Microbes

Microbes

Biogeography ,Human Skin Microbes and प्राणमय कोष

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Germ-phobia has penetrated our collective psyche so deeply that we see persons not using regular hand-wash/DEttol with special jaundiced vision.
 
Compulsion of using Dettol is yet another pseudo-scientific phobia.
 
In reality, our skin bacteria remains pretty stable. Despite regular washing and contact with bacteria-laden objects, our personal milieu of skin microbes remains highly stable over time, reports a metagenomics study.
 
What exactly we clean is: remaining odor and substance if any (Post meal, post visiting toilet or post-outside activity like sports). Only water is enough. If the substance is oily, use dung ash i.e. activated charcoal. There is nothing like germ-cleaning. So Dettol and all : waste of money and compromise with immunity. 🙂
 
Our skin microbes are manifested based on our energy footprints. Our प्राणीक footprint. And they remain pretty much stable. They become unstable if your skin has tendency to remain dry. If such is the case (dry skin), coconut or ghee massage is must.
 
Dry skin = unstable Prana = unstable and more variety of microbes.
 
•Composition of skin microbiome (bacteria, fungi, and viruses) is shaped by physiology
 
•Conservation of skin microbial communities can vary by site and individual
 
•Skin microbial communities are stable at the strain level, despite external exposures
 
•Eukaryotic viruses are the most transient members of the skin community

Despite regular washing and contact with bacteria-laden objects, our personal milieu of skin microbes remains highly stable over time, reports a metagenomics study published May 5 in Cell. The authors say this knowledge could be applied to better understand a wide range of human skin disorders through the development of prebiotic, probiotic, and microbial transplantation approaches.

Human skin is an ecosystem composed of a wide range of habitats for bacteria, fungi, and viruses. While most of these microbes are harmless or beneficial, some have been linked to skin disorders such as acne, psoriasis, and eczema. Studying the variability of microbial communities across skin sites has been key to understanding, for instance, why eczema tends to affect moist sites such as the bends of the arms and legs, while psoriasis commonly occurs on dry, exposed sites such as the elbows and knees. However, it has not been clear how microbial communities found across skin sites change over time and how these changes may affect human health.

What is written in red in above research quote is actually true. With aging, our प्राण combination changes. To direct life-friendly change with age, हनुमान & गणेश पूजा is must for गृहस्थ.

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Research
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Temporal Stability of the Human Skin Microbiome

Biogeography and individuality shape the structural and functional composition of the human skin microbiome. To explore these factors’ contribution to skin microbial community stability, we generated metagenomic sequence data from longitudinal samples collected over months and years. Analyzing these samples using a multi-kingdom, reference-based approach, we found that despite the skin’s exposure to the external environment, its bacterial, fungal, and viral communities were largely stable over time. Site, individuality, and phylogeny were all determinants of stability. Foot sites exhibited the most variability; individuals differed in stability; and transience was a particular characteristic of eukaryotic viruses, which showed little site-specificity in colonization. Strain and single-nucleotide variant-level analysis showed that individuals maintain, rather than reacquire, prevalent microbes from the environment. Longitudinal stability of skin microbial communities generates hypotheses about colonization resistance and empowers clinical studies exploring alterations observed in disease states.

 

 

Prana heals : UCLA research suggests that Gut Microbes Prevents Cancer

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But we eat mindless acidic food so that bacteria can hardly reach GUT via digestive track.
We kill mouth bacteria by using toothpaste.
We kill them by handwash and soaps.
We hardly spend physically active time under the sun.
Our food lack supporting nutrition so that bacteria can travel and stabilize at Gut.
Mindless usage of antibiotics.
 
And then we are shocked by sudden increase in cancer cases! 😉
 
As a society, unless we correct our priorities, we will celebrate Cancer hospitals as human success milestones. 😛 😀
Microbes = Prana
Prana is an ultimate healer.
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Research
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UCLA research suggests that gut bacteria could help prevent cancer

https://www.uclahealth.org/news/ucla-research-suggests-that-gut-bacteria-could-help-prevent-cancer

“It is not invasive and rather easy to do,” he said.

Over millions of years, gut bacteria have evolved into both good and bad types: The good ones have anti-inflammatory properties and the bad ones promote inflammation. The human body typically contains about 10 trillion bacterial cells, compared with only 1 trillion human cells.

