Microbes

Microbes

Research: Human activity (Fertilizers and Pesticides, Deforestation) affecting microbes in soil

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“Adding nitrogen and phosphorous, commonly used as fertilizers, to the soil beneath grasslands shifts the natural communities of fungi, bacteria and microscopic organisms”

Can you imagine the rampant destruction of our soil in last 50 years? So called Green revolution destroyed microbial wealth we once had. Reason why India was known as land of golden sparrows.

Urea Microbes
Urea Microbes

Our present govt is planning to promote second wave of Green Revolution. Few more forests will be cut and soil nurtured for 1000s of years will become desert in few years.

There is only one solution. Gau mata and her prasad. Cow-dung, urine, milk – they can only replenish dying soil in shortest possible time.


Research


Consistent responses of soil microbial communities to elevated nutrient inputs in grasslands across the globe

http://www.pnas.org/content/112/35/10967.abstract

Significance

Human activities have resulted in large increases in the availability of nutrients in terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. Although plant community responses to elevated nutrients have been well studied, soil microbial community responses remain poorly understood, despite their critical importance to ecosystem functioning. Using DNA-sequencing approaches, we assessed the response of soil microbial communities to experimentally added nitrogen and phosphorus at 25 grassland sites across the globe. Our results demonstrate that the composition of these communities shifts in consistent ways with elevated nutrient inputs and that there are corresponding shifts in the ecological attributes of the community members. This study represents an important step forward for understanding the connection between elevated nutrient inputs, shifts in soil microbial communities, and altered ecosystem functioning.

Abstract

Soil microorganisms are critical to ecosystem functioning and the maintenance of soil fertility. However, despite global increases in the inputs of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to ecosystems due to human activities, we lack a predictive understanding of how microbial communities respond to elevated nutrient inputs across environmental gradients. Here we used high-throughput sequencing of marker genes to elucidate the responses of soil fungal, archaeal, and bacterial communities using an N and P addition experiment replicated at 25 globally distributed grassland sites. We also sequenced metagenomes from a subset of the sites to determine how the functional attributes of bacterial communities change in response to elevated nutrients. Despite strong compositional differences across sites, microbial communities shifted in a consistent manner with N or P additions, and the magnitude of these shifts was related to the magnitude of plant community responses to nutrient inputs. Mycorrhizal fungi and methanogenic archaea decreased in relative abundance with nutrient additions, as did the relative abundances of oligotrophic bacterial taxa. The metagenomic data provided additional evidence for this shift in bacterial life history strategies because nutrient additions decreased the average genome sizes of the bacterial community members and elicited changes in the relative abundances of representative functional genes. Our results suggest that elevated N and P inputs lead to predictable shifts in the taxonomic and functional traits of soil microbial communities, including increases in the relative abundances of faster-growing, copiotrophic bacterial taxa, with these shifts likely to impact belowground ecosystems worldwide.

Man is known by the company he keeps : We all have individual microbial cloud

Man is known by the company he keeps.

Above phrase is popular cultural conclusion. There is no science involved but this is what wise from us have concluded.

 

CAPTION We each give off millions of bacteria from our human microbiome to the air around us every day, and that cloud of bacteria can be traced back to an individual. New research focused on the personal microbial cloud -- the airborne microbes we emit into the air -- examined the microbial connection we have with the air around us. The findings demonstrate the extent to which humans possess a unique 'microbial cloud signature.' CREDIT Image created by Viputheshwar Sitaraman, of Draw Science. Also view this graphical abstract at pub.drawscience.org/2015/09/meadow
CAPTION
We each give off millions of bacteria from our human microbiome to the air around us every day, and that cloud of bacteria can be traced back to an individual. New research focused on the personal microbial cloud — the airborne microbes we emit into the air — examined the microbial connection we have with the air around us. The findings demonstrate the extent to which humans possess a unique ‘microbial cloud signature.’
CREDIT
Image created by Viputheshwar Sitaraman, of Draw Science. Also view this graphical abstract at pub.drawscience.org/2015/09/meadow

Humans emit upwards of 106biological particles per hour, and have long been known to transmit pathogens to other individuals and to indoor surfaces.

 

Here is an interesting paper discussing same. Microbes are प्राणिक signature. You can say, floated and distributed cellular intelligence. Your home, your work area, your family members, your colleagues, they have their own signature. Museum of their own microbes. More time you spend with them, more you exchange this प्राणिक signatures. And slowly, above saying becomes true.

And so it is critical to keep good company. It is critical to do सत्संग.

One more reason why we restrict children to visit alien places alone. They have very sensitive प्राणमय शरीर. They are in growth or learning phase. So they are susceptible to imbibe alien signatures. And same is true for persons with weak mind.

“Our results confirm that an occupied space is microbially distinct from an unoccupied one, and and demonstrate for the first time that individuals release their own personalized microbial cloud,” the authors concluded.


It is always preferable to live life in tribe who share your roots, habits and customs. 🙂 (That is where Varna and Jati played critical role of sustaining Indian societal fabric)

One more reason why it is advised to keep newborn in quarantine area of home in company of mother only i.e. to avoid incompatible microbial clouds that may hamper growth. And only after निष्क्रमण संस्कार (4 months) , infant is allowed to go out and exchange with environment. It is called वृध्धि सूतक.

