Microbes and Food Security


After 100 years of ignorance, modern intellect has started accepting role of Prana in sustaining life. Whether we accept or not due to our brainwashed mindset, Prana is the enabler. We must revive traditions respecting Prana.

Microbes ? Prana.

Fungus ? Prana.

For plants, Muladhara is in roots. Roots are protected by Soil. Their Ganapati resides in soil!


The microbial sciences have provided great advances in our understanding of foodborne pathogens, leading to prescriptions for food safety standards and giving lawmakers and policy experts ways  to protect human populations. However, when looking at the global community, it’s hard to ignore an even greater issue when it comes to food: the food insecurity that an estimated 795 million people grapple with on a daily basis, worldwide (FAO, The State of Food Insecurity 2015).

If we look a bit closer, we see that these issues cannot be measured solely on the number of people who have a certain level of caloric intake. Specifically, when looking at micronutrient deficiencies throughout the world, those numbers balloon to more than 2 billion people (USAID, Opportunities for Micronutrient Interventions). That would be the equivalent of more than 1 in 3 people you encounter on a daily basis being nutrient deficient.

While discussions about tackling these challenges often exclude or skim the surface of the role of microbes, microbiology, and in particular harnessing microbe-plant symbionts, has the potential to spark a second “Green Revolution.”

Fungal endophytes live in symbiosis with a vast majority of plant species on earth, and with the vast majority of the plant species humans cultivate for agricultural purposes. These symbionts have co-evolved for hundreds of millions of years, and formed some of the earliest symbioses on land.

Dr. Rusty Rodriguez and his team are one of the groups leading the charge in studying fungal endophytes and the ways in which we can harness their vast potential in agriculture. According to Dr. Rodriguez, there are at least four areas where microbes can be utilized to address issues of food security:

1. Symbiotic and free-living organisms can provide nitrogen and phosphorous to plants.
2. Symbiotic and free-living microorganisms can provide disease protection.
3. Symbiotic microorganisms can alter plant physiology and increase metabolic efficiency.
4. Symbiotic microorganisms can confer abiotic stress tolerance to plants.

Dr. Rodriguez and his team have used these principles in creating fungal inoculants for a number of important crop species, including rice and corn. To learn more, read Dr. Rusty Rodriguez’s full article in Cultures!

Scientists are also finding ways to use microbes to grow other key crops around the world. In this Cultures video, Dr. Ian Sanders and Dr. Alia Rodriguez show us how they are using the same principles to harness fungal endophytes to improve cassava production, a crop that feeds nearly a billion people worldwide!

Could microbes be the key to ensuring a food secure future? Comment below!




Pranic Science: How Good Bacteria Might Help Prevent Middle Ear Infections



Lo! It is bacteria that is helping us to prevent Bacterial infections like Pneumonia.

What a paradox. Bacteria prevents bacteria infection! 😀.

In reality, bacteria is nothing but manifestation of प्राण. प्राण consolidation for your “i”-ness is based on state of your mind. Hence, it is all mental! 🙂

So when the subtle bodily प्राणमय कोष is full of compatible and stable प्राण , there is no infection. When it is disturbed, due to environmental stress, or your own mental stress or your physical stress (lack of good food, air and water), or all of them – we see so called bacteria-led infections.

This is the reason, when you feel low at प्राण, preserve it. Fasting helps here. Boiling water helps. हवाफेर = changing place for temporarily helps. Pranayam helps. Walking helps. Surya Namaskar helps. Sandhya helps. Homa helps.

And who really needs pneumococcal vaccine? 😉

Corynebacterium accolens (C. accolens) Releases Antipneumococcal Free Fatty Acids from Human Nostril and Skin Surface Triacylglycerols.

So a harmless bacterium (compatible and stable प्राण) found in the nose and on skin may negatively impact the growth of a pathogen (incompatible and unstable प्राण) that commonly causes middle ear infections in children and pneumonia in children and older adults.

Mind you. प्राण is not good or bad. Its attachment with you is life sustaining or life-degenerating (life-cleanup job).

Same is the case of Ganga water which cleanses and stabilizes the bodily Prana when you take a bath in it.


