Biogeography ,Human Skin Microbes and प्राणमय कोष

Germ-phobia has penetrated our collective psyche so deeply that we see persons not using regular hand-wash/DEttol with special jaundiced vision.
Compulsion of using Dettol is yet another pseudo-scientific phobia.
In reality, our skin bacteria remains pretty stable. Despite regular washing and contact with bacteria-laden objects, our personal milieu of skin microbes remains highly stable over time, reports a metagenomics study.
What exactly we clean is: remaining odor and substance if any (Post meal, post visiting toilet or post-outside activity like sports). Only water is enough. If the substance is oily, use dung ash i.e. activated charcoal. There is nothing like germ-cleaning. So Dettol and all : waste of money and compromise with immunity. 🙂
Our skin microbes are manifested based on our energy footprints. Our प्राणीक footprint. And they remain pretty much stable. They become unstable if your skin has tendency to remain dry. If such is the case (dry skin), coconut or ghee massage is must.
Dry skin = unstable Prana = unstable and more variety of microbes.
•Composition of skin microbiome (bacteria, fungi, and viruses) is shaped by physiology
•Conservation of skin microbial communities can vary by site and individual
•Skin microbial communities are stable at the strain level, despite external exposures
•Eukaryotic viruses are the most transient members of the skin community

Despite regular washing and contact with bacteria-laden objects, our personal milieu of skin microbes remains highly stable over time, reports a metagenomics study published May 5 in Cell. The authors say this knowledge could be applied to better understand a wide range of human skin disorders through the development of prebiotic, probiotic, and microbial transplantation approaches.

Human skin is an ecosystem composed of a wide range of habitats for bacteria, fungi, and viruses. While most of these microbes are harmless or beneficial, some have been linked to skin disorders such as acne, psoriasis, and eczema. Studying the variability of microbial communities across skin sites has been key to understanding, for instance, why eczema tends to affect moist sites such as the bends of the arms and legs, while psoriasis commonly occurs on dry, exposed sites such as the elbows and knees. However, it has not been clear how microbial communities found across skin sites change over time and how these changes may affect human health.

What is written in red in above research quote is actually true. With aging, our प्राण combination changes. To direct life-friendly change with age, हनुमान & गणेश पूजा is must for गृहस्थ.


Temporal Stability of the Human Skin Microbiome

Biogeography and individuality shape the structural and functional composition of the human skin microbiome. To explore these factors’ contribution to skin microbial community stability, we generated metagenomic sequence data from longitudinal samples collected over months and years. Analyzing these samples using a multi-kingdom, reference-based approach, we found that despite the skin’s exposure to the external environment, its bacterial, fungal, and viral communities were largely stable over time. Site, individuality, and phylogeny were all determinants of stability. Foot sites exhibited the most variability; individuals differed in stability; and transience was a particular characteristic of eukaryotic viruses, which showed little site-specificity in colonization. Strain and single-nucleotide variant-level analysis showed that individuals maintain, rather than reacquire, prevalent microbes from the environment. Longitudinal stability of skin microbial communities generates hypotheses about colonization resistance and empowers clinical studies exploring alterations observed in disease states.



Microbes Control Food Habits



Case Study 1
During recent talk with my family, one shocking thing was discussed about fast food habit.

Some of my nephew’s friends are migrants. Well-to-do migrants from other states. Settling down in our city. So these families often eat outside. Almost everyday, something comes from outside. Junk or almost junk.

These kids don’t really like home cooked food now. Addicted to the taste of junk.

Case Study 2

One couple working in IT in pune I know.1 Gas cylinder works for almost 1 year for them. You can imagine their usage.

Why are we so addicted to junk food?

Our gut microbes dictate what we eat. If you have a healthy gut, the microbes will direct you to foods that are required by your body for fitness. However if your gut microbes are disturbed they may start cravings for food that destroys your health. Parents of autistic children noticed food cravings in their children which aggravated their conditions. They then devised diets that controlled this and led to improved behavior. Many of them blamed the vaccines and the consequent use of antibiotics for vaccine after effects for this. They have been traditionally ridiculed for their ‘strange theories’ that don’t fit the industrial model of medicine. However researchers are now confirming what these ‘unscientific’ parents discovered.


