Microbes

Microbes

Cat-love, Vegetarian diet vs Meat-diet, Brain Microbes, Infection

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CAT love?
CAT love?

Toxoplasma gondii is a microbe. Toxoplasma starts its life cycle as an egg inside the intestines of a cat (or another feline); rats and mice habitually feed on the cat’s excrements and may ingest the eggs. Mammals, birds, and fish that consume infected animals or ingest contaminated water get infected too. Eating their meat undercooked is by far the most typical, though not the only (for a review, see Tenteret al., 2000), way of contracting the parasite for us.

Toxoplasma gondii
Toxoplasma gondii

Close proximity with Cat or mice may increase chances of getting this infection. It is common infection in 50% of developed nations and less common in vegetarian nations like India.

This microbes from Cat infects our brain. It results into workplace and traffic accidents (possibly because it renders one less careful and slows down reaction time), depression, suicides,changes in personality, and various mental and neurological diseases, including bipolar and obsessive-compulsive disorders.

In particular, Toxoplasma infection raises the probability of developing schizophrenia 2.7 times, and is thereby the largest known single risk factor of the disorder—larger than any of the currently known genetic and environmental ones (for a meta-analysis, see Torrey,Bartko, Lun, & Yolken, 2007)

Toxoplasma gondii life cycle
Toxoplasma gondii life cycle

Now visit the old कहावत : “काली बिल्ली रास्ता काटे तो अपशकुन होता है।” What is अपशकुन ? Failure in desired mental/physical actions.

Was this instruction given to save us from possible Toxoplasma gondii infection so that we do not suffer from mental disorders which can hamper success of our duties? 🙂

Sayings are not always blind beliefs. They are societal conclusions based on several generations observations. Not a worth to reject straight away with our shallow educated rational minds. 😉

PS: This does not mean we start hating cats. It is just that, we must take care of washing hands and legs when the local area is full of stray dogs and cats. (Nowadays, we don’t have such setup. Our bathrooms and washrooms are way behind the curtains of bedroom! 😀 . In ideal home setup, entrance must have wash-area )

Read more:

http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2012/03/how-your-cat-is-making-you-crazy/308873/

The parasite, which is excreted by cats in their feces, is called Toxoplasma gondii(T. gondii or Toxo for short) and is the microbe that causes toxoplasmosis—the reason pregnant women are told to avoid cats’ litter boxes. Since the 1920s, doctors have recognized that a woman who becomes infected during pregnancy can transmit the disease to the fetus, in some cases resulting in severe brain damage or death. T. gondii is also a major threat to people with weakened immunity: in the early days of the AIDS epidemic, before good antiretroviral drugs were developed, it was to blame for the dementia that afflicted many patients at the disease’s end stage. Healthy children and adults, however, usually experience nothing worse than brief flu-like symptoms before quickly fighting off the protozoan, which thereafter lies dormant inside brain cells—or at least that’s the standard medical wisdom.

Toxoplasma Gondii, Parasite In Cat Feces, Linked To Schizophrenia And Other Mental Illness

Cats — especially stray or outdoor ones — may carry a parasite known as Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in their feces. This parasite is able to infect any warm-blooded animal, including humans; the CDC estimates that some 60 million Americans have it. Most people don’t show any symptoms of the infection, but people with a weaker immune system could get sick with toxoplasmosis, which has been linked to miscarriage, fetal developmental disorders, blindness, and flu-like symptoms.

http://www.medicaldaily.com/toxoplasma-gondii-parasite-cat-feces-linked-schizophrenia-and-other-mental-illness-337030

Microbial Community(प्राणमय कोष) controls Gene expression : Not genes, epigenetic!

http://www.cell.com/cms/attachment/2079859016/2071400130/fx1.jpg
http://www.cell.com/cms/attachment/2079859016/2071400130/fx1.jpg

Instead of medicine, why I suggest all friends to worship Surya and Hanuman! 🙂 It is the need of the hour as our Prana is being consumed daily rapidly by toxic environment, physical and mental.

So many dots can be connected by reading this research paper.

This is wonderful morning as I read this research. One more confirmation proof for my theory that it is प्राणमय कोष that actually influences body and not the genes!!