Schiestl and his colleagues isolated a bacterium called Lactobacillus johnsonii 456, which is the most abundant of the beneficial bacteria, and which has some pretty useful applications outside of medicine. “Since it is a Lactobacillus strain, it makes excellent yogurt, kefir, kombucha and sauerkraut.”

In the UCLA study the bacterium reduced gene damage and significantly reduced inflammation — a critical goal because inflammation plays a key role in many diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, heart disease, arthritis and lupus, and in the aging process.

Previous research led by Schiestl presented the first evidence of a relationship between intestinal microbiota and the onset of lymphoma, a cancer that originates in the immune system. The new study explains how this microbiota might delay the onset of cancer, and suggests that probiotic supplements could help keep cancer from forming.

For both studies, Schiestl and his team used mice that had mutations in a gene called ATM, which made them susceptible to a neurologic disorder called ataxia telangiectasia. The disorder, which affects 1 in 100,000 people, is associated with a high incidence of leukemia, lymphomas and other cancers.

The mice were divided into two groups — one that was given only anti-inflammatory bacteria and the other that received a mix of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory microbes that typically co-exist in the intestines.

In the Cancer Research paper, Schiestl and his team showed that in the mice with more of the beneficial bacteria, the lymphoma took significantly longer to form.

In the new study, the researchers analyzed the metabolites — molecules produced by the gut’s natural metabolic action — in the mice’s urine and feces. The scientists were surprised to find that the mice that were receiving only the beneficial microbiota produced metabolites that are known to prevent cancer. Those mice also had more efficient fat and oxidative metabolism, which the researchers believe might also lower the risk for cancer.

Among the other results, in the mice receiving only the good bacteria, lymphoma formed only half as quickly as it did in the other mice. In addition, mice with the good bacteria lived four times longer and had less DNA damage and inflammation.

Chemopreventive Metabolites Are Correlated with a Change in Intestinal Microbiota Measured in A-T Mice and Decreased Carcinogenesis

Abstract

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0151190

Intestinal microbiota play a significant role in nutrient metabolism, modulation of the immune system, obesity, and possibly in carcinogenesis, although the underlying mechanisms resulting in disease or impacts on longevity caused by different intestinal microbiota are mostly unknown. Herein we use isogenic Atm-deficient and wild type mice as models to interrogate changes in the metabolic profiles of urine and feces of these mice, which are differing in their intestinal microbiota. Using high resolution mass spectrometry approach we show that the composition of intestinal microbiota modulates specific metabolic perturbations resulting in a possible alleviation of a glycolytic phenotype. Metabolites including 3-methylbutyrolactone, kyneurenic acid and 3-methyladenine known to be onco-protective are elevated in Atm-deficient and wild type mice with restricted intestinal microbiota. Thus our approach has broad applicability to study the direct influence of gut microbiome on host metabolism and resultant phenotype. These results for the first time suggest a possible correlation of metabolic alterations and carcinogenesis, modulated by intestinal microbiota in A-T mice.

मातृप्राण (Maternal Microbes) drives immunity development

In my native culture, pregnant mothers are asked to eat ghee based food during last trimester. Along with it, curd rice.

PregnancyFood

I am sure similar regimes must exist in all cultures who prefer intellectually and physically strong generations. Ask your grandmother, she can guide. Her is the last generation with traditional legacies.

Ghee and Curd when produced from Zebu cattle (Indian breed), it is rich in GUT-friendly microbes. Healthy food for mother ==> Good immunity of child. This is because Zebu cattle’s physiology allows her to transform maximum प्राण from the Sun.

Basically, everything sums up as Prana.

प्राणवान mother = Child with great immunity. प्राण is cellular intelligence that helps to identify and act upon non-self matters and purge them.

Ghee and Curd are full of प्राण.

“During gestation, a mother’s microbiome shapes the immune system of her offspring, a new study in mice suggests. While it’s known that a newborn’s gut microbiota can affect its own immune system, the impact of a mother’s microbiota on her offspring has largely been unexplored.”