Now my dear doctor friends debate with me that it is safer to give antibiotics to avoid risks. What risks? Why are we so fearful and fear mongering? Why can’t doctor sense right condition and avoid unnecessary antibiotics and by that protect GUT microbes?

Or at least, think and prefer pause on your eating cravings. Even toxins rich food cooked at home is worth compare to junk/restaurant food.

Reason? When cooked at home, it is full of microbes suited to you and family. So relatively safe. Outside food?

All random, chaotic microbes with your food. You never know when they will alter your eating habits and control you like slave. 🙂

Read this if you are interested more.


Is eating behavior manipulated by the gastrointestinal microbiota? Evolutionary pressures and potential mechanisms


Like microscopic puppetmasters, microbes may control the eating behavior of hosts through a number of potential mechanisms including microbial manipulation of reward pathways, production of toxins that alter mood (shown in pink, diffusing from a microbe), changes to receptors including taste receptors, and hijacking of neurotransmission via the vagus nerve (gray), which is the main neural axis between the gut and the brain.



Microbes in the gastrointestinal tract are under selective pressure to manipulate host eating behavior to increase their fitness, sometimes at the expense of host fitness. Microbes may do this through two potential strategies: (i) generating cravings for foods that they specialize on or foods that suppress their competitors, or (ii) inducing dysphoria until we eat foods that enhance their fitness. We review several potential mechanisms for microbial control over eating behavior including microbial influence on reward and satiety pathways, production of toxins that alter mood, changes to receptors including taste receptors, and hijacking of the vagus nerve, the neural axis between the gut and the brain. We also review the evidence for alternative explanations for cravings and unhealthy eating behavior. Because microbiota are easily manipulatable by prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics, fecal transplants, and dietary changes, altering our microbiota offers a tractable approach to otherwise intractable problems of obesity and unhealthy eating.


Ganesha, The protector of second brain


गणेश चतुर्थी to गणेश चतुर्दशी : Here is your yearly chance to contemplate on ageless doubt “Who am I?” and strengthen self-belief.

Happy Festival!Best wishes for your ultimate joyous conversation with self!

Season’s Rain has done his job.
Seeds for new beginning are already sprouted.
Welcome to lord of beginning in our heart. May we become live example of गणपति.

During monsoon, our digestive power remains very low and so there are high chances that GUT remains polluted. So just when the monsoon is on the verge of end, we worship गणेश for 10 days.

गणपति resides in GUT area . And to worship him, we generally keep fast. Fasting clean the GUT and transforms it from GUTTER into Heaven. So clean GUT means right decisions, right actions and in real sense गणेश acts as विध्नहर्ता.

The part of the alimentary canal between the stomach and the anus is known as GUT. This is reservoir of microbes. Critical digestive processes happen here.


In Ayurveda, this place is considered as मूलाधार चक्र.गणपति resides here. Ayurveda considers body beyond physical body and energy layer is one of such layer, प्राणमय कोष. Energy @ मूलाधार चक्र is responsible for person’s intelligence, valor and many other traits. And Ganapati resides here. He controls all activities.

Now, modern science says, GUT is our second brain. 🙂 🙂 We use this second brain as gutter. We eat anything and everything. Creating highly polluted environment. So second brain hardly works. 🙂 🙂 😉 😛

Moral of the post: Do not make fun of your rituals under the influence of media, TV, Bollywood and some so called rational authors. If you do not understand a bit, still follow your culture. There are ample hidden benefits.

When you meditate on मूलाधार by chanting ganapati atharvashirsha, unique mental and physical state emerge. In modern science language, you actually help your second brain to work well.

Antibiotics disturbs this area most. This is the reason I advocate alternative use of controlling bacterial infection and not antibiotics. As it directly affect our emotions and thinking capacity.