Entire Genome project is pseudo-science of last century! And so GMO crops! Yes, this is tall claim and against the waves but it is the reality! 🙂

प्राणमय कोष is our immunity. It is our cellular intelligence. It is the one that manifests and govern cell-formation. It is the one that manifests cells with individual identity i.e. microbes rather than collective identity i.e. Body organ cell like skill cell, liver cell or neuron.

It is not just me! I know couple of researchers confirming the same fact and working hard to find more and more epigenetic links!

Our food, our thoughts – all influence our well-being. Genes are actually controlled by them!!

It is not genes, it is epigenetic!

In our guts, and in the guts of all animals, resides a robust ecosystem of microbes known as the microbiome. Consisting of trillions of organisms — bacteria, fungi and viruses — the microbiome is essential for host health, providing important services ranging from nutrient processing to immune system development and maintenance.

Now, in a study comparing mice raised in a “germ free” environment and mice raised under more typical lab conditions, scientists have identified yet another key role of the microbes that live within us: mediator of host gene expression through the epigenome, the chemical information that regulates which genes in cells are active.

Writing online Nov. 23 in the journal Molecular Cell, a team of researchers from the University of Wisconsin–Madison describes new research helping tease out the mechanics of how the gut microbiome communicates with the cells of its host to switch genes on and off. The upshot of the study, another indictment of the so-called Western diet (high in saturated fats, sugar and red meat), reveals how the metabolites produced by the bacteria in the stomach chemically communicate with cells, including cells far beyond the colon, to dictate gene expression and health in its host.


Research


Diet-Microbiota Interactions Mediate Global Epigenetic Programming in Multiple Host Tissues

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2016.10.025

Highlights

  • Gut microbiota alter host histone acetylation and methylation in multiple tissues
  • Western diet suppresses microbiota-driven SCFA production and chromatin effects
  • SCFAs recapitulate microbiota-driven chromatin and transcriptional effects

Summary

Histone-modifying enzymes regulate transcription and are sensitive to availability of endogenous small-molecule metabolites, allowing chromatin to respond to changes in environment. The gut microbiota produces a myriad of metabolites that affect host physiology and susceptibility to disease; however, the underlying molecular events remain largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that microbial colonization regulates global histone acetylation and methylation in multiple host tissues in a diet-dependent manner: consumption of a “Western-type” diet prevents many of the microbiota-dependent chromatin changes that occur in a polysaccharide-rich diet. Finally, we demonstrate that supplementation of germ-free mice with short-chain fatty acids, major products of gut bacterial fermentation, is sufficient to recapitulate chromatin modification states and transcriptional responses associated with colonization. These findings have profound implications for understanding the complex functional interactions between diet, gut microbiota, and host health.

Conch-shell, Sound and Microbes

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Conch-shell and microbes https://i.ytimg.com/vi/qgVhFBHSYRk/maxresdefault.jpg
Conch-shell and microbes
https://i.ytimg.com/vi/qgVhFBHSYRk/maxresdefault.jpg

Blowing conch-shell is a well-known ritual. If try to do research (Or rather Google search 🙂 ), you will find many spiritual answers.

For example:
” When the conch is blown with controlled breath, the primordial sound of “Om” emanates from it. This eternal sound is the origin of all Vedas. All knowledge enshrined in the Vedas is an elaboration of the omnipresent sublime sound of Om. It was this sound that was chanted by the Lord before manifesting the cosmos. It represents the creation and the Truth behind it.”
“It is believed the blowing shankha destroys enemies and also pleases goddess Lakshmi.”

For individuals blowing conch, following benefits are found

Not just for religion, blowing shankha has scientific and ayurvedic benefits also. As per them, blowing shankha during puja has benefits on our lungs. This is because for blowing a shankha pure air reaches the lungs and impure air comes out. This makes the lungs strong.Blowing shankha also cures diseases of intestines.

No ritual of Hinduism is for selfish motives. What about environmental impact that can help all in vicinity?

For optimum environmental help, responsibility of blowing conch-shell is given to only those who has full control over breathe. Not everyone can blow it. It is not about the intensity but about the right sound frequencies.

Why?

Microbes(=Maruts) can sense sonic vibrations[1]. Link between sonic vibrations of Conchshell blowing on auspicious days/begining of new task and behaviour of Maruts should be studied. Right sound, right microbes.