And same is the reason why unrestrained sex with multiple partners is causing severe immune deficiency. We call it AIDS. 🙂 (As there will be chaotic exchange of incompatible Pranic Footprints)

Microbial cloud https://goo.gl/PI2j51
Microbial cloud
https://goo.gl/PI2j51


Microbial cloud = प्राण in distribution = Floated intelligence. Some compatible with you, many not. ==> Infection, Immune disorders.

Reason why we clean homes regularly. Reason why we do grih-shanti before moving into new home. To stabilize the Floated intelligence of the home.

This does not mean that you cannot live life without doing all of this. 🙂 Just there may be unforeseen obstacles. Being sensitive about environment around helps us to perform our duties toward the world effortlessly. That is the purpose of life.


Research


“We each give off millions of bacteria from our human microbiome to the air around us every day, and that cloud of bacteria can be traced back to an individual. New research focused on the personal microbial cloud — the airborne microbes we emit into the air — examined the microbial connection we have with the air around us. The findings demonstrate the extent to which humans possess a unique ‘microbial cloud signature.'”

New research finds that people emit their own personal microbial cloud

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-09/p-nrf091515.php

We each give off millions of bacteria from our human microbiome to the air around us every day, and that cloud of bacteria can be traced back to an individual. New research focused on the personal microbial cloud — the airborne microbes we emit into the air — examined the microbial connection we have with the air around us. The findings demonstrate the extent to which humans possess a unique ‘microbial cloud signature’.

The striking results were driven by several groups of bacteria that are ubiquitous on and in humans, such as Streptococcus, which is commonly found in the mouth, and Propionibacterium and Corynebacterium, both common skin residents. While these common human-associated microbes were detected in the air around all people in the study, the authors found that the different combinations of those bacteria were the key to distinguishing among individual people.

“We expected that we would be able to detect the human microbiome in the air around a person, but we were surprised to find that we could identify most of the occupants just by sampling their microbial cloud,” said lead author James F. Meadow, a postdoctoral researcher formerly from the Biology and the Built Environment Center at the University of Oregon.

“Our results confirm that an occupied space is microbially distinct from an unoccupied one, and and demonstrate for the first time that individuals release their own personalized microbial cloud,” the authors concluded.

The research sheds light on the extent to which we release our human microbiome to our surrounding environment, and might help understand the mechanisms involved in the spread of infectious diseases in buildings. The results also suggest potential forensic applications, for example to identify or determine where a person has been, though it is unclear whether individual occupants can be detected in a crowd of other people.

Humans differ in their personal microbial cloud

https://peerj.com/articles/1258/

Dispersal of microbes between humans and the built environment can occur through direct contact with surfaces or through airborne release; the latter mechanism remains poorly understood. Humans emit upwards of 106biological particles per hour, and have long been known to transmit pathogens to other individuals and to indoor surfaces. However it has not previously been demonstrated that humans emit a detectible microbial cloud into surrounding indoor air, nor whether such clouds are sufficiently differentiated to allow the identification of individual occupants. We used high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes to characterize the airborne bacterial contribution of a single person sitting in a sanitized custom experimental climate chamber. We compared that to air sampled in an adjacent, identical, unoccupied chamber, as well as to supply and exhaust air sources. Additionally, we assessed microbial communities in settled particles surrounding each occupant, to investigate the potential long-term fate of airborne microbial emissions. Most occupants could be clearly detected by their airborne bacterial emissions, as well as their contribution to settled particles, within 1.5–4 h. Bacterial clouds from the occupants were statistically distinct, allowing the identification of some individual occupants. Our results confirm that an occupied space is microbially distinct from an unoccupied one, and demonstrate for the first time that individuals release their own personalized microbial cloud.

Vitamin B12 Deficiency, GUT and Muladhara

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Yesterday was harsh day of this season. Heavy rain, humid, and extreme heat. My friend and I, working on critical task, felt exhausted. Dehydrated.

Friend suggested :”I think it is again Vitamin B12 deficiency! I think I will need injections again!”

I wondered. How a simple season driven exhaustion is turned into deficiency! 🙁

There were two things at play for both of us. 1) Stress induced non-healthy GUT 2) lack of healthy food for days.

Solution is to take rest. Worship Ganesha and eat healthy season driven food!

 

B12 Eyewash
B12 Eyewash

Modern medicine has reduced wholesome food into supplement status symbols.

Oh, B12 ? Take injections!
Oh Vit A? Take this supplement!

This is nothing but eyewash. Unless we correct our GUT, there is no hope for malnutrition.Malnutrition may manifest as either obesity or undernutrition. Accumulating evidence suggests that the gut microbiota plays an important role in the harvest, storage, and expenditure of energy obtained from the diet.

Gut Health
Gut Health

One person might have stronger nerves than another because she has a better stock of vitamin B–producing bacteria. Another person might be able to deal easily with bit of bread mold eaten by mistake. Yet another might have a tendency to gain weight because the “chubby” bacteria in his gut feed him a bit too willingly. Science is just beginning to understand that each of us is an entire ecosystem.

You take all costly B-12 injections or Vitamin A supplement or Vitamin C but if your GUT is not healthy, they are garbage and will be purged within 72 hrs via urine and stool!

There is no shortcut for healthy life. Stop nonsensical torture on body first. Stop all processed acidic food so that bacteria have chance to get flourished in you GUT. Then stop stressful events in life. Late night parties, tongue-lust driven non-seasonal food – stop it if you really want your B12 injections to work.