Research


https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2016-03/aaft-mmi031416.php

Mom’s microbes influence her offspring’s immune system, mice study shows

 Credit Mercedes Gomez de Agüero, Stephanie Ganal-Vonarburg, Kathy D. McCoy, and Andrew J. Macpherson

Credit
Mercedes Gomez de Agüero, Stephanie Ganal-Vonarburg, Kathy D. McCoy, and Andrew J. Macpherson

During gestation, a mother’s microbiome shapes the immune system of her offspring, a new study in mice suggests. While it’s known that a newborn’s gut microbiota can affect its own immune system, the impact of a mother’s microbiota on her offspring has largely been unexplored. Here, Mercedes Gomez de Agüero et al. infected the guts of pregnant mice with E.coli engineered to dwindle over time, allowing the mothers to become germ-free again around the time they gave birth. This temporary colonization of E.coli in the mother affected the immune system of her offspring; after birth, the offspring harbored more innate lymphoid and mononuclear cells in their intestines compared to mice born to microbe-free pregnant mothers. Similar results were seen when pregnant mothers were temporarily colonized with a cocktail of eight other microbes. An RNA analysis of offspring born to gestation-only colonized mothers compared with controls revealed greater expression of numerous genes, including those that influence cell division and differentiation, mucus and ion channels, and metabolism and immune function. By transferring serum from bacteria-colonized pregnant mice to non-colonized pregnant mice, the researchers found that maternal antibodies likely facilitate the transmission and retention of microbial molecules from a mother to her offspring. The results of this study add another surprising chapter to the growing body of literature surrounding the effects of the gut microbiota on immune functioning.

Gau Prasad (गौ प्रसाद – पंचगव्य – Microbes) can cure radiation-induced toxicity

Radiation

Problem with cow promoters in India is that they don’t talk the language of mass. And sometimes, become object of mockery.

One such case was when it was proclaimed that cow dung can protect against the radiation.

Yes, it does. How? Most of the times, we don’t have citations to support it.

Here is one research to help connect the dots.

Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) increased the survival rate of irradiated animals, elevated peripheral white blood cell counts and improved gastrointestinal tract function and intestinal epithelial integrity in irradiated male and female mice.


Remember one thing : Microbes are manifestation of Prana. Like how your body cells are. Life is interplay of different forms of Prana. Microbes, no exception.

If the faecal transplant can help protecting against radiation-induced toxicity, panchgavya (product made up of 5 prasad, rich in the form of microbes) can do wonder.

Faecal of an individual is not perfect but cow dung and urine of desi cow is perfect when cow is taken care well. (Well-fed, stress-free, grazing)


Research


Faecal microbiota transplantation protects against radiation‐induced toxicity

Severe radiation exposure may cause acute radiation syndrome, a possibly fatal condition requiring effective therapy. Gut microbiota can be manipulated to fight against many diseases. We explored whether intestinal microbe transplantation could alleviate radiation‐induced toxicity. High‐throughput sequencing showed that gastrointestinal bacterial community composition differed between male and female mice and was associated with susceptibility to radiation toxicity. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) increased the survival rate of irradiated animals, elevated peripheral white blood cell counts and improved gastrointestinal tract function and intestinal epithelial integrity in irradiated male and female mice. FMT preserved the intestinal bacterial composition and retained mRNA and long non‐coding RNA expression profiles of host small intestines in a sex‐specific fashion. Despite promoting angiogenesis, sex‐matched FMT did not accelerate the proliferation of cancer cells in vivo. FMT might serve as a therapeutic to mitigate radiation‐induced toxicity and improve the prognosis of tumour patients after radiotherapy.

Faecal microbiota transplantation ameliorates radiation‐induced toxicity in irradiated mice by improving gastrointestinal tract function and epithelial integrity, preserving gut bacterial composition and maintaining the small intestine transcriptome.

  • Gut microbiota determines the radiosensitivity of hosts.

  • Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) fights against radiation‐induced gastrointestinal toxicity.

  • FMT preserves enteric bacterial composition and retains the RNA expression profile of irradiated hosts.

  • FMT might emerge as a therapeutic schedule in tumour radiotherapy to improve prognosis.

Read more: http://embomolmed.embopress.org/content/early/2017/02/27/emmm.201606932

Immune System Fosters Good Bacteria

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We have been taught that immune system means Army. Immune System is defense system. But we were never taught that the immune system does more than mere purging non-body particles out of body.