See all photos with post. Think about it. Read more:



Think Twice: How the Gut’s “Second Brain” Influences Mood and Well-Being

Gut - Second brain
Gut – Second brain

Technically known as the enteric nervous system, the second brain consists of sheaths of neurons embedded in the walls of the long tube of our gut, or alimentary canal, which measures about nine meters end to end from the esophagus to the anus. The second brain contains some 100 million neurons, more than in either the spinal cord or the peripheral nervous system, Gershon says.

This multitude of neurons in the enteric nervous system enables us to “feel” the inner world of our gut and its contents. Much of this neural firepower comes to bear in the elaborate daily grind of digestion. Breaking down food, absorbing nutrients, and expelling of waste requires chemical processing, mechanical mixing and rhythmic muscle contractions that move everything on down the line.

Thus equipped with its own reflexes and senses, the second brain can control gut behavior independently of the brain, Gershon says. We likely evolved this intricate web of nerves to perform digestion and excretion “on site,” rather than remotely from our brains through the middleman of the spinal cord. “The brain in the head doesn’t need to get its hands dirty with the messy business of digestion, which is delegated to the brain in the gut,” Gershon says. He and other researchers explain, however, that the second brain’s complexity likely cannot be interpreted through this process alone.

“The system is way too complicated to have evolved only to make sure things move out of your colon,” says Emeran Mayer, professor of physiology, psychiatry and biobehavioral sciences at the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles (U.C.L.A.). For example, scientists were shocked to learn that about 90 percent of the fibers in the primary visceral nerve, the vagus, carry information from the gut to the brain and not the other way around. “Some of that info is decidedly unpleasant,” Gershon says.

The second brain informs our state of mind in other more obscure ways, as well. “A big part of our emotions are probably influenced by the nerves in our gut,” Mayer says. Butterflies in the stomach—signaling in the gut as part of our physiological stress response, Gershon says—is but one example. Although gastrointestinal (GI) turmoil can sour one’s moods, everyday emotional well-being may rely on messages from the brain below to the brain above. For example, electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve—a useful treatment for depression—may mimic these signals, Gershon says.

Given the two brains’ commonalities, other depression treatments that target the mind can unintentionally impact the gut. The enteric nervous system uses more than 30 neurotransmitters, just like the brain, and in fact 95 percent of the body’s serotonin is found in the bowels. Because antidepressant medications called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) increase serotonin levels, it’s little wonder that meds meant to cause chemical changes in the mind often provoke GI issues as a side effect. Irritable bowel syndrome—which afflicts more than two million Americans—also arises in part from too much serotonin in our entrails, and could perhaps be regarded as a “mental illness” of the second brain.

Sterile Homes (प्राणविहीन) invite Asthma Risk



Childhood Asthma cases are increasing day by day. It is important to understand why there is sudden rise?

Short summary: Our ill-treatment to bacteria. Antibiotics, Floor cleaners, lack of ventilation at home (AC bedrooms), handwash/hand sanitizers etc. Toxins everywhere so that bacteria can hardly sustain. And lack of exposure to Sun so new healthy bacteria can hardly flourish.

Long analysis:

So far I talked about role of bacteria (or rather lack of it) residing in our body. Here is the interesting take on how your home environment decides whether infant will develop Asthma or not.

Basically, post industrialization (and possibly post world-war-II), one psychological disorder is prevalent everywhere i.e. germ-phobia. Germs are enemy, kill them! 🙂

We must radically alter our attitude. Germs are no enemy. Our life style actions are.

As per this study:

Infants exposed to a diverse range of bacterial species in house dust during the first year of life appear to be less likely to develop asthma in early childhood.

Children who were neither allergic nor prone to wheezing as three-year-olds were the most likely to have been exposed to high levels of bacteria, and paradoxically, to high levels of common allergens.


In fact, some of the protective bacteria are abundant in cockroaches and mice (And we kill them 🙂. What is that Ad? Kala hit! 😀 )

If your kid is suffering from Asthma, do not worry. Put controlled efforts in training their immune system. Exposure to health soil (garden at home without chemicals), Gau shala where healthy bacteria from Gobar and mutra can heal the immune responses at any age, organic farm, jungle, river is good.

Let your kid play in early morning sun and evening sunset sun. Exposure to Sun is essential. He is the source of all, including bacteria we lack.