Above all physical nutrition, health is all mental. To correct your mental stress and linked sick GUT, this is best season. गणपति is protector of GUT. As per Tantra-Shashtra, गणपति lives in Muladhara, an energy center near GUT. It is your mind that helps प्राणमय शरीर (cellular intelligence) to form health अन्नमय शरीर (physical body) (Do not ask proof. Modern proof-based science cannot swim in this sea of knowledge at this moment). Experiment! Does not matter if you are an atheist! Or follow any other religion. गणपति is eternal, beyond religious boundaries.

Worship and surrender to गणपति. That is the beginning of the yearly healthy GUT.

ॐ गणेशाय नमः |

Muladhara Protector
Muladhara Protector

Research


Bacteria as vitamin suppliers to their host: a gut microbiota perspective.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22940212

Food-related lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as well as human gut commensals such as bifidobacteria can de novo synthesize and supply vitamins. This is important since humans lack the biosynthetic capacity for most vitamins and these must thus be provided exogenously. Although vitamins are present in a variety of foods, deficiencies still occur, mainly due to malnutrition as a result of insufficient food intake and because of poor eating habits. Fermented milks with high levels of B-group vitamins (such as folate and riboflavin) can be produced by LAB-promoted and possibly bifidobacteria-promoted biosynthesis. Moreover, certain strains of LAB produce the complex vitamin cobalamin (or vitamin B12). In this review, fermented foods with elevated levels of B-group vitamins produced by LAB used as starter cultures will be covered. In addition, genetic abilities for vitamin biosynthesis by selected human gut commensals will be discussed.

Vitamin B12 synthesis by human small intestinal bacteria.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7354869

In man, physiological amounts of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) are absorbed by the intrinsic factor mediated mechanism exclusively in the ileum. Human faeces contain appreciable quantities of vitamin B12 or vitamin B12-like material presumably produced by bacteria in the colon, but this is unavailable to the non-coprophagic individual. However, the human small intestine also often harbours a considerable microflora and this is even more extensive in apparently healthy southern Indian subjects. We now show that at least two groups of organisms in the small bowel, Pseudomonas and Klebsiella sp., may synthesise significant amounts of the vitamin.

Effects of Gut Microbes on Nutrient Absorption and Energy Regulation

Malnutrition may manifest as either obesity or undernutrition. Accumulating evidence suggests that the gut microbiota plays an important role in the harvest, storage, and expenditure of energy obtained from the diet. The composition of the gut microbiota has been shown to differ between lean and obese humans and mice; however, the specific roles that individual gut microbes play in energy harvest remain uncertain. The gut microbiota may also influence the development of conditions characterized by chronic low-level inflammation, such as obesity, through systemic exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide derived from the gut microbiota. In this review, the role of the gut microbiota in energy harvest and fat storage is explored, as well as differences in the microbiota in obesity and undernutrition.

 

Research: Viruses flourish in healthy gut : Get rid of germ-phobia

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One more evidence to cure our germ-phobia. Viruses and bacteria are everywhere. They are harmless. They are doing their duties. They are helping and participating in the sustenance of the universe.

Problem is with us. Our crimes of not following routine as per changes in age, season and region. Intellectual errors or प्रज्ञाअपराध as known in the world of Ayurveda, is the root cause of our so called bacterial and viral infection.

In case of children, infections are due to normal errors in their growth. As a parent, we must provide them environment where self-healing becomes quick (Fresh Air, boiled water, Rich organic food, stress-free family life, isolation from noisy environment, exposure to mother nature). Lack of such environment leads to critical situations. Be vigil, cure before it becomes critical. Only cure if self-helping.


Research


https://cdn.shopify.com/s/files/1/0208/9228/t/8/assets/anatomy-160524_1280.png?2085709924575077035
https://cdn.shopify.com/s/files/1/0208/9228/t/8/assets/anatomy-160524_1280.png?2085709924575077035

Viruses flourish in guts of healthy babies

Bacteria aren’t the only nonhuman invaders to colonize the gut shortly after a baby’s birth. Viruses also set up house there, according to new research atWashington University School of Medicine in St. Louis.

Bacteria aren’t the only nonhuman invaders to colonize the gut shortly after a baby’s birth. Viruses also set up house there

All together, these invisible residents are thought to play important roles in human health.

The study, published online Sept. 14 in Nature Medicine, reports data from eight healthy infants and is one of the first surveys of viruses that reside in the intestine. The investigators analyzed stool samples to track how the babies’ bacterial gut microbiomes and viromes changed over the first two years of life.

The picture that emerged may be worthy of a wildlife documentary: It includes the discovery of viral strains new to science and suggests a dynamic ecosystem of interacting organisms, including predators and their prey.

“We are just beginning to understand the interplay between all the different types of life within our gut,” said senior author Lori R. Holtz, MD, assistant professor of pediatrics. “They are not stand-alone communities. We also are seeing that the environment of the infant gut is extremely dynamic, which differs from the relative stability that has been shown in adults.”

“We were surprised that right from the beginning quite a diversity of viruses was found in the gut,” said Holtz,

The earliest stool samples were taken at 1-4 days of life, and even at this early time point, Holtz noted, viruses were present.

“We were surprised that right from the beginning quite a diversity of viruses was found in the gut,” said Holtz, also a pediatric gastroenterologist who treats patients at St. Louis Children’s Hospital. “It prompts the question — where do these viruses come from? We don’t know yet whether diet, method of the baby’s delivery or other environmental influences play a role.”