Here is the interesting finding which supports what we discussed on this subject recently:
“When the immune system functions properly (MyD88 is active, green), IgA antibodies bind multiple species of bacteria, keeping the numbers and types of ‘good’ bacteria that inhabit the gut under control. (Right) When the immune system is disrupted (MyD88 is inactive, gray), IgA binds bacteria less effectively, and the bacterial community becomes imbalanced, jeopardizing digestive health.”

If bacteria are enemy, why would immune system help them grow? 🙂

There is no enmity with Mother Nature as most brainwashing media tell you. There is no war against bacteria or Virus going on. Purpose of immune system is to maintain your existence. That is it.

The ability of the human body to live in peace with 10 microbes per every human cell is a state of genuine immunity, wherein the body exercises a holy indifference to the resident microbes, to gain therefrom freedom from any reactivity against the obviously non-self microbes.

This is ability to realize self and non-self can be best developed when a child is exposed more often to mother nature.

Stop this delusion of war against the nature and see the magic. Your life will be much more healthier then the past! Try it! (Y)

Tulsi, Turmeric, Ghee (Desi Gau’s), Honey (Pure jungle based), Milk (Desi gau’s raw) – they all help you too strengthen immune system i.e. your own identity so that your body can identify self from non-self! 🙂


Research


http://healthcare.utah.edu/publicaffairs/news/2015/01/01-22-15_Immune_System_Fosters_Good_Bacteria.php

Immune System Promotes Digestive Health by Fostering Community of “Good” Gut Bacteria

As many as 1.4 million Americans suffer from uncomfortable abdominal cramping and diarrhea that come with ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. These conditions, collectively known as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are associated with an imbalance among the thousands of species of “good” bacteria that inhabit the gut. A University of Utah study published on Jan. 22, 2015, in Cell Host and Microbe demonstrates that mice deficient for a component of the immune system, a protein called MyD88, have an imbalanced gut bacterial community – with some species dominating over others – and are more susceptible to contracting a severe IBD-like illness. Further, fecal transplants from healthy donors alleviate IBD symptoms in these mice.

The results show that the immune system encourages growth of a healthy community of “good” bacteria that is important for digestive health. This perspective on immune system function is in contrast to it’s best-known role as the first line of defense in the fight against pathogens, including invasive bacteria.

“Our work highlights that the immune system shapes the composition of bacterial communities in the intestine,” says senior author June Round, Ph.D., assistant professor of pathology at the University of Utah School of Medicine. “This interaction is important because it’s becoming more and more clear that resident microbes are very important for our health.”

Considering that some people with IBD have mutations in genes that are part of a MyD88-controlled pathway, fecal transplantation – which involves collecting and processing stool from a healthy donor, and delivering it into a recipient’s gut – might help to ameliorate disease in these people, according to Round.

Loss of MyD88 disturbs the microbial community because it disrupts production of IgA. This class of antibody works like a gatekeeper that controls which types of bacteria, and how many, are allowed to inhabit the gut. By performing inventories of total gut bacteria compared to species that bind IgA, the scientists determined that without MyD88, IgA failed to recognize species that it can otherwise.

Research : Obese Dog and Obese human share Gut Demography

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Guts of obese dogs look similar to those of obese people

Indeed! They are also like us. So do the bacteria causing obesity. And like us, they too have Prana and its physical manifestation i.e. microbes or Marut(s).

Same Prana constitution that makes us obese, act on their body.


Research


Guts of obese dogs look similar to those of obese people

http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2014/11/guts-obese-dogs-look-similar-those-obese-people

Obese people have a less diverse array of bacteria living in their guts than do thin people—and the same holds true for dogs. In a new study, researchers fed seven beagles unrestricted amounts of food for 6 months, during which each dog gained an average of 4.93 kilograms—about 67% of their initial average weight of 7.37 kilograms. The investigators fed another seven beagles controlled food portions, and, as expected, this group did not gain weight. When the researchers examined the fecal samples collected from both groups after 6 months, they found that the guts of obese beagles contained a smaller diversity of bacteria than those of the other dogs. What’s more, microbes from the phylum Firmicutes were the predominant group in the lean dogs, whereas Gram-negative bacteria called Proteobacteria were prevalent in the obese group, the team reported online this month in the Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. The researchers speculate that an abundance of Proteobacteria may lead to an increase in lipopolysaccharide, a major component of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, which has been linked to weight gain in mice. More research is needed to examine what role gut bacteria may play in the development of obesity, however, the authors say.