When microbial conversations get physical

It is widely accepted that microorganisms are social beings. Whereas communication via chemical signals (e.g. quorum sensing) has been the focus of most investigations, the use of physical signals for microbial cell-cell communication has received only limited attention. Here, I argue that physical modes of microbial communication could be widespread in nature. This is based on experimental evidence on the microbial emission and response to three physical signals: sound waves, electromagnetic radiation, and electric currents. These signals propagate rapidly and, even at very low intensities, they provide useful mechanisms when a rapid response is required. I also make some suggestions for promising future research avenues that could bring novel and unsuspected insights into the physical nature of microbial signaling networks.
The average spectrum had three broad frequency peaks that matched well with the B. carboniphilus growth-promoting frequencies. Thus, these early studies suggested that some microbial cells might be able to communicate using sounds.
Sound waves are generated when objects vibrate. Essential cellular processes, such as the activity of molecular motors and the cytoskeleton, enzymatic reactions, chromosome packaging and replication, transcription, and protein synthesis, folding or unfolding, generate forces that induce intracellular motions [1019]. The polar oscillation of proteins during cell division [20] or cytoskeleton assembly [21] also contribute greatly to the dynamics of the cell interior and generate polarizing ionic currents inside the cell and charge-induced nanoscale motions. The global effect of intracellular motions is that cells and their components vibrate. Using the sensitivity of an atomic force microscope (AFM) to probe cellular nanomechanics in an acoustically insulated environment, Pelling et al. demonstrated that the cell wall of single, living cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibited local, periodic nanoscale motions of similar average amplitude (3.0 ± 0.5 nm), yet variable, temperature-dependent frequencies (0.9–1.6 kHz) [22]. These results not only demonstrated that intracellular motions were strong enough to propagate across the stiff yeast cell wall, they also showed they could generate reproducible acoustic signals. Furthermore, the motions disappeared after treatment with the metabolic inhibitor sodium azide, suggesting they had a metabolic origin. The oscillations of single cells had activation energies (58 kJ/mol) and velocities such as those reported for cytoskeleton motors. The magnitude of the forces (~10 nN) was such that it would have required the concerted action of several molecular motors, as expected of a dedicated system that transmitted the metabolic status of the cell as mechanical vibration and sound [22].
Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3057284/

Production of sound waves by bacterial cells and the response of bacterial cells to sound.

Bacterial cells enhance the proliferation of neighboring cells under stress conditions by emitting a physical signal. Continuous single sine sound waves produced by a speaker at frequencies of 6-10, 18-22, and 28-38 kHz promoted colony formation by Bacillus carboniphilus under non-permissive stress conditions of high KCl concentration and high temperature. Furthermore, sound waves emitted from cells of Bacillus subtilis at frequencies between 8 and 43 kHz with broad peaks at approximately 8.5, 19, 29, and 37 kHz were detected using a sensitive microphone system. The similarity between the frequency of the sound produced by B. subtilis and the frequencies that induced a response in B. carboniphilus and the previously observed growth-promoting effect of B. subtilis cells upon B. carboniphilus through iron barriers, suggest that the detected sound waves function as a growth-regulatory signal between cells.

Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12501293
Sound and Microbes http://link.springer.com/article/10.1134/S0026261715020125#/page-1
Sound and Microbes
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1134/S0026261715020125#/page-1

keep blowing Conchshell with full faith. I am sure, it is helping Marut(s) to develop positive environment for our success. 🙂

While we discussed sound waves and microbes, radio waves also create impact.

Exchange of information is critical for bacterial social behaviors. Bacterias aka Maruts never survive individually. They live in groups. Their existence critically depends upon their communication.

How do they communicate?

Chemically triggered messages that can easily couriered from one body to another.
Radio frequency waves. Yes the ones that we use in our communication

There is no doubt that our Wi-fried transmission of unlimited 2G,3G,4G is disturbing their communication channels. One communication lines are attacked, it is difficult for microbial communities to survive.

Result?

Something that modern medicine and technology has not yet linked (or do not want to link for vested interests). Our dieseases -> dying healthy bacteria -> damanged communication -> 2G,3G,4G nuke bombs.