Have enough fresh air circulation in bedroom (33% of time kids spend here while sleeping!). If you are switching AC, do not keep it on continuously. Open windows in between. Let there be Sun exposure to bedroom at least 2-3 hours during day.

In food, include wholesome प्राणयुक्त food. Fresh fruits (no fruit juice!), fresh salad, freshly cooked food (do not give food cooked 4- hrs back). Avoid processed food (biscuits, chocolates, wafers, noodles etc). Processed food consumes more Prana and so immune responses are compromised.

If you infant is still under breastfeeding, do it regularly, without fail! Mother’s milk is best source of प्राण needed for upper respiratory organs. More प्राण, more body supporting bacteria.


Lower Asthma Risk Is Associated with Microbes in Infants’ Homes

These results indicate that immune responses might be shaped by exposures during the first year of life differently than they are by later exposures. “These findings suggest that concomitant exposure to high levels of certain allergens and bacteria in early life may be beneficial,” the researchers wrote in the journal paper.


Wound Healing : Thanks to wonder that is skin microbes!




Few days back, I shared that I had a deep cut on hand and I applied Gau mutra on it. I followed it for a week. Along with Gau mutra, I also used to massage the wound with my early morning saliva. Wound is not only healed, skin color is also emerged back to normal color.

Who helped me?

Short answer: Skin microbes.

Long understanding: Gau mutra and Saliva controlled my skin friend microbes i.e. my प्राणमय कोष so that विकृत प्राण or प्राण against my prakruti does not assimilate at wound location.

Here is the paper supporting this theory:

Chronic wounds—cuts or lesions that just never seem to heal—are a significant health problem, particularly among elderly people. An estimated 1 in 20 elderly people live with a chronic wound, which often results from diabetes, poor blood circulation or being confined to bed or a wheelchair.
“These wounds can literally persist for years, and we simply have no good treatments to help a chronic wound heal,”

The trillions of bacteria that live on and in our bodies have attracted a great deal of scientific interest in recent years. Findings from studies of microbes in the gut have made it clear that although some bacteria cause disease, many other bacteria are highly beneficial for our health.

Gobar, mutra, saliva (GMS) are natural bio-healers. While modern medicine has no solution for chronic wounds in elder people with already depleted प्राणमय कोष, GMS can help greatly.


Bacteria on the Skin: New Insights on Our Invisible Companions

Study examines how skin-dwelling bacteria influence wound healing; findings could help address chronic wounds, a common ailment in the elderly


Chronic wounds—cuts or lesions that just never seem to heal—are a significant health problem, particularly among elderly people. An estimated 1 in 20 elderly people live with a chronic wound, which often results from diabetes, poor blood circulation or being confined to bed or a wheelchair.

“These wounds can literally persist for years, and we simply have no good treatments to help a chronic wound heal,” said Hardman, who added that doctors currently have no reliable way to tell whether a wound will heal or persist. “There’s a definite need for better ways to both predict how a wound is going to heal and develop new treatments to promote healing.”

In their recent study, Hardman and his colleagues compared the skin bacteria from people with chronic wounds that did or did not heal. The results showed markedly different bacterial communities, suggesting there may be a bacterial “signature” of a wound that refuses to heal.

“Our data clearly support the idea that one could swab a wound, profile the bacteria that are there and then be able to tell whether the wound is likely to heal quickly or persist, which could impact treatment decisions,” said Hardman.

Soil Health Card is useless without गौ आधारित खेती (Cow-based farming)



American university proclaims:

“With more than 7 billion microorganisms in the soil, it’s no surprise we still have a lot to learn about them and their impact on the environment. “Consequently, the activity of microorganisms in soil has the potential to alleviate or worsen climate change, so we need to form predictions regarding their activities.”

Do you think without Gau mata, one can achieve this?

Remember, I often share here that

Gau out = Desert In
Desert In = Desert Religion In (Islam/Christianity)

Soil health card may be good way to track soil nutrients but it is useless if you cannot understand value of cow in maintaining soil health. Soil health does not only mean NPK! Or Organic matter. It mean Prana! and only Gau mata can provide Prana!!