CAMBRIDGE, Mass., January 5, 2016 – A new study from the Forsyth Institute is helping to shed more light on the important connections among the diverse bacteria in our microbiome. According to research published in mBio, scientists at Forsyth, led by Dr. Katherine P. Lemon, along with their collaborator at Vanderbilt University, have demonstrated that a harmless bacterium found in the nose and on skin may negatively impact the growth of a pathogen that commonly causes middle ear infections in children and pneumonia in children and older adults.

This study provides the first evidence that Corynebacterium accolens, a harmless bacterial species that commonly colonizes the nose, can help inhibit Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) — a major cause of pneumonia, meningitis, middle ear infection and sinusitis.  According to the World Health Organization, S. pneumoniae leads to more than 1 million deaths each year, primarily in young children in developing countries.  Although most people that host S. pneumoniae do not develop these infections, colonization greatly increases the risk of, and is a perquisite for, infection and transmission.

The study, titled, “Corynebacterium accolens (C. accolens) Releases Antipneumococcal Free Fatty Acids from Human Nostril and Skin Surface Triacylglycerols,” is published on January 5, 2016 in mBio (http://mbio.asm.org/content/7/1/e01725-15.full.pdf). In this study, first-author Dr. Lindsey Bomar and her colleagues show that C. accolens are overrepresented in the noses of children that are not colonized by S. pneumoniae, which is commonly found in children’s noses and can cause infection. In laboratory research, the team further found that C. accolens modifies its local habitat in a manner that inhibits the growth of S. pneumoniae by releasing antibacterial free fatty acids from representative host skin surface triacylglycerols. The team went on to identify the C. accolens enzyme needed for this. These results pave the way for potential future research to determine whether C. accolens might have role as a beneficial bacterium that could be used to control pathogen colonization. This research is authored by Lindsey Bomar, Silvio D. Brugger, Brian H. Yost, Sean S. Davies and Katherine P. Lemon.

Pathogenicity (Ability to cause diseases) is not a rule



We are brainwashed to believe that diseases are natural and they happen due to microbes and viruses.

In my several notes, I tried to represent alternate perspective.

Here is what Biologist Lewis Thomas said in 1974.

In real life, however, even in our worst circumstances we have always been a relatively minor interest of the vast microbial world. Pathogenicity is not the rule. Indeed, it occurs so infrequently and involves such a relatively small number of species, considering the huge population of bacteria on the earth, that it has a freakish aspect. Disease usually results from inconclusive negotiations for symbiosis, an overstepping of the line by one side or the other, a biologic misinterpretation of  borders.

So? Stop blaming microbes for all your failed communications with them! Instead of blaming them, cultivate your immunity! Learn to live in मुनि state! (More here about Muni and Immunity )

Some bacteria are only harmful to us when they make exotoxins, and they only do this when they are, in a sense, diseased themselves. The toxins of diphtheria bacilli and streptococci are produced when the organisms have been infected by bacteriophage; it is the virus that provides the code for toxin. Uninfected bacteria are uninformed. When we catch diphtheria it is a virus infection, but not of us. Our involvement is not that of an adversary in a straightforward game, but more like blundering into someone else’s accident.

Some claims it is diphtheria vaccine that has saved the children! I say, it is post-world war, improved environment that had reduced the cases of diphtheria. Environmental stress reduced, diphtheria not affected by stress-messengers i.e. viruses (bacteriophage) and hence no exotoxins so no diphtheria led deaths.


Lewis Thomas further writes:

I can think of a few microorganisms, possibly the tubercle bacillus, thesyphilis spirochete, the malarial parasite, and a few others, that have a selective advantage in their ability to infect human beings, but there is nothing to be gained, in an evolutionary sense, by the capacity to cause illness or death. Pathogenicity may be something of a disadvantage for most microbes, carrying lethal risks more frightening to them than to us. The man who catches a meningococcus is in considerably less danger for his life, even without chemotherapy, than meningococci with the bad luck to catch a man. Most meningococci have the sense to stay out on the surface, in the rhinopharynx. During epidemics this is where they are to be found in the majority of the host population, and it generally goes well. It is only in the unaccountable minority, the “cases,” that the line is crossed, and then there is the devil to pay on both sides, but most of allfor the meningococci.

Think about it. We need radical new perspective about life. Then only we can see destruction of environment going around. If we don’t nurture environment, we will soon invite another series of epidemic like we did in 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. And no technology would save us!