Theoretical physicists offer explanation of how bacteria might generate radio waves

Chemical reactions can be induced at a distance due to the propagation of electromagnetic signals during intermediate chemical stages. Although is is well known at optical frequencies, e.g. photosynthetic reactions, electromagnetic signals hold true for muck lower frequencies. In E. coli bacteria such electromagnetic signals can be generated by electric transitions between energy levels describing electrons moving around DNA loops. The electromagnetic signals between different bacteria within a community is a “wireless” version of intercellular communication found in bacterial communities connected by “nanowires”. The wireless broadcasts can in principle be of both the AM and FM variety due to the magnetic flux periodicity in electron energy spectra in bacterial DNA orbital motions.

Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2011-04-theoretical-physicists-explanation-bacteria-radio.html#jCp

Bacteria Might Communicate Using Radio Waves

The research revolves around a feature called circular DNA (DNA loops), which is found in simple organisms like viruses and bacteria. As free electrons move around these loops, a radio wave can be produced — and as quantum objects, these electrons can also take on different energy levels. It is posited that these two factors could allow bacteria to transmit radio waves at frequencies of 0.5, 1 and 1.5KHz.

 

http://www.extremetech.com/extreme/84198-bacteria-might-communicate-using-radio-waves

Take care. At least, keep your home clean from electro-magnetic waves. Sleep away from wifi and cell phone networks.

 

 

Gut is not Gutter : Your gut bacteria don’t like junk food – even if you do

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Do you like to visit dirty and untidy homes? Do you give the same treatment to your relatives and friends when they visit your home? Do we scold them for coming at wrong time?

GUT is home for billions of bacteria. They stay their to do numerous biological tasks for our well-being. In fact, their population variety decides, what nutrients we can digest and what not. Their population really drives our emotional responses. Richness in their variety is essential.

We rely on our bacteria to produce much of our essential nutrients and vitamins while they rely on us eating plants and fruits to provide them with energy and to produce healthy chemicals which keep our immune system working normally.

We are unlikely to stop people eating fast food, but the devastating effects on our microbes and our long term health could possibly be mitigated if we also eat foods which our microbes love like probiotics (yogurts), root vegetables, nuts, olives and high-fibre foods. What they seem to crave, above all else, is food diversity and a slice of gherkin in the burger just isn’t enough.

When we keep eating junk food, we kill them. We show them the door.

Tim Spector, Professor of Genetic Epidemiology at King’s College London, did an experiment with his own son.

Read to know how junk food destroys GUT population.


Research


Your gut bacteria don’t like junk food – even if you do

https://theconversation.com/your-gut-bacteria-dont-like-junk-food-even-if-you-do-41564

“Tom’s gut had seen massive shifts in his common microbe groups for reasons that are still unclear. Firmicutes were replaced with Bacteroidetes as the dominant type, while friendly bifidobacteria that suppress inflammation halved. However the clearest marker of an unhealthy gut is losing species diversity and after just a few days Tom had lost an estimated 1,400 species – nearly 40% of his total. The changes persisted and even two weeks after the diet his microbes had not recovered. Loss of diversity is a universal signal of ill health in the guts of obese and diabetic people and triggers a range of immunity problems in lab mice.”

Being barren – Art of living infection-free life

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Being barren

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If the field is barren then the seed, howsoever potent it may be, will not germinate. This is basic principle on which Ayurveda put extra emphasis.

HIV is powerful, let it be.

Howsoever potent the germ may be, they will not be able to produce disease in human body unless the tissues of the body are fertile (vitiated) enough to accept them (germs) and help in their growth and multiplication. Killing these germs by administering medicine would solve problem temporarily, no permanently. It may give instant relief but for time being. We cannot live in an absolutely germ-free environment even though we get such germ-free feeling by our attempts to minimize germs. The only thing that can be done safely is to keep the body tissues barren and unsympathetic towards these germs, as long as possible. And if there is attack, fight by self instead seeking solace in medicines! If medicines are required, take for tissue conditioning and not for killing invading army.
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Interpolate above text by adding following words at appropriate places to understand Ayurvedic treatment for societal issues.

Citizens, Crimes, Criminal minds, Punishments, Laws, Virtuous Warrior minds, Military training, Moral Education (Character building).
PS: Allopathic way is alternative, with side effects, reactions and long lasting misery.

Cow Milk and Prebiotic Medium

Everyone is talking about probiotic food nowadays. Sadly, this awareness is mostly limited to two jargon 1) Probiotic 2) Prebiotic

Let us try to understand, what they are!

Probiotics are live microorganisms that live in gastrointestinal (GI) tract and are beneficial for their hosts and prevent certain diseases.