Pathogens shape your Behaviour: Immunity and Being Social

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They shape out social behaviour
They shape out social behaviour IMAGE SOURCE: https://www.mtyhd.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/immunity-against-diseases_Gk5Lduu_-GS.jpg

General understanding about immunity is very naive based on the memes spread by modern science custodians in last 100 years. So far, it used to be function preventing us from unforeseen illnesses. Protecting us from pathogens. That is it, right?

It is high time we understand the roots of immunity.

Sanskrit word मुनि means anyone who is moved by inward impulses. Someone who is self-inspired. Someone who is performing duties intuitively.

Now let us understand Latin: Latin word Munis (early *moinis, moenis) has as its principal meaning someone who discharges his office/duty, somebody accomplishing a tasks also contained is the connotation present, gift. Related to it are im-munis (with its derivative im-munitas {immunity}, that is, the exemption from charge or duty.

So in our body, all active cells are Muni(s) or मुनि ((S). They are working as per self-inspiration based on cellular intelligence they carry from birth. Immunity is the process of retiring cells from their duties. Why do we need it?

We need it because their job is over. To maintain the integrity of the body, it is necessary to give them good bye. This process of good bye is a Immune response. This is called Innate immunity. Sometimes, when external conditions are not good, cells die prematurely or their processing is affected severely. So they broadcast messages for help or to alert others in cell community. We call it Viruses. Viruses are dead information. They are not मुनि. They are born to get uprooted once message is conveyed to other cells. We call it viral infection. When severe condition persists for cells, they die prematurely. We call it bacterial infection.

In short, integrity of organism is essential for Muni(s) or Body cell to perform tasks. To help them immune system perform immunity process.

So-called immune system knows which part of the body is self, and what is not-self. A self-marker or a suimarker is endowed to each self-element, an advantage not denied to an alien unit or cell present at the time of thymic maturation.

So when immunity is compromised (मुनि characteristic of us), it is trauma and stress for each individual cell/bacteria/देव/पितर participating in our existence! Summation of it, emerges as anti-social behaviour! And that is what this paper talks about!

At the same time, it is our social interactions as a child, that shapes our immunity (our sense of identifying self from rest).  And as immunity is strengthen, we become and remain social.

SHOCKING NEW ROLE FOUND FOR THE IMMUNE SYSTEM: CONTROLLING SOCIAL INTERACTIONS

https://news.virginia.edu/content/shocking-new-role-found-immune-system-controlling-social-interactions?utm_source=VirginiaHome&utm_medium=referral&utm_campaign=news

“The brain and the adaptive immune system were thought to be isolated from each other, and any immune activity in the brain was perceived as sign of a pathology. And now, not only are we showing that they are closely interacting, but some of our behavior traits might have evolved because of our immune response to pathogens,” explained Jonathan Kipnis, chair of UVA’s Department of Neuroscience. “It’s crazy, but maybe we are just multicellular battlefields for two ancient forces: pathogens and the immune system. Part of our personality may actually be dictated by the immune system.”

The UVA researchers have shown that a specific immune molecule, interferon gamma, seems to be critical for social behavior and that a variety of creatures, such as flies, zebrafish, mice and rats, activate interferon gamma responses when they are social. Normally, this molecule is produced by the immune system in response to bacteria, viruses or parasites. Blocking the molecule in mice using genetic modification made regions of the brain hyperactive, causing the mice to become less social. Restoring the molecule restored the brain connectivity and behavior to normal. In a paper outlining their findings, the researchers note the immune molecule plays a “profound role in maintaining proper social function.”

 

“It’s extremely critical for an organism to be social for the survival of the species. It’s important for foraging, sexual reproduction, gathering, hunting,” said Anthony J. Filiano, Hartwell postdoctoral fellow in the Kipnis lab and lead author of the study. “So the hypothesis is that when organisms come together, you have a higher propensity to spread infection. So you need to be social, but [in doing so] you have a higher chance of spreading pathogens. The idea is that interferon gamma, in evolution, has been used as a more efficient way to both boost social behavior while boosting an anti-pathogen response.”

Now, we see viruses, bacteria and mosquitos as our enemies. Think about it. Are they our enemies? Or they are mother nature’s faithful workers shaping our immunity! (self-realization! Moksha! What not! It starts with the physical self!)

 

 

Ganesha, The protector of second brain

Ganesha
Ganesha

गणेश चतुर्थी to गणेश चतुर्दशी : Here is your yearly chance to contemplate on ageless doubt “Who am I?” and strengthen self-belief.

Happy Festival!Best wishes for your ultimate joyous conversation with self!

Season’s Rain has done his job.
Seeds for new beginning are already sprouted.
Welcome to lord of beginning in our heart. May we become live example of गणपति.

During monsoon, our digestive power remains very low and so there are high chances that GUT remains polluted. So just when the monsoon is on the verge of end, we worship गणेश for 10 days.

गणपति resides in GUT area . And to worship him, we generally keep fast. Fasting clean the GUT and transforms it from GUTTER into Heaven. So clean GUT means right decisions, right actions and in real sense गणेश acts as विध्नहर्ता.

The part of the alimentary canal between the stomach and the anus is known as GUT. This is reservoir of microbes. Critical digestive processes happen here.

Muladhara
Muladhara

In Ayurveda, this place is considered as मूलाधार चक्र.गणपति resides here. Ayurveda considers body beyond physical body and energy layer is one of such layer, प्राणमय कोष. Energy @ मूलाधार चक्र is responsible for person’s intelligence, valor and many other traits. And Ganapati resides here. He controls all activities.

