that real fragrance of mother. Fresh post-rain fragrance of soil.

Following Vedic Hymn gives perfect voice to the intense urge we all have for our mothers. The Vedic praise hymns to the Earth Mother cover a wide range of aspects: physical, organic, metaphysical, ethical and cosmic. No aspect of existence is kept out of its fold.

May we develop/regain back sensitivity to sense mother Earth and live like a responsible son.

Instil in me abundantly that fragrance,
O Mother Earth, which emanates from you
your fragrance which has entered the lotus
where with the immortal Gods at the Sun-daughters wedding
were redolent, O Earth, in times primeval —
instill in me that fragrance.
Your fragrance that adheres to human beings
O Earth, steep us, too deeply in that fragrance
[Atharva Veda, 12.1.23-26]

यस् ते गन्धः पृथिवि संबभूव यं बिभ्रत्य् ओषधयो यम् आपः |
यं गन्धर्वा अप्सरसश् च भेजिरे तेन मा सुरभिं कृणु मा नो द्विक्षत कश् चन ||23||

यस् ते गन्धः पुष्करम् आविवेश यं संजभ्रुः सूर्याया विवाहे |
अमर्त्याः पृथिवि गन्धम् अग्रे तेन मा सुरभिं कृणु मा नो द्विक्षत कश् चन ||24||

यस् ते गन्धः पुरुषेषु स्त्रीषु पुंसु भगो रुचिः |
यो अश्वेषु वीरेषु यो मृगेषूत हस्तिषु |
कन्यायां वर्चो यद् भूमे तेनास्मां अपि सं सृज मा नो द्विक्षत कश् चन ||25||

शिला भूमिर् अश्मा पांसुः सा भूमिः संधृता धृता |
तस्यै हिरण्यवक्षसे पृथिव्या अकरं नमः ||26||

Prepare self to welcome monsoon! Wish you great monsoon! 🙂

Rain : Remedy for Spiritual Numbness


Random notes on water.


The waters which are from heaven, and which flow after
being dug, and even those that spring by themselves, the
bright pure waters which lead to the sea, may those divine waters protect me here.’
– Rigved

How beautiful is the rain!
After the dust and the heat,
In the broad and fiery street,
In the narrow lane,How beautiful is the rain!
~ Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Summer rain is here, feel the rain, resonate with rain,
dance on the beats of rhythm divine & bring purest soul home

अथर्ववेदीय जल सूक्त

(१,४.१अ) अम्बयो यन्त्यध्वभिर्जामयो अध्वरीयतां । (१,४.१च्) पृञ्चतीर्मधुना पयः । ।१ । ।

(१,४.२अ) अमूर्या उप सूर्ये याभिर्वा सूर्यः सह । (१,४.२च्) ता नो हिन्वन्त्वध्वरं । ।२ । ।

(१,४.३अ) अपो देवीरुप ह्वये यत्र गावः पिबन्ति नः । (१,४.३च्) सिन्धुभ्यः कर्त्वं हविः । ।३ । ।

(१,४.४अ) अप्स्वन्तरमृतं अप्सु भेषजं । (१,४.४च्) अपां उत प्रशस्तिभिरश्वा भवथ वाजिनो गावो भवथ वाजिनीः । ।४ । ।

(१,५.१अ) आपो हि ष्ठा मयोभुवस्ता न ऊर्जे दधातन । (१,५.१च्) महे रणाय चक्षसे । ।१ । ।

(१,५.२अ) यो वः शिवतमो रसस्तस्य भाजयतेह नः । (१,५.२च्) उशतीरिव मातरः । ।२ । ।

(१,५.३अ) तस्मा अरं गमाम वो यस्य क्षयाय जिन्वथ । (१,५.३च्) आपो जनयथा च नः । ।३ । ।

(१,५.४अ) ईशाना वार्याणां क्षयन्तीश्चर्षणीनां । (१,५.४च्) अपो याचामि भेषजं । ।४ । ।

(१,६.१अ) शं नो देवीरभिष्टय आपो भवन्तु पीतये । (१,६.१च्) शं योरभि स्रवन्तु नः । ।१ । ।

(१,६.२अ) अप्सु मे सोमो अब्रवीदन्तर्विश्वानि भेषजा । (१,६.२च्) अग्निं च विश्वशंभुवं । ।२ । ।

(१,६.३अ) आपः पृणीत भेषजं वरूथं तन्वे मम । (१,६.३च्) ज्योक्च सूर्यं दृशे । ।३ । ।

(१,६.४अ) शं न आपो धन्वन्याः शं उ सन्त्वनूप्याः । (१,६.४च्) शं नः खनित्रिमा आपः शं उ याः कुम्भ आभृताः । (१,६.४ए) शिवा नः सन्तु वार्षिकीः । ।४ । ।

  • Water is mother and sister for those who know right usage of water.
  • Rivers are flowing like honey is mixed with milk
  • That water is good for health which is blessed by Sun Rays
  • Those rivers where our cows drink water, from we prepare Havi, should be praised.
  • Water is nectar. Water is medicine. Due to water’s qualities, horses and cows gain strength.
  • O Water! Please replenish us with your nectar!