 

Children and Hospital Stay (Avoid) : Gut Microbes

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30% of US children are now delivered at home or at small facilities. They have started realizing costly side-effects of hospital birth.

In our local villages practices, there is no mass-assembly like place for newborns and infants. Instead, they (mother, infant and caretaker – just three) live in highly customized सूतिका गृह for 1 to 3 to 6 months. No issue like what is mentioned in this article.

There are specifications mentioned in Ayurvedic Samhitas about architecture and facilities for सूतिका गृह. It demands research efforts from us.

गौ-गोबर,घी,दही,मूत्र,दूध – without them, it is difficult to build healthy and life-enriching सूतिका गृह

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On the other hand, we have cruel practices glorified.

The antibiotics given to many killed mother’s bacteria, and bacteria in NICU took over

“Babies typically get their gut bacteria from their mothers during childbirth. Premature infants, however, receive antibiotics during their first week of life to prevent infections, and these antibiotics eliminate many of the microbes the infants receive from their mothers.

As a result, microbes from the NICU colonize the digestive tracts of premature infants, the University of California, Berkeley, researchers found.”

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This is the reason we don’t expose kids to strangers and strange places in their initial years. It is not about infection but mental and प्राणिक exposure to non-compitable humans and places. This is the reason, for first 6 months, don’t expose infants to unknown strangers. Only mother, mother’s mother and father. And grand-parents.


Research


Gut Bacteria in Preemies Altered by Hospital Stay, Study Finds

The antibiotics given to many killed mother’s bacteria, and bacteria in NICU took over

Gut bacteria in premature infants don’t come from their mothers, but from microbes in the neonatal intensive-care unit (NICU), a new study finds.

Babies typically get their gut bacteria from their mothers during childbirth. Premature infants, however, receive antibiotics during their first week of life to prevent infections, and these antibiotics eliminate many of the microbes the infants receive from their mothers.

As a result, microbes from the NICU colonize the digestive tracts of premature infants, the University of California, Berkeley, researchers found.

The researchers swabbed the most-touched surfaces in an NICU and collected fecal samples from two premature infants in the unit. The surfaces checked for microbes included the sink; feeding and breathing tubes; the hands of health workers and parents; incubator access knobs; and keyboards, cell phones and other electronic equipment at the nurses’ station.

The researchers found that the gut bacteria in the two infants were similar to those found on the surfaces in the intensive-care unit. The most abundant types of gut bacteria in the infants were similar to those found on feeding and breathing tubes.

The study was published recently in the journal Microbiome.

“The most common species found in our study — Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis — all have been associated with disease in preterm infants, but can also be commonly isolated from healthy infants and adults,” study author Brandon Brooks said in a journal news release.

“The strains found here are largely opportunistic, lacking many of the really nasty genes found in ‘outbreak’ versions of their respective strains,” Brooks said. “The bacteria would need to be further tested to fully understand [any potential threat].”

Both infants in the study were healthy when they left the hospital.

https://consumer.healthday.com/caregiving-information-6/hospital-news-393/gut-bacteria-in-preemies-altered-by-hospital-stay-study-finds-684245.html

Microbial Health : Be Gregarious, Be in Good Company

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Chimps

I often say that “Loneliness is a sickness invitation.” Being alone or solitude is where Sattva is in center. Loneliness is where either Tamas or Rajas is in center.

Mind – Matter and the binding link Prana – That is the dynamism associated with our body.

This is the reason, सत्संग (Company of good nature) is prescribed as essential step for self-realization.

Being sociable boosts gut microbe diversity in chimpanzees

As per this study, Being sociable boosts gut microbe diversity in chimpanzees. This is pretty much true for us too.

Reason how neighborhood, school circle, college circle, office circle shape our life.

Socializing-With-People

Spending time in close contact with others often means risking catching germs and getting sick. But being sociable may also help transmit “good” microbes, finds a multi-institutional study of gut microbiomes in chimpanzees.

Even if I am teetotaler and not smoking but my social circle is full of them, I will share GUT health/sickness with them!! it is all game of Prana!!

No wonder why Satsang is prescription in Ayurveda!!

Solution is in get rid off mental indigestion. Continuous fine tuning of indriya and sensory perception captured by them, detecting indigestion of thoughts in early stage and divert mind for better alternatives.