Now, modern science says, GUT is our second brain. 🙂 🙂 We use this second brain as gutter. We eat anything and everything. Creating highly polluted environment. So second brain hardly works. 🙂 🙂 😉 😛

Moral of the post: Do not make fun of your rituals under the influence of media, TV, Bollywood and some so called rational authors. If you do not understand a bit, still follow your culture. There are ample hidden benefits.

When you meditate on मूलाधार by chanting ganapati atharvashirsha, unique mental and physical state emerge. In modern science language, you actually help your second brain to work well.

Antibiotics disturbs this area most. This is the reason I advocate alternative use of controlling bacterial infection and not antibiotics. As it directly affect our emotions and thinking capacity.

See all photos with post. Think about it. Read more:


Research


http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/gut-second-brain/

Think Twice: How the Gut’s “Second Brain” Influences Mood and Well-Being

Gut - Second brain
Gut – Second brain

Technically known as the enteric nervous system, the second brain consists of sheaths of neurons embedded in the walls of the long tube of our gut, or alimentary canal, which measures about nine meters end to end from the esophagus to the anus. The second brain contains some 100 million neurons, more than in either the spinal cord or the peripheral nervous system, Gershon says.

This multitude of neurons in the enteric nervous system enables us to “feel” the inner world of our gut and its contents. Much of this neural firepower comes to bear in the elaborate daily grind of digestion. Breaking down food, absorbing nutrients, and expelling of waste requires chemical processing, mechanical mixing and rhythmic muscle contractions that move everything on down the line.

Thus equipped with its own reflexes and senses, the second brain can control gut behavior independently of the brain, Gershon says. We likely evolved this intricate web of nerves to perform digestion and excretion “on site,” rather than remotely from our brains through the middleman of the spinal cord. “The brain in the head doesn’t need to get its hands dirty with the messy business of digestion, which is delegated to the brain in the gut,” Gershon says. He and other researchers explain, however, that the second brain’s complexity likely cannot be interpreted through this process alone.

“The system is way too complicated to have evolved only to make sure things move out of your colon,” says Emeran Mayer, professor of physiology, psychiatry and biobehavioral sciences at the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles (U.C.L.A.). For example, scientists were shocked to learn that about 90 percent of the fibers in the primary visceral nerve, the vagus, carry information from the gut to the brain and not the other way around. “Some of that info is decidedly unpleasant,” Gershon says.

The second brain informs our state of mind in other more obscure ways, as well. “A big part of our emotions are probably influenced by the nerves in our gut,” Mayer says. Butterflies in the stomach—signaling in the gut as part of our physiological stress response, Gershon says—is but one example. Although gastrointestinal (GI) turmoil can sour one’s moods, everyday emotional well-being may rely on messages from the brain below to the brain above. For example, electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve—a useful treatment for depression—may mimic these signals, Gershon says.

Given the two brains’ commonalities, other depression treatments that target the mind can unintentionally impact the gut. The enteric nervous system uses more than 30 neurotransmitters, just like the brain, and in fact 95 percent of the body’s serotonin is found in the bowels. Because antidepressant medications called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) increase serotonin levels, it’s little wonder that meds meant to cause chemical changes in the mind often provoke GI issues as a side effect. Irritable bowel syndrome—which afflicts more than two million Americans—also arises in part from too much serotonin in our entrails, and could perhaps be regarded as a “mental illness” of the second brain.

Gau Gavya and Gau-Raksha

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When someone represent गौ-रक्षक in negative image, my blood boils. As a leader, I should actually promote that every citizen should be गौ-रक्षक!

गाय & गव्य
गाय & गव्य

Gavya is a Sanskrit word. It has multiple meanings. It is actually a bridge between different forms of Gau.

Gau means Cow. Gau means senses. Gau means mother Earth. Gavya is their prasad. One produces and another consumes. Cycle goes on forever.

गौ रक्षक
गौ रक्षक

Panchgavya is elixir from Gau, for Gau (Human senses and Mother Earth). Result again is Gavya (Seva from Humans and produce from Mother earth) from gau, for Gau (Cow).

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Method of preparation
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Pancha-Gavya and Gau Raksha
Pancha-Gavya and Gau Raksha

Panchagavya, an organic product has the potential to play the role of promoting growth and providing immunity in plant system. Panchagavya consists of nine products viz. cow dung, cow urine, milk, curd, jaggery, ghee, banana, Tender coconut and water. When suitably mixed and used, these have miraculous effects.

Cow dung – 7 kg
Cow ghee – 1 kg
Mix the above two ingredients thoroughly both in morning and evening hours and keep it for 3 days

Cow Urine – 10 liters
Water – 10 liters
After 3 days mix cow urine and water and keep it for 15 days with regular mixing both in morning and evening hours. After 15 days mix the following and panchagavya will be ready after 30 days.

Cow milk – 3 liters
Cow curd – 2 liters
Tender coconut water – 3 liters
Jaggery – 3 kg
Well ripened poovan banana – 12 nos.

Read more: http://agritech.tnau.ac.in/org_farm/orgfarm_panchakavya.html

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We all have Vishnu seated in us. We must perform duties in his form. Being Gopati.

Cow Milk : Season driven changes

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Every other day, I have to explain young friends that we don’t love our mother based on how much she fed us the breast milk. Similarly, mother soil or mother gau, must not be judged based on the yield. It is utterly sick world view. Abnormal and clearly against the dharma.