Global Warming and GUT Microbial Collapse

Global Warming GUT
Global Warming GUT

Whether you believe Global warming or not, changing environment doe shave local impact. If your country is passing through so called “Development” bandwagon, you are prone local rapid environmental changes. Rising temperature is one such outcome.

Reading two research papers back to back gives enough future predictions. Rising temperature does not only cause damage to insects! We are equally affected! Read two researches and connect the dots!

Rising temperature : Collapsing and chaotic GUT Bacteria -> Neuro-degenerative diseases -> Zombie humans -> Civil Wars

Rising temperature : Imagine Tropical Indian Summer : Reason why we increase intake of fermented food during summer. (Butter milk in particular)



The collaborative work is described in a recent study published online in the journal mBio, a journal of the American Society for Microbiology. Experiments showed that when heat-susceptible bacteria living symbiotically in the guts of insects are exposed to increased temperatures, both the bacteria and the insect are negatively impacted. The research illustrates another way global warming will wreak havoc on life as we know it, setting off deleterious chain reactions among organisms living in symbiosis.

Specifically, the investigators demonstrated that when the southern green stinkbug was reared inside an incubator, in which temperature was controlled at 2.5 °C higher than outside, there was a significant reduction in the symbiont bacteria that sparked severe fitness defects in the insect (ie. retarded growth, reduced size). At higher temperatures, no nymphs were able to reach the adult stage. Global warming is predicted to raise the average temperature by 2.5 °C by 2100.

“Considering that many microbial symbionts are vulnerable to high temperature stress, such symbionts can be the Achilles’ heel of symbiont-dependent organisms in this warming world,” said Dr. Fukatsu. He said that people should keep in mind that global warming might impact diverse organisms, not necessarily directly, but possibly indirectly via affecting unseen microbial associates. “Coral breaching, in which symbiotic photosynthetic algae of corals are killed by high temperature and coral reefs are severely damaged, is regarded as a serious environmental issue, but plausibly, similar phenomena may be ubiquitously found in the ecosystem,” said Dr. Fukatsu.

Collapse of Insect Gut Symbiosis under Simulated Climate Change

Global warming impacts diverse organisms not only directly but also indirectly via other organisms with which they interact. Recently, the possibility that elevated temperatures resulting from global warming may substantially affect biodiversity through disrupting mutualistic/parasitic associations has been highlighted. Here we report an experimental demonstration that global warming can affect a pest insect via suppression of its obligate bacterial symbiont. The southern green stinkbug Nezara viridula depends on a specific gut bacterium for its normal growth and survival. When the insects were reared inside or outside a simulated warming incubator wherein temperature was controlled at 2.5°C higher than outside, the insects reared in the incubator exhibited severe fitness defects (i.e., retarded growth, reduced size, yellowish body color, etc.) and significant reduction of symbiont population, particularly in the midsummer season, whereas the insects reared outside did not. Rearing at 30°C or 32.5°C resulted in similar defective phenotypes of the insects, whereas no adult insects emerged at 35°C. Notably, experimental symbiont suppression by an antibiotic treatment also induced similar defective phenotypes of the insects, indicating that the host’s defective phenotypes are attributable not to the heat stress itself but to the suppression of the symbiont population induced by elevated temperature. These results strongly suggest that high temperature in the midsummer season negatively affects the insects not directly but indirectly via the heat-vulnerable obligate bacterial symbiont, which highlights the practical relevance of mutualism collapse in this warming world.

Study demonstrates role of gut bacteria in neurodegenerative diseases


Gut Instincts: microbiota as a key regulator of brain development, ageing and neurodegeneration


Antibiotic-induced perturbations in gut microbial diversity influences neuro-inflammation and amyloidosis in a murine model of Alzheimer’s disease


Brain and Gut Inflammation Behind Most Autoimmune and Neurodegenerative Diseases


Toxic Mouthwash, Microbes, Nitric Oxide and Blood Pressure



Solution for foul mouth smell is not mouthwash but healthy eating habit. Foul smell is an early sign of faulty GI track (digestive track).

But since we consider ourselves citizens of scientific age, and we trust TV ads as equal to science experiments, trusting superficial perception more over age-old practices, we use mouthwash

And what do we get in return?