Prebiotics are non‐digestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth and activity of probiotic bacteria in the colon. All dietary prebiotics and/or dietary fiber provide the physiological and beneficial effects and, therefore, are considered as essential nutrients.

In post antibiotic obsession era, everyone is now praising microbes. But no one is talking about microbes sustenance medium. Healthy bacteria survives when their environment is potent to provide them continuous nutrition.

Prebiotic – this is where desi zebu cattle milk plays wonder. It is potent prebiotic.

Probiotic benefits
Probiotic benefits

गौर्धयति मरुतां शरवस्युर्माता मघोनाम |
युक्ता वह्नी रथानाम || (ऋगवेद ८-९४-१)

गौ माता दूध पिलाती है, उस दूधसे संतृप्त हो मरुत वीर रथसंचालक (वेगवान) बनते है|

As you read translation, only desi Gau mata’s A2 milk is potent enough to provide them driving force ( रथसंचालक). If such potent medium is not provided (like many Vegan friends find alternative solution in Vegan Dahi made up using coconut or badam or any other nuts) to them, health bacteria may die soon, before reaching to their destination i.e. GUT. Dead probiotic means more danger for digestive track! More efforts to clean the track! Acidity! Ulcer!

Probiotics promote gut health through stimulation, rather than suppression, of the innate immune system. Our first lines of defense are digestive chemistry and innate immunity.

For a probiotic to work it must arrive alive in the colon. They arrive alive only when they have enough food while travelling and are acid proof (Protected from gastric acids). It has been recommended that food containing probiotic bacteria should contain at least 10^6 live micro organisms per g or mL at the time of consumption to have protective effects such as maintenance of normal intestinal micro flora, enhancement of the immune system, reduction of lactose intolerance and anti-cancer activity.
Along with that probiotics should resist the natural barrier of high acidity and bile content in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and show their survivability and activity in the colon.

Only Desi Gau milk based fermentation has both powers. (Do your experiments if you have doubts).

Which Desi Gau milk?

या शर्धाय मारुताय सवभानवे शरवो.अम्र्त्यु धुक्षत |
या मर्ळीके मरुतां तुराणां या सुम्नैरेवयावरी || Rugved – Book 6 – Hymn 48 – Verse 12

Translation
Gau who provides immortal nectar milk for powerful self-illuminating Marut(s); the one who provides happiness/comfort to swift-footed(quick runner) Marut(s), that divine Gau comes to your home only by glorious efforts and actions.

Gau mata can give such nectar milk only when she is worshiped by brave men doing selfless glorious acts for society. Gau seva for selfish motives is not desirable. So if you purchase milk from professional gau shala, you will still will not avail full benefits of nectar. You first need to worship Gau mata whose milk you want to avail. Without worship, you cannot connect with her. Without connecting with her, it is not possible to receive her blessings.

Krishna with Gaia
Krishna with Gaia

Krishna is Krishna due to Gau Mata Seva and Worship. Do we follow him? 🙂

Fundamental fallacy in dairy model is: disconnect between mata and son. Mother can foster best prasad (milk, urine, dung), only when she is taken care best! Factory model of dairy don’t yield benefits described here.

 

Immune System Fosters Good Bacteria

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We have been taught that immune system means Army. Immune System is defense system. But we were never taught that the immune system does more than mere purging non-body particles out of body.

Here is the interesting finding which supports what we discussed on this subject recently:
“When the immune system functions properly (MyD88 is active, green), IgA antibodies bind multiple species of bacteria, keeping the numbers and types of ‘good’ bacteria that inhabit the gut under control. (Right) When the immune system is disrupted (MyD88 is inactive, gray), IgA binds bacteria less effectively, and the bacterial community becomes imbalanced, jeopardizing digestive health.”

If bacteria are enemy, why would immune system help them grow? 🙂

There is no enmity with Mother Nature as most brainwashing media tell you. There is no war against bacteria or Virus going on. Purpose of immune system is to maintain your existence. That is it.

The ability of the human body to live in peace with 10 microbes per every human cell is a state of genuine immunity, wherein the body exercises a holy indifference to the resident microbes, to gain therefrom freedom from any reactivity against the obviously non-self microbes.

This is ability to realize self and non-self can be best developed when a child is exposed more often to mother nature.