Milk quantity and quality changes with breed, season, terrain and care you provide to mother.So , for once and all, get rid of this pervert mentality to see Gau as milk machine.

When you are blessed by authentic raw cow milk, don’t try to compare it with milk from professional dairies. In Dairy, milk is homogenized, so you will get same quality every day. When you procure milk from Gau shala, quality changes every day, in all seasons!

Since आत्म विद्या, प्राण विद्या are not part of education, and many of us are not even exposed to introduction, it becomes difficult to understand how microbes work (Not that I know everything. I am still learning. )

Ethical Gau Shala takes care of calf
Ethical Gau Shala takes care of calf

Effectiveness of butter milk depends upon many factors. Source of milk, time of churning, season! Even two cows from same Gau shala will different quality based on their lactation cycle! So if you avail milk from Gau shala, it is very much possible that there will be variation in milk quality! It is natural to doubt variation if for last 20-30 years, you have drank dairy based milk! On the contrary – if there is same quality milk from Gau shala, you should doubt! 🙂  Essential solution is trust between you and Gau shala and frequent visits to Gau shala so that we can connect with Gau mata!

It is not religious fanaticism when I claim that desi zebu cattle’s milk is best probiotic food source, it is easily verifiable by modern scientific standards.

In this post (Real Milk vs Factory milk vs Vegan Alternatives), I shared how and why milk source matters.

Please note. Now, modern dairy science realize season driven changes in milk. Our festivals and deeply rooted life understand this as common sense and restrict milk usage in several patches of the year (I have shared here time to time).

We reduce milk usage by the end of summer and again make it regular by onset of शरद ऋतू.

Milk was never a primary reason we revere and worship cows.

Modern dairy science also misled (at least by advertisements) common mass by saying that pasteurization kills all microbes. Not true. Read paper to know more. They also set wrong standards by comparing milk quality by FAT %. Real nectar is not FAT % but type of fat and other minerals! (Which are lost in high heat dairy process!)

This paper also talks about how modern processes of transporting and processing milk changes microbes and fermented food (I shared it here at least twice why butter milk (छास) from market is different from home-made and why fermentation must happen at home).

While this paper talks sensibly, their end goals are still not right. 🙂

Read it. realize it.

http://mbio.asm.org/content/7/4/e00836-16

The Core and Seasonal Microbiota of Raw Bovine Milk in Tanker Trucks and the Impact of Transfer to a Milk Processing Facility

“Raw milk harbors diverse bacteria that are crucial determinants of the quality and safety of fluid milk and (fermented) dairy products. These bacteria enter farm milk during transport, storage, and processing. Although pathogens are destroyed by pasteurization, not all bacteria and their associated enzymes are eliminated. Our comprehensive analyses of the bacterial composition of raw milk upon arrival and shortly after storage at major dairy processors showed that the communities of milk microbiota are highly diverse. Even with these differences, there was a core microbiota that exhibited distinct seasonal trends. Remarkably, the effects of the processing facility outweighed those of the raw milk microbiome and the microbial composition changed distinctly within some but not all silos within a short time after transfer. “

Seasonal variation in milk vitamin contents available for processing in Punjab, Pakistan

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1658077X12000033

Seasonal variation in milk composition has attained core attention for consistent quality of dairy products at a global scale. Due to escalating scientific awareness, consumers are tracking toward nutritionally enhanced milk based functional products that have elevated their market demand. The current research was planned to evaluate localities and seasonal variation in fat, protein, lactose and vitamins (A, E, C) in milk (mix cow and buffalo milk) available for processing. The seasonal duration ranged from April 2008 to March 2009. The fat, protein and lactose contents of milk from all zones significantly varied throughout the season. Moreover, fat (5.4%) & protein (3.22%) contents were high in February, while maximum lactose content (6.26%) was observed in January. Additionally, minimum fat (4.3%), protein (2.3%) and lactose (4.93%) contents were observed in summer months. Highest vitamin C content (6.68 mg/100 g) of milk was recorded in February, whereas vitamin A (264.5 IU/100) and vitamin E (0.226 mg/100 g) were obtained in August and June, respectively. It was noted that vitamin A and E contents were high in August and subsequently declined till March. Conclusively, the current exploration proved helpful to analyze seasonal variation in milk composition with special reference to vitamins for consistent quality end products.

Milk Components: Understanding the Causes and Importance of Milk Fat and Protein Variation in Your Dairy Herd

http://extension.psu.edu/animals/dairy/nutrition/nutrition-and-feeding/diet-formulation-and-evaluation/milk-components-understanding-the-causes-and-importance-of-milk-fat-and-protein-variation-in-your-dairy-herd

 

Season vs Milk Fat
Season vs Milk Fat
Level of fat and protein varies across herds and seasonally. Ranges represent one standard deviation above and below the average. The solid line in the center of each range indicates the average for that month. For the three years studied, milk fat% averaged 3.76 ± 0.32 (blue), and milk protein% averaged 3.05 ± 0.19 (orange). (Bailey et al., 2005).

Season dramatically affects milk fat and protein (refer to Figure 1). The hot, humid months (July and August in the northeast) depress fat and protein content. There is a gradual increase of protein and fat in milk through the fall and peak levels occur in the colder months of winter. As temperatures increase through the spring, component levels are gradually decreased. These changes may be indicative of feed intake patterns, which are lower in summer due to changes in weather and temperature.