We kill part of ourselves. We kill bacteria in mouth who help us in reducing nitrate metabolites from food into NO (nitric oxide). NO (nitric oxide) plays important role in maintaining blood vessel wall pressures. It keeps the blood pressure optimum. So far medical science was ignorant of this usage of NO. In the past 5 years, nitric oxide (NO) has become recognized as a major player in most physiological and pathophysiological processes. Not only blood pressure maintenance, NO plays important role in brain processes.

So when we kill bacteria in mouth, we kill one of the sources of NO (nitric oxide). This results in high blood pressure and related anomalies.

What is the solution?

1) Use natural mouth freshener if needed i.e. Paan without tobacco. Only after heavy meals. Not daily.
2) Do dant manjan (teeth cleaning) using powder prepared from cow dung ash. It is full of nitrogen metabolites i.e. food for bacteria which ultimately results in NO that keep blood pressure normal.
3) Mix sesame oil with dant manjan and use this paste to do gentle massage too teeth roots. Gargle sesame oil.
4) Gau milk, ghee, urine, gobar, chemical free jaggery, honey procured ethically from jungle – these all are rich sources of good bacteria and their food. When you include them in food, body always remain in healthy state.

Reference material:

Why Body Massage in Winter? Skin bacteria could protect against disease



There are more and more examples of the ways in which we can benefit from our bacteria. According to researcher Rolf Lood from Lund University in Sweden, this is true for the skin as well. He has shown that the most common bacteria on human skin secrete a protein which protects us from the reactive oxygen species thought to contribute to several skin diseases. The protein has an equally strong effect on dangerous oxygen species as known antioxidants such as vitamin C and vitamin E.

Dry skin harbors more variety of bacteria including reactive oxygen species.

As per modern microbiology, highest diversity (not numbers) of bacteria resides on the dry areas of the skin.

What are the driest part?

Our hands and our buttocks.

Winter + Vata Derangement => Skin Dryness => Prana (प्राण) is consumed vigorously to protect the skin => more bacteria on skin for cleaning job of cellular debris. => Low Prana => Flu

Replenish Prana for skin by frequent hand-wash. Do body massage during winter (Sesame oil).



Skin bacteria could protect against disease


The skin bacterium is called Propionibacterium acnes.

“The name originates from the fact that the bacterium was first discovered on a patient with severe acne. But whether it causes acne is uncertain – it may have been present merely because it is so common”, says Rolf Lood at the Department of Clinical Sciences in Lund.

He has discovered that the “acne bacterium” secretes a protein called RoxP. This protein protects against what is known as oxidative stress, a condition in which reactive oxygen species damage cells. A common cause of oxidative stress on the skin is UV radiation from the sun.

“This protein is important for the bacterium’s very survival on our skin. The bacterium improves its living environment by secreting RoxP, but in doing so it also benefits us”, explains Rolf Lood.

Oxidative stress is considered to be a contributing factor in several skin diseases, including atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and skin cancer.

Since Propionibacterium acnes is so common, it is present in both healthy individuals and people with skin diseases. According to Rolf Lood, however, people have different amounts of the bacterium on their skin, and it can also produce more or less of the protective protein RoxP.

This will now be further investigated in both patients and laboratory animals by Lood and his team. The human study will compare patients with basal cell carcinoma, a pre-cancerous condition called actinic keratosis and a healthy control group. The study will be able to show whether there is any connection between the degree of illness and the amount of RoxP on the patient’s skin.

The study on laboratory animals will also examine whether RoxP also functions as protection. Here, mice who have been given RoxP and others who have not will be exposed to UV radiation. The researchers will then observe whether the RoxP mice have a better outcome than those who were not given the protective protein.

“If the study results are positive, they could lead to the inclusion of RoxP in sunscreens and its use in the treatment of psoriasis and atopic dermatitis”, hopes Rolf Lood. His research findings have recently been published in an article in the Nature journal Scientific Reports.