सतताध्ययनं वाद- परतन्त्रावलोकनं तद्विद्याचार्यसेवा इति बुद्धि मेधाकरो गण| – सुश्रुत चिकित्सा

Continuous स्व-अध्यन (स्वाध्याय ), hearing moral tales (Ramayana, Mahabharata, Bhagwad Gita, Bhagwat) and company of good teachers (सत्संग) helps in fine tuning intellect to avoid indigestion of mind.

Sattvik person – Think before act. First think about action’s impact on भूतसमुदाय (Body, senses, intellect and mind) and then Act.

Rajasik person – First act and then think about adverse effects. Most of them are of repenting nature.

Tamasik person – He does not even think about effects of actions.

By this understanding, more or less, we all are under great influence of Tamas of Kaliyug.

Solution?

Reduce your tamas, rajas and increase Satva.

How?

सात्विक सत्संग (Living with सात्विक group of people),सात्विक श्रवण (Listening/watching/reading सात्विक life enriching),सात्विक(Enough is explained here) आहार,सात्विक साधना

 


Research


Gregarious Chimps Harbor Richer Gut Microbiomes

Spending time in close contact with others often means risking catching germs and getting sick. But being sociable may also help transmit “good” microbes, finds a multi-institutional study of gut microbiomes in chimpanzees.

Researchers monitored changes in the gut microbes and social behavior of wild chimpanzees over eight years in Gombe National Park, Tanzania. They found that the number of bacteria species in a chimp’s GI tract goes up when the chimps are more gregarious.

The results help scientists better understand the factors that maintain a healthy gut microbiome.

The warm, soft folds of our intestines are home to hundreds of species of bacteria and other microbes that help break down food, synthesize vitamins, train the immune system and fight infections. Reduced gut microbial diversity in humans has been linked to obesity, diabetes, Crohn’s and other diseases.

“The more diverse people’s microbiomes are, the more resistant they seem to be to opportunistic infections,” said Andrew Moeller, research fellow at the University of California, Berkeley, who co-authored the study published in the Jan. 15 issue of Science Advances.

Moeller and colleagues analyzed the bacterial DNA in droppings collected from 40 chimpanzees between 2000 and 2008. The chimpanzees ranged in age from infants to seniors.

The researchers identified thousands of species of bacteria thriving in the animals’ guts, many of which are also commonly found in humans, such as species of Olsenella and Prevotella.

The team then combined the microbial data with daily records of what the animals ate and how much time they spent with other chimps versus alone.

“Chimpanzees tend to spend more time together during the wet season when food is more abundant,” said Duke University research scientist Steffen Foerster, who co-authored the study. “During the dry season they spend more time alone.”

The researchers found that each chimpanzee carried roughly 20 to 25 percent more bacterial species during the abundant and social wet season than during the dry season.

But the microbiome differences weren’t solely due to seasonal changes in the fruit, leaves and insects that make up their diet, the researchers found. The chimps’ shifts between hobnobbing and loner lifestyles were also important.

A study finds that frequent social interactions like these can help maintain a healthy gut microbiome.

https://today.duke.edu/2016/01/chimpmicrobiome

Pranic Science: How Good Bacteria Might Help Prevent Middle Ear Infections

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Lo! It is bacteria that is helping us to prevent Bacterial infections like Pneumonia.

What a paradox. Bacteria prevents bacteria infection! 😀.

In reality, bacteria is nothing but manifestation of प्राण. प्राण consolidation for your “i”-ness is based on state of your mind. Hence, it is all mental! 🙂

So when the subtle bodily प्राणमय कोष is full of compatible and stable प्राण , there is no infection. When it is disturbed, due to environmental stress, or your own mental stress or your physical stress (lack of good food, air and water), or all of them – we see so called bacteria-led infections.

This is the reason, when you feel low at प्राण, preserve it. Fasting helps here. Boiling water helps. हवाफेर = changing place for temporarily helps. Pranayam helps. Walking helps. Surya Namaskar helps. Sandhya helps. Homa helps.

And who really needs pneumococcal vaccine? 😉

Corynebacterium accolens (C. accolens) Releases Antipneumococcal Free Fatty Acids from Human Nostril and Skin Surface Triacylglycerols.

So a harmless bacterium (compatible and stable प्राण) found in the nose and on skin may negatively impact the growth of a pathogen (incompatible and unstable प्राण) that commonly causes middle ear infections in children and pneumonia in children and older adults.

