Microbes

Microbes

Pathogens shape your Behaviour: Immunity and Being Social

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They shape out social behaviour
They shape out social behaviour IMAGE SOURCE: https://www.mtyhd.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/immunity-against-diseases_Gk5Lduu_-GS.jpg

General understanding about immunity is very naive based on the memes spread by modern science custodians in last 100 years. So far, it used to be function preventing us from unforeseen illnesses. Protecting us from pathogens. That is it, right?

It is high time we understand the roots of immunity.

Sanskrit word मुनि means anyone who is moved by inward impulses. Someone who is self-inspired. Someone who is performing duties intuitively.

Now let us understand Latin: Latin word Munis (early *moinis, moenis) has as its principal meaning someone who discharges his office/duty, somebody accomplishing a tasks also contained is the connotation present, gift. Related to it are im-munis (with its derivative im-munitas {immunity}, that is, the exemption from charge or duty.

So in our body, all active cells are Muni(s) or मुनि ((S). They are working as per self-inspiration based on cellular intelligence they carry from birth. Immunity is the process of retiring cells from their duties. Why do we need it?

We need it because their job is over. To maintain the integrity of the body, it is necessary to give them good bye. This process of good bye is a Immune response. This is called Innate immunity. Sometimes, when external conditions are not good, cells die prematurely or their processing is affected severely. So they broadcast messages for help or to alert others in cell community. We call it Viruses. Viruses are dead information. They are not मुनि. They are born to get uprooted once message is conveyed to other cells. We call it viral infection. When severe condition persists for cells, they die prematurely. We call it bacterial infection.

In short, integrity of organism is essential for Muni(s) or Body cell to perform tasks. To help them immune system perform immunity process.

So-called immune system knows which part of the body is self, and what is not-self. A self-marker or a suimarker is endowed to each self-element, an advantage not denied to an alien unit or cell present at the time of thymic maturation.

So when immunity is compromised (मुनि characteristic of us), it is trauma and stress for each individual cell/bacteria/देव/पितर participating in our existence! Summation of it, emerges as anti-social behaviour! And that is what this paper talks about!

At the same time, it is our social interactions as a child, that shapes our immunity (our sense of identifying self from rest).  And as immunity is strengthen, we become and remain social.

SHOCKING NEW ROLE FOUND FOR THE IMMUNE SYSTEM: CONTROLLING SOCIAL INTERACTIONS

https://news.virginia.edu/content/shocking-new-role-found-immune-system-controlling-social-interactions?utm_source=VirginiaHome&utm_medium=referral&utm_campaign=news

“The brain and the adaptive immune system were thought to be isolated from each other, and any immune activity in the brain was perceived as sign of a pathology. And now, not only are we showing that they are closely interacting, but some of our behavior traits might have evolved because of our immune response to pathogens,” explained Jonathan Kipnis, chair of UVA’s Department of Neuroscience. “It’s crazy, but maybe we are just multicellular battlefields for two ancient forces: pathogens and the immune system. Part of our personality may actually be dictated by the immune system.”

The UVA researchers have shown that a specific immune molecule, interferon gamma, seems to be critical for social behavior and that a variety of creatures, such as flies, zebrafish, mice and rats, activate interferon gamma responses when they are social. Normally, this molecule is produced by the immune system in response to bacteria, viruses or parasites. Blocking the molecule in mice using genetic modification made regions of the brain hyperactive, causing the mice to become less social. Restoring the molecule restored the brain connectivity and behavior to normal. In a paper outlining their findings, the researchers note the immune molecule plays a “profound role in maintaining proper social function.”

 

“It’s extremely critical for an organism to be social for the survival of the species. It’s important for foraging, sexual reproduction, gathering, hunting,” said Anthony J. Filiano, Hartwell postdoctoral fellow in the Kipnis lab and lead author of the study. “So the hypothesis is that when organisms come together, you have a higher propensity to spread infection. So you need to be social, but [in doing so] you have a higher chance of spreading pathogens. The idea is that interferon gamma, in evolution, has been used as a more efficient way to both boost social behavior while boosting an anti-pathogen response.”

Now, we see viruses, bacteria and mosquitos as our enemies. Think about it. Are they our enemies? Or they are mother nature’s faithful workers shaping our immunity! (self-realization! Moksha! What not! It starts with the physical self!)