Stop this delusion of war against the nature and see the magic. Your life will be much more healthier then the past! Try it! (Y)

Tulsi, Turmeric, Ghee (Desi Gau’s), Honey (Pure jungle based), Milk (Desi gau’s raw) – they all help you too strengthen immune system i.e. your own identity so that your body can identify self from non-self! 🙂


Research


http://healthcare.utah.edu/publicaffairs/news/2015/01/01-22-15_Immune_System_Fosters_Good_Bacteria.php

Immune System Promotes Digestive Health by Fostering Community of “Good” Gut Bacteria

As many as 1.4 million Americans suffer from uncomfortable abdominal cramping and diarrhea that come with ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. These conditions, collectively known as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are associated with an imbalance among the thousands of species of “good” bacteria that inhabit the gut. A University of Utah study published on Jan. 22, 2015, in Cell Host and Microbe demonstrates that mice deficient for a component of the immune system, a protein called MyD88, have an imbalanced gut bacterial community – with some species dominating over others – and are more susceptible to contracting a severe IBD-like illness. Further, fecal transplants from healthy donors alleviate IBD symptoms in these mice.

The results show that the immune system encourages growth of a healthy community of “good” bacteria that is important for digestive health. This perspective on immune system function is in contrast to it’s best-known role as the first line of defense in the fight against pathogens, including invasive bacteria.

“Our work highlights that the immune system shapes the composition of bacterial communities in the intestine,” says senior author June Round, Ph.D., assistant professor of pathology at the University of Utah School of Medicine. “This interaction is important because it’s becoming more and more clear that resident microbes are very important for our health.”

Considering that some people with IBD have mutations in genes that are part of a MyD88-controlled pathway, fecal transplantation – which involves collecting and processing stool from a healthy donor, and delivering it into a recipient’s gut – might help to ameliorate disease in these people, according to Round.

Loss of MyD88 disturbs the microbial community because it disrupts production of IgA. This class of antibody works like a gatekeeper that controls which types of bacteria, and how many, are allowed to inhabit the gut. By performing inventories of total gut bacteria compared to species that bind IgA, the scientists determined that without MyD88, IgA failed to recognize species that it can otherwise.

Urban Forests : Must to maintain healthy microbial communities

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http://allswalls.com/images/central-park-nyc-wallpaper-3.jpg
http://allswalls.com/images/central-park-nyc-wallpaper-3.jpg

I discussed here several times how your local architecture/landscape shape microbial communities. And why Vastu-Vidhya revival is urgent need of the hour. Adding real smartness to the cities and villages. In my city, in name smart city, local civic body is converting Green plots into vertical slums for petty short-sighted vote-bank politics!


Research


Urban greenness influences airborne bacterial community composition

linkhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969716314826

“Urban green space provides health benefits for city dwellers, and new evidence suggests that microorganisms associated with soil and vegetation could play a role. While airborne microorganisms are ubiquitous in urban areas, the influence of nearby vegetation on airborne microbial communities remains poorly understood. We examined airborne microbial communities in parks and parking lots in Eugene, Oregon, using high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene on the Illumina MiSeq platform to identify bacterial taxa, and GIS to measure vegetation cover in buffer zones of different diameters. Our goal was to explore variation among highly vegetated (parks) versus non-vegetated (parking lots) urban environments. A secondary objective was to evaluate passive versus active collection methods for outdoor airborne microbial sampling. Airborne bacterial communities from five parks were different from those of five parking lots (p = 0.023), although alpha diversity was similar. Direct gradient analysis showed that the proportion of vegetated area within a 50 m radius of the sampling station explained 15% of the variation in bacterial community composition. A number of key taxa, including several Acidobacteriaceae were substantially more abundant in parks, while parking lots had higher relative abundance of Acetobacteraceae. Parks had greater beta diversity than parking lots, i.e. individual parks were characterized by unique bacterial signatures, whereas parking lot communities tended to be similar to each other. Although parks and parking lots were selected to form pairs of nearby sites, spatial proximity did not appear to affect compositional similarity. Our results also showed that passive and active collection methods gave comparable results, indicating the “settling dish” method is effective for outdoor airborne sampling. This work sets a foundation for understanding how urban vegetation may impact microbial communities, with potential implications for designing neighborhoods and open space systems that foster better human health.”