Mind you. प्राण is not good or bad. Its attachment with you is life sustaining or life-degenerating (life-cleanup job).

Same is the case of Ganga water which cleanses and stabilizes the bodily Prana when you take a bath in it.


Research


CAMBRIDGE, Mass., January 5, 2016 – A new study from the Forsyth Institute is helping to shed more light on the important connections among the diverse bacteria in our microbiome. According to research published in mBio, scientists at Forsyth, led by Dr. Katherine P. Lemon, along with their collaborator at Vanderbilt University, have demonstrated that a harmless bacterium found in the nose and on skin may negatively impact the growth of a pathogen that commonly causes middle ear infections in children and pneumonia in children and older adults.

This study provides the first evidence that Corynebacterium accolens, a harmless bacterial species that commonly colonizes the nose, can help inhibit Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) — a major cause of pneumonia, meningitis, middle ear infection and sinusitis.  According to the World Health Organization, S. pneumoniae leads to more than 1 million deaths each year, primarily in young children in developing countries.  Although most people that host S. pneumoniae do not develop these infections, colonization greatly increases the risk of, and is a perquisite for, infection and transmission.

The study, titled, “Corynebacterium accolens (C. accolens) Releases Antipneumococcal Free Fatty Acids from Human Nostril and Skin Surface Triacylglycerols,” is published on January 5, 2016 in mBio (http://mbio.asm.org/content/7/1/e01725-15.full.pdf). In this study, first-author Dr. Lindsey Bomar and her colleagues show that C. accolens are overrepresented in the noses of children that are not colonized by S. pneumoniae, which is commonly found in children’s noses and can cause infection. In laboratory research, the team further found that C. accolens modifies its local habitat in a manner that inhibits the growth of S. pneumoniae by releasing antibacterial free fatty acids from representative host skin surface triacylglycerols. The team went on to identify the C. accolens enzyme needed for this. These results pave the way for potential future research to determine whether C. accolens might have role as a beneficial bacterium that could be used to control pathogen colonization. This research is authored by Lindsey Bomar, Silvio D. Brugger, Brian H. Yost, Sean S. Davies and Katherine P. Lemon.

The human milk microbiota

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So far, we were told that Mother’s milk is sterile. Absolutely pure.
And with this image, we also strive for Dairy milk. Pasteurized! Sterile. No bacteria at all!

That is the level of modern scientific temper we are proud of. 🙂 And investing heavily so that our kids are groomed under it. 🙂 (This does not mean I do not respect science and her achievements. Just a direction and outlook to look at nature is wrong).

In Ayurvedic understanding, no organism is harmful. Everyone is doing their job (or following their Dharma). Bacteria in milk are necessary. They are their to help the consumer of the milk.

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“Culture-dependent and -independent techniques have revealed the dominance of staphylococci, streptococci, lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria in this biological fluid, and their role on the colonization of the infant gut. These bacteria could protect the infant against infections and contribute to the maturation of the immune system, among other functions.”

It is high time we get rid of this germ-phobia. ASAP. Sooner the better.

The way mother’s milk helps infant, Gau milk helps adults.

On immediate basis, dairy milk should be replaced with raw milk from Gau shala where ethical practices are followed (Calf’s milk is not snatched. No hormone injections are used. Machines are not used for milking etc)


Research


The human milk microbiota: origin and potential roles in health and disease.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22974824

Human milk has been traditionally considered sterile; however, recent studies have shown that it represents a continuous supply of commensal, mutualistic and/or potentially probiotic bacteria to the infant gut. Culture-dependent and -independent techniques have revealed the dominance of staphylococci, streptococci, lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria in this biological fluid, and their role on the colonization of the infant gut. These bacteria could protect the infant against infections and contribute to the maturation of the immune system, among other functions. Different studies suggest that some bacteria present in the maternal gut could reach the mammary gland during late pregnancy and lactation through a mechanism involving gut monocytes. Thus, modulation of maternal gut microbiota during pregnancy and lactation could have a direct effect on infant health. On the other hand, mammary dysbiosis may lead to mastitis, a condition that represents the first medical cause for undesired weaning. Selected strains isolated from breast milk can be good candidates for use as probiotics. In this review, their potential uses for the treatment of mastitis and to inhibit mother-to-infant transfer of HIV are discussed.

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