Not only carbon cycle, Gau mata has potential to stabilize all natural cycles!! She is medium via which we should embrace primordial prana i.e. Sun


WVU researcher uncovers influence of microorganisms on soil carbon storage

With more than 7 billion microorganisms in the soil, it’s no surprise we still have a lot to learn about them and their impact on the environment. A West Virginia University researcher is uncovering critical information about these tiny organisms under our feet, which although small, can have a huge impact on the environment.

Ember Morrissey, assistant professor of environmental microbiology in the Davis College of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Design, received a $150,000 grant from National Science Foundation’s Division of Environmental Biology’s Early-concept Grants for Exploratory Research program, known as EAGER, to increase understanding of the behavior of microorganisms in the soil to provide descriptions of microbial function that currently aren’t available.

Morrissey’s research will lay the groundwork needed to figure out how soil can be managed to address environment-related processes and issues, including global warming and climate change.

Of particular interest for Morrissey and other researchers is the ability to formulate more precise predictions of microorganisms’ carbon cycling, or how they use and create carbon, a key to combatting climate change.

“Soil stores a large fraction of the earth’s carbon – actually more carbon than the atmosphere and biosphere combined,” Morrissey explained. “Microorganisms break down and consume this carbon as they live and grow, converting it into the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide.

“Consequently, the activity of microorganisms in soil has the potential to alleviate or worsen climate change, so we need to form predictions regarding their activities.”



Cow and Bee: Diet for Pregnancy and Childhood : Blood-Brain barrier and Gut

Cow and Bee to Save Our Sanity
Cow and Bee to Save Our Sanity

Part 1 Diet regime for children and pregnancy

Some facts from cultural practices related to pregnancy and childhood care.

1) There is an Ayurvedic sutra which prescribes 4 types of rice preparation for pregnant women. Out of which, curd-rice is considered the best. It is said that, if Garbhini eats curd-rice daily, the child will develop unimagined Medha buddhi (intellect) which is enough to understand and realize all 4 Veda(s) (Mind you: To realize even 1 hymn of Veda is super hard work for ordinary minds like us).
2) In last three months of pregnancy, Ayurveda prescribes increased amount of ghee. This is the same time when neural development, neuron network development happens in brain at highly rapid speed.
3) For child below age7, ghee and honey are most important food items. Needless to maintain chaas (butter milk) and Curd (dahi). This is the also highly active brain development period.
Dahi, butter milk, Ghee, Honey – They all are carrier of healthy bacteria. They all are in fact full of healthy bacteria. They are full of prana Shakti which can help healthy bacteria to establish in Gut.
Now, let us understand latest research findings.

Part 2 Blood–brain barrier & GUT

Gut and Brain barrier
Gut and Brain barrier

The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective permeability barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain extracellular fluid (BECF) in the central nervous system (CNS).

The findings suggest that a woman’s diet or exposure to antibiotics during pregnancy may influence the development of this barrier.

The blood–brain barrier may prevent the entry of lipophilic, potential neurotoxins by way of an active transport mechanism mediated by P-glycoprotein and allows only water, some gases, and lipid soluble molecules by passive diffusion, as well as the selective transport of molecules such as glucose and amino acids that are crucial to neural function.

Germ-free mice even have leaky blood-brain barriers as adults. But those leaks closed after the researchers gave the animals the microbes from normal mice for 2 weeks, Pettersson says.

In short, it is most critical filter designed by Mother Nature. Better the barrier, less chances of impaired brain development.

Leaky BBB allows toxins, pathogens and other non-useful molecules to pass the barrier and cause damage to brain. Damage to brain means inability to serve the mind. This may lead to following diseases.
• Meningitis
• Brain abscess
• Epilepsy
• Multiple sclerosis
• Neuromyelitis optica
• Late-stage neurological trypanosomiasis (Sleeping sickness)
• Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)
• De Vivo disease
• Alzheimer’s disease
• Cerebral edema

As per latest research [1], healthy gut bacteria repairs leaks in BBB and protects brain from all outside toxins.