A novel enzyme with antioxidant capacity produced by the ubiquitous skin colonizer Propionibacterium acnes


The role of the skin microbiota in human health is poorly understood. Here, we identified and characterized a novel antioxidant enzyme produced by the skin microbiota, designated RoxP for radical oxygenase of Propionibacterium acnes. RoxP is uniquely produced by the predominant skin bacterium P. acnes, with no homologs in other bacteria; it is highly expressed and strongly secreted into culture supernatants. We show that RoxP binds heme, reduces free radicals, and can protect molecules from oxidation. Strikingly, RoxP is crucial for the survival of P. acnes in oxic conditions and for skin colonization of P. acnes ex vivo. Taken together, our study strongly suggests that RoxP facilitates P. acnes’ survival on human skin, and is an important beneficial factor for the host-commensal interaction. Thus, RoxP is the first described skin microbiota-derived mutualistic factor that potentially can be exploited for human skin protection.


Not just food! Vastu and GUT microbes


We have often seen cases of modern hospital premises as trigger place for microbial infections. We also now know how places like Gau shala play important role in stabilizing GUT microbes in our body.

Where you live, does have impact on your health. Bio electrical magnetic patterns of the Earth, power lines, mobile towers – all of them have impact on your body and mind.

Travelers’ diarrhea is known phenomenon. Salmonella infection is also about change in location and weakened immunity due to local terrain’s stress.

Here is the interesting paper talking about it:

Sampling locality is more detectable than taxonomy or ecology in the gut microbiota of the brood-parasitic Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater).


Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) are the most widespread avian brood parasite in North America, laying their eggs in the nests of approximately 250 host species that raise the cowbird nestlings as their own. It is currently unknown how these heterospecific hosts influence the cowbird gut microbiota relative to other factors, such as the local environment and genetics. We test a Nature Hypothesis (positing the importance of cowbird genetics) and a Nurture Hypothesis (where the host parents are most influential to cowbird gut microbiota) using the V6 region of 16S rRNA as a microbial fingerprint of the gut from 32 cowbird samples and 16 potential hosts from nine species. We test additional hypotheses regarding the influence of the local environment and age of the birds. We found no evidence for the Nature Hypothesis and little support for the Nurture Hypothesis. Cowbird gut microbiota did not form a clade, but neither did members of the host species. Rather, the physical location, diet and age of the bird, whether cowbird or host, were the most significant categorical variables. Thus, passerine gut microbiota may be most strongly influenced by environmental factors. To put this variation in a broader context, we compared the bird data to a fecal microbiota dataset of 38 mammal species and 22 insect species. Insects were always the most variable; on some axes, we found more variation within cowbirds than across all mammals. Taken together, passerine gut microbiota may be more variable and environmentally determined than other taxonomic groups examined to date.

Science of Hindu(Sanatana) Social/Community Meal rules

Science of Social Meal rules
Science of Social Meal rules
30 years back, this was norm across Bharat. You go to anyone’s home, attend any marriage, stay at dharma-shala, meal was always served in a row and food was consumed as Prasad, slowly, gradually and with silence.
Serving meal was considered sacred duty. No social status comes into the picture. Everyone serves each other one by one.
Sitting in a row for meal is called पंगत or पंक्ति. Everyone sits together and stand up together. This was unwritten custom. Even if you are done with your meal, you sit until everyone completes.
If we go 100 years back, there were much stricter rules. For example, you only eat with someone from your वर्ण / जाति / वर्ग / age.
And this was considered as discrimination. Right? What a biased and bigoted society India was. These all Hindus! 😀
Spoiling dharma, all under the shadow of utter ignorance.
These rules were never designed to discriminate but to support healthy life. All rituals were designed for मानव कल्याण.
Let me give you one example to build the base.
“The handshake represents a deeply established social custom. In recent years, however, there has been increasing recognition of the importance of hands as vectors for infection, leading to formal recommendations and policies regarding hand hygiene in hospitals and other health care facilities,”
University of California, Los Angeles is a well-known university and respected name in medical science research. Physicians here suggested to ban handshake in hospitals. They found that despite handwash, handshakes transmit diseases. This is coming from the culture where handshake is deeply ingrained culture. I appreciate scientific temper.
When we handshake, we exchange प्राण. And when the incompatible प्राण is exchanged, we fall sick. We become carrier of sickness (physical and mental).
Eating food is highly energy-exchange activity. Lot of different type प्राण is consumed and emitted. When you sit with someone having typical प्राणिक footprint similar to yours, chances of exchanging incompatible प्राण are minimal.
Our results confirm that an occupied space is microbially distinct from an unoccupied one, and demonstrate for the first time that individuals release their own personalized microbial cloud.
And since everyone sits together and stand up together, there is a rhythm created, a larger organism, virtual entity, sum total of all compatible प्राणमय शरीर (s). This helps to combat any unforeseen दूषण of food and all प्राणिक impurities associated with it. You see, there was hardly any event of food poisoning. 😉
[Hint: Read this paper. We all have unique microbial cloud. https://peerj.com/articles/1258/]
This is just a first step to understand eating ritual. Need to spend more time in contemplation for finer conclusion in future. 🙂 (y)
Unfortunately, all modern spiritual guru(s) too don’t follow this anymore. Only place I observed this is Kumbh, among SAdhus. 🙂
Do not forget, सनातन धर्म is for मानव कल्याण. Keep aside all your rational doubts and act. See the difference. Then we really don’t need all these futile rational analysis. 😉
Supportive Hints