 

 

Putna, Krishna and Gau

Krishna fighting against Putna src: Google search
Krishna fighting against Putna
src: Google search

Each story has hidden meaning if we learn to decipher. There is popular story known in our cutlure about Avtar Krishna and Demon Putna. And how baby Krishna kills the demon Putna.

The word “Pūtanā”, broken as “Pūt” (virtue) and “nā” (no) means “devoid of virtue”. Another explanation derives “Pūtanā” from “Pūta” (purifying), thus meaning “she who purifies”.Putana (Sanskrit: Pūtanā, lit. “putrefaction”) is a Matrika, who is killed by the infant-god Krishna.

In reality, Putna is a childhood sickness. Often due to post-delivery stress, mother’s milk become vitiated and imbalance of Dosha (Kapha, Pitta, Vayu balance) happens. More often in the case of first time mothers. If child’s mother cannot feed (in case of Krishna, mother was not able to feed), foster-mother feed. If this foster-mother’s intentions are not good, has no love for the child, milk becomes poison. And Putna arrives to kill or hamper the growth of the child.

Due to drinking such milk, infant’s body’s Vayu is aggravated and so infant suffers from Lack of sleep, diarrhea & constant thrist and constant crying. That is Putna.

If not taken care, infant dies. This is one of the primary cause of infant mortality.

Baby-Krishna could survive such vitiated milk. And that is how he killed the Putna!

How?

Solution: घृत ghee (COW GHEE)

” पिप्पली त्रिफला चूर्णं घृत क्षौद्र परिप्लुतम l
बालो रोदिति य: तस्मै: लेढुम दद्यात सुखावहम ll ” ( योग-रत्नाकर – द्वितीय खंड – बालरोग चिकित्सा )

Pippali and trifala churna with ghee and honey.

Needless to mention that Krishna was living with Nanda the Cow expert. So he must have got this treatment immediately. And since he took birth with perfect body, it was easy for him to fight against poisoned milk.

Things to take care:
1) Never give ghee and honey in same quantity i.e. 1 ml ghee + 1 ml honey = this is not preferable.
2) Purity of the sources. Ghee prepared from ethically procured milk and prepared by churning. Honey procured ethically without harming bees.

This is the reason, feeding mother should never take stress of any kind. She should be always cheerful and stress-free. Her food should be rich and wholesome prepared by someone who has highest love for both newly became mother and infant. And so post-delivery, new mother prefers to live with her mother. 🙂

वसुदेवसुतं देवं कंसचाणूरमर्दनम् देवकीपरमानन्दं कृष्णं वंदे जगद्गुरुम्|

Humans as Superorganisms: How Microbes, Viruses, Imprinted Genes shapes Our Behavior

You will be assimilated. Resistance is futile.
—The Borg, Star Trek: The Next Generation

For entire last century and till now, we were groomed with a high human EGO. We are educated to see illusion of our body separate from the world. This delusion did not just went against our health but also developed destructive ideas which are right now creating havoc on earth.

What is the way ahead?

Break the illusion and develop new insight about our existence i.e. Human as a super-organism complex.

To understand better, consider beehive as super-organism. Anthill as super-organism. They do share their social decisions. They do work like one entity.

Img src: http://darwinian-medicine.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/modern-lifestyle-microbiome.jpg
Img src: http://darwinian-medicine.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/modern-lifestyle-microbiome.jpg

Unbeknownst to many people, our emotions, cognition, behavior, and mental health are influenced by a large number of entities that reside in our bodies while pursuing their own interests, which need not coincide with ours. Such entities include microbes, viruses, foreign human cells, and imprinted genes regulated by virus like elements. This article provides a broad overview, aimed at a wide readership, of the consequences of our coexistence with these entities. Its aim is to show that we are not unitary individuals in control of ourselves but rather “holobionts” or superorganisms—meant here as collections of human and nonhuman elements that are to varying degrees integrated and, in an incessant struggle, jointly define who we are.

Read this[1] research paper and learn to self with different outlook. I bet, if you alter your outlook towards self and others, we will have far better life than what we have right now. Take care.
If I take opportunity to connect the dots, as per Ayurveda, this body is nothing but infinite rhythms (नाड़ी) working together based on Pranic Intelligence (प्राणमय शरीर). Many of such rhythms form cells-complex and organs and many remain as separate organisms like microbes, viruses etc. Ultimately, it is प्राण that is controlling the physical body.