Now re-read part 1 and draw your conclusion.

Ghee, Dahi, Milk, Chass, Honey in diet of pregnant mother, lactating mother and child -> Healthy GUT -> Better BBB -> Healthy brain development for a child.
Conclusion: Without Gau mata, it is impossible to imagine citizens of future with adequate abilities to live self-reliant life.

Concluding thoughts and hints for future research:

• For the future of our children, find Gau shala nearby and start worshipping gau mata (Take care of her. Do her seva)
• Use only her Prasad (Milk, ghee, Dahi, gobar, mutra) in diet. This exclude dairy products. Dairy is a greatest sin of our society.
• Provide pure Ghee, Dahi, Milk, Chass, Honey to all pregnant mothers in our society. There is no great charity than this in my humble opinion.
• Just for your reference, I have witnessed my friend curing several brain disorders (Headache, migraine, Epilepsy) cases by Gau ghee based medicines. Doctors should use this treatment to cure Epilepsy & Meningitis which are now common among children age below 5.
• Avoid Antibiotics. If not avoidable in extreme situation, take jaggery water / dahi / ghee in diet during antibiotic course.

Supporting Research

Body’s bacteria may keep our brains healthy


The microbes that live in your body outnumber your cells 10 to one. Recent studies suggest these tiny organisms help us digest food and maintain our immune system. Now, researchers have discovered yet another way microbes keep us healthy: They are needed for closing the blood-brain barrier, a molecular fence that shuts out pathogens and molecules that could harm the brain.

The studies showed that the blood-brain barrier typically forms a tight seal a little more than 17 days into development. Antibodies infiltrated the brains of all the embryos younger than 17 days, but they continued to enter the brains of embryos of germ-free mothers well beyond day 17, the team reports online today in Science Translational Medicine. Embryos from germ-free mothers also had fewer intact gap junction proteins, and gap junction protein genes in their brains were less active, which may explain the persistent leakiness. (The researchers didn’t look at the mice’s guts.)

Germ-free mice even have leaky blood-brain barriers as adults. But those leaks closed after the researchers gave the animals the microbes from normal mice for 2 weeks, Pettersson says.

But how? In the gut, bacteria may influence the gut wall’s integrity through one of their byproducts, energy-laden molecules called short-chain fatty acids. So Pettersson and his colleagues infected germ-free mice with either bacteria that made these fatty acids or ones that did not. The blood-brain barrier improved only when the bacteria made these fatty acids, Pettersson says. He thinks that these molecules may get into the blood and stimulate gene activity that leads to the closure of the barrier.

The gut microbiota influences blood-brain barrier permeability in mice


Pivotal to brain development and function is an intact blood-brain barrier (BBB), which acts as a gatekeeper to control the passage and exchange of molecules and nutrients between the circulatory system and the brain parenchyma. The BBB also ensures homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS). We report that germ-free mice, beginning with intrauterine life, displayed increased BBB permeability compared to pathogen-free mice with a normal gut flora. The increased BBB permeability was maintained in germ-free mice after birth and during adulthood and was associated with reduced expression of the tight junction proteins occludin and claudin-5, which are known to regulate barrier function in endothelial tissues. Exposure of germ-free adult mice to a pathogen-free gut microbiota decreased BBB permeability and up-regulated the expression of tight junction proteins. Our results suggest that gut microbiota–BBB communication is initiated during gestation and propagated throughout life.


Microbes are Border Security Forces





Colon linings where microbes act as army
Colon linings where microbes act as army


Microbes are border security Forces
From the rhizosphere to the mucosal lining of the colon, or skin or nasal pathway, microbes thrive at interfaces. They protect the critical supply lines. They restrict non-self elements at gate. Be it plant root or our colon. They are in fact patrolling battalion. Border security force. When border security is compromised, we see N-number of internal security issues, not limited to cancer.
Think in reverse : Just like how we offer probiotic food to body so that microbes can thrive, we must take care of our soldiers at any cost. Without them, there is no existence of Bharat. Compromised BSF = Leakey GUT.
Contemplate on this while you enjoy Monsoon rain with Bhajiya! 🙂