Humans differ in their personal microbial cloud


Dispersal of microbes between humans and the built environment can occur through direct contact with surfaces or through airborne release; the latter mechanism remains poorly understood. Humans emit upwards of 106biological particles per hour, and have long been known to transmit pathogens to other individuals and to indoor surfaces. However it has not previously been demonstrated that humans emit a detectible microbial cloud into surrounding indoor air, nor whether such clouds are sufficiently differentiated to allow the identification of individual occupants. We used high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes to characterize the airborne bacterial contribution of a single person sitting in a sanitized custom experimental climate chamber. We compared that to air sampled in an adjacent, identical, unoccupied chamber, as well as to supply and exhaust air sources. Additionally, we assessed microbial communities in settled particles surrounding each occupant, to investigate the potential long-term fate of airborne microbial emissions. Most occupants could be clearly detected by their airborne bacterial emissions, as well as their contribution to settled particles, within 1.5–4 h. Bacterial clouds from the occupants were statistically distinct, allowing the identification of some individual occupants. Our results confirm that an occupied space is microbially distinct from an unoccupied one, and demonstrate for the first time that individuals release their own personalized microbial cloud.

Banning The Handshake From Health Care Settings: Doctors Say Social Custom Spreads Disease Regardless Of Handwashing


The Western social practice of handshaking has only grown more popular in recent decades with variations up high and down low now often accompanied by the ubiquitous “bro hug.” However, some doctors are pushing to “ban the handshake” in hospitals and doctor’s offices across the country to prevent the spread of communicable disease.

Physicians from the University of California, Los Angeles, argue in an editorial published Thursday in JAMA that handshaking thwarts the practice of handwashing to limit the spread of dangerous pathogens. Soon, health care workers and patients may see the following advisory: “Handshake-free zone: To protect your health and the health of those around you, please refrain from shaking hands while on the premises.”

Although research has long associated handwashing with decreases in bacterial colonization and hospital-acquired infections, only 40 percent of clinicians and other health care workers comply with such mandatory hygiene policies. Among patients and visitors, handwashing hygiene is even lower. And alcohol-based rubs, the most touted solution to hospital hygiene problems, remain ineffective against such dangerous pathogens as Clostridium difficile.

Tridosha vs Enterotypes of the human gut microbiome


Gut Microbes

An enterotype is a classification of living organisms based on its bacteriological ecosystem in the gut microbiome. So far, scientists identified three robust clusters (enterotypes hereafter) that are not nation or continent-specific (In 2011). They confirmed the enterotypes also in two published, larger cohorts suggesting that intestinal microbiota variation is generally stratified, not continuous. Bacteroides (enterotype 1), Prevotella (enterotype 2) and Ruminococcus (enterotype 3).[1]

In Ayurveda, our Prakriti is important for treatment. Each individual has different Prakriti. Kapha Prakriti, Pitta Prakriti, Vata Prakriti and mix.

3 clusters of microbiome. 3 Types of human nature (Physical Prakriti/Constitution/Mental Constitution)

No wonder, soon we will see missing link.