Effect of season of birth on milk, fat, and protein production of Israeli Holsteins.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8827465

The effects of birth month on production of milk, fat, and protein and percentages of fat and protein were analyzed based on production records of 101,653 first parity, 77,541 second parity, and 51,856 third parity Israeli Holstein cows. Each parity was analyzed separately. The analysis model also included the effects of herd-year, DIM, calving age, and calving month. First parity Type III sums of squares for birth month were nearly as large as those for calving month but decreased for later parities. Similar results were obtained using multiplicative models in which the dependent variables were the logarithms of the production traits. The effects of calving month and birth month were not similar, but birth month had similar effects for milk, fat, and protein production. Production was lowest by cows born in the early spring and highest by cows born in the fall. Analyses of the log-transformed traits showed that the F values for calving month were greater than, and the F values for birth month were nearly identical to, the F values for the untransformed trait analyses. The physiological basis for these trends was not clear.

Desi cow is is कामधेनु! do you know what is the meaning of कामधेनु?

Kamdhenu
Kamdhenu

श्रियः प्रदुग्धे विपदो रुणद्धि
यशांसि सूते मलिनं प्रमार्ष्टि ।
संस्कारशौचेन परं पुनीते
शुद्धा हि वुद्धिः किल कामधेनुः ॥

शुद्ध बुद्धि सचमुच कामधेनु है, क्यों कि वह संपत्ति को दोहती है, विपत्ति को रुकाती है, यश दिलाती है, मलिनता धो देती है, और संस्काररुप पावित्र्य द्वारा अन्य को पावन करती है ।

Like knowledge, mother helps us by preventing difficult situations and purifying our environment (both internal body and external)

Think beyond FAT % while doing Gau seva and receiving Prasad (milk)

‘I’ is becoming obsolete

0
Tree of Life Img Src: https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/736x/ec/79/d2/ec79d24ccd98700a5a4b982f95d90744.jpg
Tree of Life
Img Src: https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/736x/ec/79/d2/ec79d24ccd98700a5a4b982f95d90744.jpg

All Sanatana Dharma scriptures talks about dissolving false ego ‘I’ or अहंकार. There is nothing like ‘I’. It is your false ego. There is indeed thin line by which you can recognize end of you and start of environment.

And this life is never for self but to serve others. I tried example of microbes and their friendship with us several times to show this synergy and border-less body we have.

The real life starts when you dissolve this false arrogance of being ‘I’. I am something. I am doctor. i am engineer. I am Mr. XYZ 😀

Taking care of body is highest धर्म (duty). It is सेवा of all microbial societies forming your body. It is सेवा of all molecular bodies giving you luxury of false ego.

शरीर
शरीरमाद्यं खलु धर्मसाधनम् ।
शरीर धर्म पालन का पहला साधन है ।

Not eating food your body wants, not doing exercise, taking too much stress,taking mindless chemicals in form of medicines — All of these are Karmic crimes against lower worlds serving as your body!!

Now science is preaching same.


Reference


The pronoun ‘I’ is becoming obsolete

http://news.vanderbilt.edu/2015/08/the-pronoun-i-is-becoming-obsolete/

Recent microbiological research has shown that thinking of plants and animals, including humans, as autonomous individuals is a serious over-simplification.

A series of groundbreaking studies have revealed that what we have always thought of as individuals are actually “biomolecular networks” that consist of visible hosts plus millions of invisible microbes that have a significant effect on how the host develops, the diseases it catches, how it behaves and possibly even its social interactions.

It’s a case of the whole being greater than the sum of its parts,” said Seth Bordenstein, associate professor of biological sciences at Vanderbilt University, who has contributed to the body of scientific knowledge that is pointing to the conclusion that symbiotic microbes play a fundamental role in virtually all aspects of plant and animal biology, including the origin of new species.

Host Biology in Light of the Microbiome: Ten Principles of Holobionts and Hologenomes

http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.1002226

Groundbreaking research on the universality and diversity of microorganisms is now challenging the life sciences to upgrade fundamental theories that once seemed untouchable. To fully appreciate the change that the field is now undergoing, one has to place the epochs and foundational principles of Darwin, Mendel, and the modern synthesis in light of the current advances that are enabling a new vision for the central importance of microbiology. Animals and plants are no longer heralded as autonomous entities but rather as biomolecular networks composed of the host plus its associated microbes, i.e., “holobionts.” As such, their collective genomes forge a “hologenome,” and models of animal and plant biology that do not account for these intergenomic associations are incomplete. Here, we integrate these concepts into historical and contemporary visions of biology and summarize a predictive and refutable framework for their evaluation. Specifically, we present ten principles that clarify and append what these concepts are and are not, explain how they both support and extend existing theory in the life sciences, and discuss their potential ramifications for the multifaceted approaches of zoology and botany. We anticipate that the conceptual and evidence-based foundation provided in this essay will serve as a roadmap for hypothesis-driven, experimentally validated research on holobionts and their hologenomes, thereby catalyzing the continued fusion of biology’s subdisciplines. At a time when symbiotic microbes are recognized as fundamental to all aspects of animal and plant biology, the holobiont and hologenome concepts afford a holistic view of biological complexity that is consistent with the generally reductionist approaches of biology.

Ganesha’s favorite fruit and seasonal remedies

गणपति’s form महागणपति carries pomegranate in his hand. This is the season of worshiping him.

This is also season when many suffer from food infection and poisoning.

This is also season dental issues like gingivitis and pyorrhea.

Worshiping Ganesha during this month (भाद्रपद) and eating pomegranate after meals will save you from any type of bacterial infection and food poisoning. It will maintain optimum GUT microbes.