Organized Dairy : Excess Water Usage



Thanks to our living under continuous mass media influence, we see solutions to real problems in sentiments.

Milk production in factory like Cold-drinks and sugar production, is water intensive enterprise. Sane society would not prefer it. Esp. when we are under extreme drought conditions.

Organized dairy is one of many heavy water using industry. UNLIKE many countries, New Zealand is blessed with abundant fresh water.

Growing Chinese demand for milk powder means farmers are increasingly switching from meat production to dairy, thereby increasing their water use. Dairy farming is also polluting freshwater supplies, as phosphates and nitrates seep into groundwater. This has become a political issue, not just for the Maori: many of the rivers and lakes loved by all Kiwis are no longer safe to swim in. The most likely outcome is a fudge that avoids saying anyone owns New Zealand’s fresh water. But the Maori may get more influence over some water, or even an allocation.

Same story in India. Amul like organized dairies are no different than Coca cola and pepsi plants, polluting water and using lot of it.



Water, water everywhere

But no guarantee against squabbling over ownership

UNLIKE many countries, New Zealand is blessed with abundant fresh water. Its temperate climate, regular rainfall over much of the country, and thousands of lakes and rivers ensure a good supply. But who owns these larger bodies of water? The government’s answer is, no one: not the state, nor any group or individual. But some of those who have lived in New Zealand longest, the Maori, disagree.

The Maori claim a special relationship with New Zealand’s fresh water, based on their historical use of its rivers for drinking water, spiritual beliefs, fishing and shellfish harvest, transport and trade, among other things. Their case goes back to 1840, when the British Crown and most of the Maori tribes signed the Waitangi treaty, which first formalised the colonists’ settling of the islands. Maori rights were enshrined in the treaty. An interim ruling by the Waitangi tribunal, set up in 1975 to deal with Maori grievances about land and related issues, says that the Maori have freshwater rights “for which full ownership was the closest cultural equivalent in 1840.”

Learn सखत्व from Water(H2O)




“पानी अपना रास्ता कर ही लेता है|” – “Water always makes its way out.”
Water molecules can find their own way because their bonding has intense सखत्व (Friendship). This bonding helps them to find out a way. H2O molecules are सहह्रदयी.
Why this example?
There are N numbers of problem modern life style has. Solutions demand group efforts. Community responses. Individuals cannot walk further like an isolated water drop.
So what baby steps we can take?
1) Find like-minded water droplets. And walk together in local environment. Together, there will surely a way out.
2) Share experiences so that like-minded water droplets in different regions may get hints and they too start finding way out. Of course, locally. There is no imitation scope.
So my presence in FB : I am sure, there is not mass change possible. 99% will ignore as they are not सहह्रदयी. To create impact on non-सहह्रदयी, one needs to be in the form of Sea. 🙂 We are not sea yet. So, baby-step is to become rivulet out of individual dammed droplets and then flow towards the sea. Those who are adamant to connect (which 99% are), will submit sooner or later.
Channelize energy in finding next droplet with same urge to become sea one day in this or some other next birth and nurture that relation. I personally work only with 2-3 droplets and we adjust our life to create strong flow ahead.