Points to note here:

1) Gut bacteria are related to your nature/Prakriti/Constitution
2) Gut bacteria changes with age and so your prakriti also change(Children – Kapha, Adult – Pitta, Old age – Vata)

Interesting time ahead



[1] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3728647/

Enterotypes of the human gut microbiome


Our knowledge on species and function composition of the human gut microbiome is rapidly increasing, but it is still based on very few cohorts and little is known about their variation across the world. Combining 22 newly sequenced fecal metagenomes of individuals from 4 countries with previously published datasets, we identified three robust clusters (enterotypes hereafter) that are not nation or continent-specific. We confirmed the enterotypes also in two published, larger cohorts suggesting that intestinal microbiota variation is generally stratified, not continuous. This further indicates the existence of a limited number of well-balanced host-microbial symbiotic states that might respond differently to diet and drug intake. The enterotypes are mostly driven by species composition, but abundant molecular functions are not necessarily provided by abundant species, highlighting the importance of a functional analysis for a community understanding. While individual host properties such as body mass index, age, or gender cannot explain the observed enterotypes, data-driven marker genes or functional modules can be identified for each of these host properties. For example, twelve genes significantly correlate with age and three functional modules with the body mass index, hinting at a diagnostic potential of microbial markers

Heart Failure starts with Gut (मूलाधार) : Worship गणेश


GUT bacteria and Heart failure

Heart Ganesh

I am not microbiologist but हनुमान & गणेश भक्त. And they give enough hints about the गण they protect for me within this body-universe.

I repeat almost daily and urge friends to take care of GUT by proper diet, surya Namaskar.

Area from GUT to Navel – very critical for existence. Protect it.

गणपति resides in GUT area . And to worship him, we generally keep fast. Fasting clean the GUT and transforms it from GUTTER into Heaven. So clean GUT means right decisions, right actions and in real sense गणेश acts as विध्नहर्ता.

During monsoon, our digestive power remains very low and so there are high chances that GUT remains polluted. So just when the monsoon is on the verge of end, we worship गणेश for 10 days.


Heart failure is associated with loss of important gut bacteria


“In the gut of patients with heart failure, important groups of bacteria are found less frequently and the gut flora is not as diverse as in healthy individuals. Data obtained by scientists of the German Centre for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK) provide valuable points of departure for understanding how gut colonisation is associated with the development and progress of heart failure.”

Influential factors: diet, medication, smoking

“Of course, other factors also affect the composition of our gut bacteria. We know that the gut flora of a vegan who starts eating meat changes within three days”, explains associate professor Dr. Mark Lüdde of the University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel. For this reason, we asked the Kiel-based researchers of dietary habits beforehand. Individuals with an extreme diet, such as a vegan diet, were not allowed to participate in their study. Instead, they chose individuals with a standard diet comprising both meat and vegetables for both groups.

In addition to diet, medication also affect the gut flora. It was, therefore, important that the control group also took medicinal products that patients with heart failure must take routinely. Antibiotics could not have been administered for at least three months prior. Smokers were also included in both groups. All participants were from the same region and were the same age; gender distribution and BMI were equal in both groups.

Consequence or cause of the disease?

The observed pattern of the reduced genera and families of bacteria seems very characteristic of heart failure, which is why these results may be new points of departure for therapies. The differences between healthy individuals and those with heart failure, thus, came about mainly through the loss of bacteria of the genera Blautia and Collinsella, as well as two previously unknown genera that belong to the families Erysipelotrichaceae and Ruminococcaceae. 

The Gut, the Heart, and TMAO

Here’s how it works: When people ingest certain nutrients, such as choline (abundant in red meat, egg yolks, and dairy products) and L-carnitine (found in red meat as well as some energy drinks and supplements), the gut bacteria that break it down produce a compound called trimethylamine (TMA). The liver then converts TMA into the compound, trimethylene N-oxide (TMAO).

The trouble with TMAO is that data show high levels contribute to a heightened risk for clot-related events such as heart attack and stroke—even after researchers take into account the presence of conventional risk factors and markers of inflammation that might skew the results. In their most recent analysis, scientists showed that high blood levels of TMAO were associated with higher rates of premature death in a group of 2235 patients with stable coronary artery disease. Those found to have higher blood levels of TMAO had a four-fold greater risk of dying from any cause over the subsequent five years.

The implications are intriguing. Taken together, the new studies suggest that positively altering the gut microbiota may help to reduce damage to blood vessels, resulting in a stronger cardiovascular system, and they point to targets for potential new heart disease therapies.

The Gut, the Heart, and TMAO


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