Season driven worship
Season driven worship

It also helps against aging related memory loss.

Pomegranate’s Neuroprotective Effects against Alzheimer’s Disease Src: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acschemneuro.5b00260
Pomegranate’s Neuroprotective Effects against Alzheimer’s Disease
Src: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acschemneuro.5b00260

What modern medicine shares are physical benefits of pomegranate. In my understanding, they are not complete unless we start worshiping Ganesha who represents Muladhara!


Reference for pomegranate


The antiplaque efficacy of pomegranate mouthrinse.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21206931

“these results indicate that the pomegranate mouthrinse has an antiplaque effect. Pomegranate extract is efficacious against A.a., P.g., and P.i. strains in vitro. Pomegranate mouthrinse should be explored as a long-term antiplaque rinse with prophylactic benefits.”

 

Pomegranate extract mouth rinsing effects on saliva measures relevant to gingivitis risk.

“Four weeks of mouth rinsing, thrice daily, with the pomegranate extract dissolved in water, altered salivary measures pertinent to oral health, including gingivitis. The changes were: Decreased total protein (which can correlate with plaque forming bacteria readings), diminished activities of aspartate aminotransferase (a marker of cell injury), attenuated alpha-glucosidase activity (a sucrose degrading enzyme), enhanced activities of the antioxidant enzyme ceruloplasmin (affording superior protection against oral oxidant stress), and augmented radical scavenging capacity (however non-significant). Hence, the use of pomegranate extracts in oral health products such as toothpastes and mouthwashes could be a viable option.”

Punica granatum (pomegranate) extract is active against dental plaque.

In the present work, we studied the effect of the hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) from Punica granatum (pomegranate) fruits on dental plaque microorganisms. The study was conducted on 60 healthy patients (33 females and 27 males, with age ranging from 9 to 25 years) using fixed orthodontic appliances, and randomly distributed into 3 groups of 20 patients each. The first group (control) used distilled water, while the second and third groups used chlorhexidine (standard) and HAE as mouth-rinses, respectively. The dental plaque material was collected from each patient, before and after a 1-min mouth-rinse with 15 ml of either distilled water, chlorhexidine or HAE. In both dental plaque collections, the material was removed from patients without oral hygiene, for 24 h (no tooth brushing). Dental plaque samples were diluted in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) plated on Mueller-Hinton agar, and incubated for 48 h, at 37 degrees C. Results, expressed as the number of colony forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL), show that the HAE was very effective against dental plaque microorganisms, decreasing the CFU/ml by 84% (CFU x 10(5)), before mouth-rinse: 154.0 +/- 41.18; after mouthrinse: 25.4 +/- 7.76). While similar values were observed with chlorhexidine, used as standard and positive control (79% inhibition), only an 11% inhibition of CFU/ml was demonstrated in the distilled water group, negative control (CFU x 10(5)), before mouth-rinse: chlorhexidine, 208.7 +/- 58.81 and distilled water, 81.1 +/- 10.12; after mouth-rinse: chlorhexidine, 44.0 +/- 15.85 and distilled water, 71.9 +/- 8.68). The HAE presented also an antibacterial activity against selected microorganisms, and may be a possible alternative for the treatment of dental plaque bacteria.

Gut bacteria make pomegranate metabolites that may protect against Alzheimer’s disease

Pomegranate’s Neuroprotective Effects against Alzheimer’s Disease Are Mediated by Urolithins, Its Ellagitannin-Gut Microbial Derived Metabolites

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acschemneuro.5b00260

Pomegranate shows neuroprotective effects against Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in several reported animal studies. However, whether its constituent ellagitannins and/or their physiologically relevant gut microbiota-derived metabolites, namely, urolithins (6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-6-one derivatives), are the responsible bioactive constituents is unknown. Therefore, from a pomegranate extract (PE), previously reported by our group to have anti-AD effects in vivo, 21 constituents, which were primarily ellagitannins, were isolated and identified (by HPLC, NMR, and HRESIMS). In silico computational studies, used to predict blood-brain barrier permeability, revealed that none of the PE constituents, but the urolithins, fulfilled criteria required for penetration. Urolithins prevented β-amyloid fibrillation in vitro and methyl-urolithin B (3-methoxy-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-6-one), but not PE or its predominant ellagitannins, had a protective effect in Caenorhabditis elegans post induction of amyloid β1–42 induced neurotoxicity and paralysis. Therefore, urolithins are the possible brain absorbable compounds which contribute to pomegranate’s anti-AD effects warranting further in vivo studies on these compounds.

Pomegranate finally reveals its powerful anti-aging secret

Intestinal bacteria transform a molecule contained in the fruit with spectacular results

Urolithin A induces mitophagy and prolongs lifespan in C. elegans and increases muscle function in rodents

http://www.nature.com/nm/journal/v22/n8/full/nm.4132.html

Are pomegranates really the superfood we’ve been led to believe will counteract the aging process? Up to now, scientific proof has been fairly weak. And some controversial marketing tactics have led to skepticism as well. A team of scientists from EPFL and the company Amazentis wanted to explore the issue by taking a closer look at the secrets of this plump pink fruit. They discovered that a molecule in pomegranates, transformed by microbes in the gut, enables muscle cells to protect themselves against one of the major causes of aging. In nematodes and rodents, the effect is nothing short of amazing. Human clinical trials are currently underway, but these initial findings have already been published in the journal Nature Medicine.

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