Humans as Superorganisms: How Microbes, Viruses, Imprinted Genes shapes Our Behavior

You will be assimilated. Resistance is futile.
—The Borg, Star Trek: The Next Generation

For entire last century and till now, we were groomed with a high human EGO. We are educated to see illusion of our body separate from the world. This delusion did not just went against our health but also developed destructive ideas which are right now creating havoc on earth.

What is the way ahead?

Break the illusion and develop new insight about our existence i.e. Human as a super-organism complex.

To understand better, consider beehive as super-organism. Anthill as super-organism. They do share their social decisions. They do work like one entity.

Img src: http://darwinian-medicine.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/modern-lifestyle-microbiome.jpg
Img src: http://darwinian-medicine.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/modern-lifestyle-microbiome.jpg

Unbeknownst to many people, our emotions, cognition, behavior, and mental health are influenced by a large number of entities that reside in our bodies while pursuing their own interests, which need not coincide with ours. Such entities include microbes, viruses, foreign human cells, and imprinted genes regulated by virus like elements. This article provides a broad overview, aimed at a wide readership, of the consequences of our coexistence with these entities. Its aim is to show that we are not unitary individuals in control of ourselves but rather “holobionts” or superorganisms—meant here as collections of human and nonhuman elements that are to varying degrees integrated and, in an incessant struggle, jointly define who we are.

Read this[1] research paper and learn to self with different outlook. I bet, if you alter your outlook towards self and others, we will have far better life than what we have right now. Take care.
If I take opportunity to connect the dots, as per Ayurveda, this body is nothing but infinite rhythms (नाड़ी) working together based on Pranic Intelligence (प्राणमय शरीर). Many of such rhythms form cells-complex and organs and many remain as separate organisms like microbes, viruses etc. Ultimately, it is प्राण that is controlling the physical body.

[1] Do read this: http://www.psy.unipd.it/~kramer/files/KramerBressan2015.pdf

In computer engineering, I learned bottom up approach. Just like that, we emerge as 1 single universe. 1 Mind divided into many…and that goes on to the infinity level. 🙂

Our body is just one state in between. 🙂 (Y)

So you and me, we all, are related. Are actually one super-organism like how trillions+ microbes and worms are part of each one of us.

And when some of the microbes forget their duty towards super-organism i.e. our body, we get sickness, same way, when some of us forget duties towards the universe,yet another state of super-organism, we get pollution, wars, weapons etc.

http://dailynous.com/2015/07/24/we-are-not-human-individuals/

 

Cow and Bee: Diet for Pregnancy and Childhood : Blood-Brain barrier and Gut

Cow and Bee to Save Our Sanity
Cow and Bee to Save Our Sanity

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Part 1 Diet regime for children and pregnancy
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Some facts from cultural practices related to pregnancy and childhood care.

1) There is an Ayurvedic sutra which prescribes 4 types of rice preparation for pregnant women. Out of which, curd-rice is considered the best. It is said that, if Garbhini eats curd-rice daily, the child will develop unimagined Medha buddhi (intellect) which is enough to understand and realize all 4 Veda(s) (Mind you: To realize even 1 hymn of Veda is super hard work for ordinary minds like us).
2) In last three months of pregnancy, Ayurveda prescribes increased amount of ghee. This is the same time when neural development, neuron network development happens in brain at highly rapid speed.
3) For child below age7, ghee and honey are most important food items. Needless to maintain chaas (butter milk) and Curd (dahi). This is the also highly active brain development period.
Dahi, butter milk, Ghee, Honey – They all are carrier of healthy bacteria. They all are in fact full of healthy bacteria. They are full of prana Shakti which can help healthy bacteria to establish in Gut.
Now, let us understand latest research findings.

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Part 2 Blood–brain barrier & GUT
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Gut and Brain barrier
Gut and Brain barrier

The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective permeability barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain extracellular fluid (BECF) in the central nervous system (CNS).

The findings suggest that a woman’s diet or exposure to antibiotics during pregnancy may influence the development of this barrier.

The blood–brain barrier may prevent the entry of lipophilic, potential neurotoxins by way of an active transport mechanism mediated by P-glycoprotein and allows only water, some gases, and lipid soluble molecules by passive diffusion, as well as the selective transport of molecules such as glucose and amino acids that are crucial to neural function.