Tridosha vs Enterotypes of the human gut microbiome


Gut Microbes

An enterotype is a classification of living organisms based on its bacteriological ecosystem in the gut microbiome. So far, scientists identified three robust clusters (enterotypes hereafter) that are not nation or continent-specific (In 2011). They confirmed the enterotypes also in two published, larger cohorts suggesting that intestinal microbiota variation is generally stratified, not continuous. Bacteroides (enterotype 1), Prevotella (enterotype 2) and Ruminococcus (enterotype 3).[1]

In Ayurveda, our Prakriti is important for treatment. Each individual has different Prakriti. Kapha Prakriti, Pitta Prakriti, Vata Prakriti and mix.

3 clusters of microbiome. 3 Types of human nature (Physical Prakriti/Constitution/Mental Constitution)

No wonder, soon we will see missing link.

Points to note here:

1) Gut bacteria are related to your nature/Prakriti/Constitution
2) Gut bacteria changes with age and so your prakriti also change(Children – Kapha, Adult – Pitta, Old age – Vata)

Interesting time ahead



[1] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3728647/

Enterotypes of the human gut microbiome


Our knowledge on species and function composition of the human gut microbiome is rapidly increasing, but it is still based on very few cohorts and little is known about their variation across the world. Combining 22 newly sequenced fecal metagenomes of individuals from 4 countries with previously published datasets, we identified three robust clusters (enterotypes hereafter) that are not nation or continent-specific. We confirmed the enterotypes also in two published, larger cohorts suggesting that intestinal microbiota variation is generally stratified, not continuous. This further indicates the existence of a limited number of well-balanced host-microbial symbiotic states that might respond differently to diet and drug intake. The enterotypes are mostly driven by species composition, but abundant molecular functions are not necessarily provided by abundant species, highlighting the importance of a functional analysis for a community understanding. While individual host properties such as body mass index, age, or gender cannot explain the observed enterotypes, data-driven marker genes or functional modules can be identified for each of these host properties. For example, twelve genes significantly correlate with age and three functional modules with the body mass index, hinting at a diagnostic potential of microbial markers

Urban Forests : Must to maintain healthy microbial communities


I discussed here several times how your local architecture/landscape shape microbial communities. And why Vastu-Vidhya revival is urgent need of the hour. Adding real smartness to the cities and villages. In my city, in name smart city, local civic body is converting Green plots into vertical slums for petty short-sighted vote-bank politics!


Urban greenness influences airborne bacterial community composition


“Urban green space provides health benefits for city dwellers, and new evidence suggests that microorganisms associated with soil and vegetation could play a role. While airborne microorganisms are ubiquitous in urban areas, the influence of nearby vegetation on airborne microbial communities remains poorly understood. We examined airborne microbial communities in parks and parking lots in Eugene, Oregon, using high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene on the Illumina MiSeq platform to identify bacterial taxa, and GIS to measure vegetation cover in buffer zones of different diameters. Our goal was to explore variation among highly vegetated (parks) versus non-vegetated (parking lots) urban environments. A secondary objective was to evaluate passive versus active collection methods for outdoor airborne microbial sampling. Airborne bacterial communities from five parks were different from those of five parking lots (p = 0.023), although alpha diversity was similar. Direct gradient analysis showed that the proportion of vegetated area within a 50 m radius of the sampling station explained 15% of the variation in bacterial community composition. A number of key taxa, including several Acidobacteriaceae were substantially more abundant in parks, while parking lots had higher relative abundance of Acetobacteraceae. Parks had greater beta diversity than parking lots, i.e. individual parks were characterized by unique bacterial signatures, whereas parking lot communities tended to be similar to each other. Although parks and parking lots were selected to form pairs of nearby sites, spatial proximity did not appear to affect compositional similarity. Our results also showed that passive and active collection methods gave comparable results, indicating the “settling dish” method is effective for outdoor airborne sampling. This work sets a foundation for understanding how urban vegetation may impact microbial communities, with potential implications for designing neighborhoods and open space systems that foster better human health.”

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