Water ATM – Yet another slavery sign



Water ATM – Yet another slavery weapon
So this type of development current govt is planning for Rural India?
First the news item :
““Water ATMs” are changing how rural areas in India can access clean water. These machines use solar power to dispense clean water for villages, monitor water quality and check supply needs” [5]
From microfinance to water ATM – cronies find ways to exploit bottom of the pyramid. And all democratically elected govt helps them in name of uplifting poors! 😀 Joke !
Piramal group’s Sarvjal project in RJ,MP and GJ.
They charge 30 paisa per ltr. Project looks clean in first go but when you do calculations….here it goes:
Let us assume, avg rural household(Family of 4) uses 16 ltr per day. If the price is 30 p, it will cost them Rs 1752 yearly for avg 6000 ltr water.
What is water tax in second tier city for unlimited water supply? Rs 850 to Rs 1200 (and you get virtually unlimited processed water!)
Even if you consider subsidy of city water and compare, it is open loot!
Annual subsidy per residential connection per year in H’bad is Rs 2028
Water tariff is 2555 (assuming 0.57 m3 daily use and Rs 7 charge for the same).
Real tariff = 2555+2028 =4583
Annual usage is 200 m3 (0.57*365) i.e. 200*1000 ltr = 200000
30 paisa per ltr.
Source: Pg 11 of this report http://www.wsp.org/sites/wsp.org/files/publications/418200752957_scorecard.pdf
Pay more and in return get undernourishment.
RO – may look safe by eyes who see enemies in bacteria and viruses. Read about health-risks of deminearalized water.
These sources may give headstart. Doctors in my city now suggest to remove RO at home.
[1] http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/nutrientsindw.pdf#page=157
[2] http://www.slideshare.net/ianbhamilton/is-your-reverse-osmosis-water-stealing-nutrients-from-your-body
[3] http://www.dnaindia.com/india/1621189/report-is-reverse-osmosis-slowing-you-down
[4] http://archpedi.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=570296
[5] http://spectrum.ieee.org/tech-talk/green-tech/solar/solarpowered-atms-bring-clean-water-to-indias-slums

Essential Habit: Water Intake



Our human body is the most sophisticated machine made of five elements – earth, water, fire, air and space. All these five elements have their own memory. That’s why they behave uniquely in their own way.

It has also been proved scientifically by our modern scientists that water has a memory. Water can remember the touch of anything. In the Hindu temples, the priest gives 3 drops of water, as it remembers the holy vibrations of the divine idol. This water is called as “Theerth” by Hindus. When the people have this water, they can remember the divine vibrations within them. The same water which is the composition of H2O can be poison depending upon the memories carried by it.

Because of this fact, we should concern about its storage. If we store water in a copper vessel, all over the night or at least 4 to 5 hours, it acquires certain qualities of Copper which is very good for health and also energy.

Benefits of water stored in a copper vessel:

• Helps to produce melanin in the body, which is very much useful for the skin to prevent from harmful UV rays as it causes skin burns and skin cancer.
• Copper mineral has a unique quality which prevents the growth of harmful bacteria.
• It detoxifies the liver.
• It helps to maintain healthy bones, powerful immune system and good digestion power.
• Copper is also an antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic that prevents cell damage and slows aging.
• Copper may prevent degenerative diseases, heart diseases, autoimmune diseases, arthritis, cataracts, Alzheimer’s disease, and diabetes.
• Copper can reduce bad cholesterol level and helps in increasing beneficial cholesterol.
• It especially helps for the people who travel frequently as it detoxifies the body.

Once we get awareness of the functionality of five elements of the body then we understand our body very well which leads to love our life with more ease.
Since we all know that health is wealth. But it is not about to be super being, it is all about to realize that being human is a superb experience… 🙂

NOTE : While drinking water from a copper vessel one should not be barefoot !!!
In case you are regularly taking in water kept in copper pot then you should stop for a couple of weeks after 3 mths of continuous usage.

Water Pipes, Microbes and Prana




This helps my hypothesis that there are actually no bad bacteria 🙂 There are manifestation of प्राण, doing their job. Their duties as per their धर्म.
If you are living selfish and अधार्मिक life, their duties may look like bad for you.
Researchers from Lund University in Sweden have discovered that our drinking water is to a large extent purified by millions of “good bacteria” found in water pipes and purification plants.
This is the reason, our culture teaches to drink water from different sources (Well/River/Pond) in different seasons so that different forms of प्राण bless the water.प्राण
This is the reason, Ashtang Hrudayam prescribes water pot in home should have access to sunlight and wind.प्राण
This is the reason why we do pure desi cow ghee’s diya near water-place in the kitchen.प्राण
This is the reason why Vastu Shashtra prescribes kitchen and well in specific direction.प्राण
This is the reason why we grow specific grass near water bodies.प्राण
This is the reason we worship grass like durva. प्राण
Bacteria in pipes to ghee lamp – One thing common : प्राण

Our water pipes crawl with millions of bacteria

Researchers from Lund University in Sweden have discovered that our drinking water is to a large extent purified by millions of “good bacteria” found in water pipes and purification plants. So far, the knowledge about them has been practically non-existent, but this new research is about to change that.




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