Germ-free mice even have leaky blood-brain barriers as adults. But those leaks closed after the researchers gave the animals the microbes from normal mice for 2 weeks, Pettersson says.

In short, it is most critical filter designed by Mother Nature. Better the barrier, less chances of impaired brain development.

Leaky BBB allows toxins, pathogens and other non-useful molecules to pass the barrier and cause damage to brain. Damage to brain means inability to serve the mind. This may lead to following diseases.
• Meningitis
• Brain abscess
• Epilepsy
• Multiple sclerosis
• Neuromyelitis optica
• Late-stage neurological trypanosomiasis (Sleeping sickness)
• Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)
• De Vivo disease
• Alzheimer’s disease
• Cerebral edema

As per latest research [1], healthy gut bacteria repairs leaks in BBB and protects brain from all outside toxins.

Now re-read part 1 and draw your conclusion.

Ghee, Dahi, Milk, Chass, Honey in diet of pregnant mother, lactating mother and child -> Healthy GUT -> Better BBB -> Healthy brain development for a child.
Conclusion: Without Gau mata, it is impossible to imagine citizens of future with adequate abilities to live self-reliant life.

Concluding thoughts and hints for future research:

• For the future of our children, find Gau shala nearby and start worshipping gau mata (Take care of her. Do her seva)
• Use only her Prasad (Milk, ghee, Dahi, gobar, mutra) in diet. This exclude dairy products. Dairy is a greatest sin of our society.
• Provide pure Ghee, Dahi, Milk, Chass, Honey to all pregnant mothers in our society. There is no great charity than this in my humble opinion.
• Just for your reference, I have witnessed my friend curing several brain disorders (Headache, migraine, Epilepsy) cases by Gau ghee based medicines. Doctors should use this treatment to cure Epilepsy & Meningitis which are now common among children age below 5.
• Avoid Antibiotics. If not avoidable in extreme situation, take jaggery water / dahi / ghee in diet during antibiotic course.


Supporting Research


Body’s bacteria may keep our brains healthy

http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2014/11/bodys-bacteria-may-keep-our-brains-healthy

The microbes that live in your body outnumber your cells 10 to one. Recent studies suggest these tiny organisms help us digest food and maintain our immune system. Now, researchers have discovered yet another way microbes keep us healthy: They are needed for closing the blood-brain barrier, a molecular fence that shuts out pathogens and molecules that could harm the brain.

The studies showed that the blood-brain barrier typically forms a tight seal a little more than 17 days into development. Antibodies infiltrated the brains of all the embryos younger than 17 days, but they continued to enter the brains of embryos of germ-free mothers well beyond day 17, the team reports online today in Science Translational Medicine. Embryos from germ-free mothers also had fewer intact gap junction proteins, and gap junction protein genes in their brains were less active, which may explain the persistent leakiness. (The researchers didn’t look at the mice’s guts.)

Germ-free mice even have leaky blood-brain barriers as adults. But those leaks closed after the researchers gave the animals the microbes from normal mice for 2 weeks, Pettersson says.

But how? In the gut, bacteria may influence the gut wall’s integrity through one of their byproducts, energy-laden molecules called short-chain fatty acids. So Pettersson and his colleagues infected germ-free mice with either bacteria that made these fatty acids or ones that did not. The blood-brain barrier improved only when the bacteria made these fatty acids, Pettersson says. He thinks that these molecules may get into the blood and stimulate gene activity that leads to the closure of the barrier.

The gut microbiota influences blood-brain barrier permeability in mice

http://stm.sciencemag.org/content/6/263/263ra158

Pivotal to brain development and function is an intact blood-brain barrier (BBB), which acts as a gatekeeper to control the passage and exchange of molecules and nutrients between the circulatory system and the brain parenchyma. The BBB also ensures homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS). We report that germ-free mice, beginning with intrauterine life, displayed increased BBB permeability compared to pathogen-free mice with a normal gut flora. The increased BBB permeability was maintained in germ-free mice after birth and during adulthood and was associated with reduced expression of the tight junction proteins occludin and claudin-5, which are known to regulate barrier function in endothelial tissues. Exposure of germ-free adult mice to a pathogen-free gut microbiota decreased BBB permeability and up-regulated the expression of tight junction proteins. Our results suggest that gut microbiota–BBB communication is initiated during gestation and propagated throughout life.

 

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