[1] Do read this: http://www.psy.unipd.it/~kramer/files/KramerBressan2015.pdf

In computer engineering, I learned bottom up approach. Just like that, we emerge as 1 single universe. 1 Mind divided into many…and that goes on to the infinity level. 🙂

Our body is just one state in between. 🙂 (Y)

So you and me, we all, are related. Are actually one super-organism like how trillions+ microbes and worms are part of each one of us.

And when some of the microbes forget their duty towards super-organism i.e. our body, we get sickness, same way, when some of us forget duties towards the universe,yet another state of super-organism, we get pollution, wars, weapons etc.

http://dailynous.com/2015/07/24/we-are-not-human-individuals/

 

Ganesha, The protector of second brain

Ganesha
Ganesha

गणेश चतुर्थी to गणेश चतुर्दशी : Here is your yearly chance to contemplate on ageless doubt “Who am I?” and strengthen self-belief.

Happy Festival!Best wishes for your ultimate joyous conversation with self!

Season’s Rain has done his job.
Seeds for new beginning are already sprouted.
Welcome to lord of beginning in our heart. May we become live example of गणपति.

During monsoon, our digestive power remains very low and so there are high chances that GUT remains polluted. So just when the monsoon is on the verge of end, we worship गणेश for 10 days.

गणपति resides in GUT area . And to worship him, we generally keep fast. Fasting clean the GUT and transforms it from GUTTER into Heaven. So clean GUT means right decisions, right actions and in real sense गणेश acts as विध्नहर्ता.

The part of the alimentary canal between the stomach and the anus is known as GUT. This is reservoir of microbes. Critical digestive processes happen here.

Muladhara
Muladhara

In Ayurveda, this place is considered as मूलाधार चक्र.गणपति resides here. Ayurveda considers body beyond physical body and energy layer is one of such layer, प्राणमय कोष. Energy @ मूलाधार चक्र is responsible for person’s intelligence, valor and many other traits. And Ganapati resides here. He controls all activities.

Now, modern science says, GUT is our second brain. 🙂 🙂 We use this second brain as gutter. We eat anything and everything. Creating highly polluted environment. So second brain hardly works. 🙂 🙂 😉 😛

Moral of the post: Do not make fun of your rituals under the influence of media, TV, Bollywood and some so called rational authors. If you do not understand a bit, still follow your culture. There are ample hidden benefits.

When you meditate on मूलाधार by chanting ganapati atharvashirsha, unique mental and physical state emerge. In modern science language, you actually help your second brain to work well.

Antibiotics disturbs this area most. This is the reason I advocate alternative use of controlling bacterial infection and not antibiotics. As it directly affect our emotions and thinking capacity.

See all photos with post. Think about it. Read more:


Research


http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/gut-second-brain/

Think Twice: How the Gut’s “Second Brain” Influences Mood and Well-Being

Gut - Second brain
Gut – Second brain

Technically known as the enteric nervous system, the second brain consists of sheaths of neurons embedded in the walls of the long tube of our gut, or alimentary canal, which measures about nine meters end to end from the esophagus to the anus. The second brain contains some 100 million neurons, more than in either the spinal cord or the peripheral nervous system, Gershon says.

This multitude of neurons in the enteric nervous system enables us to “feel” the inner world of our gut and its contents. Much of this neural firepower comes to bear in the elaborate daily grind of digestion. Breaking down food, absorbing nutrients, and expelling of waste requires chemical processing, mechanical mixing and rhythmic muscle contractions that move everything on down the line.

Thus equipped with its own reflexes and senses, the second brain can control gut behavior independently of the brain, Gershon says. We likely evolved this intricate web of nerves to perform digestion and excretion “on site,” rather than remotely from our brains through the middleman of the spinal cord. “The brain in the head doesn’t need to get its hands dirty with the messy business of digestion, which is delegated to the brain in the gut,” Gershon says. He and other researchers explain, however, that the second brain’s complexity likely cannot be interpreted through this process alone.

“The system is way too complicated to have evolved only to make sure things move out of your colon,” says Emeran Mayer, professor of physiology, psychiatry and biobehavioral sciences at the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles (U.C.L.A.). For example, scientists were shocked to learn that about 90 percent of the fibers in the primary visceral nerve, the vagus, carry information from the gut to the brain and not the other way around. “Some of that info is decidedly unpleasant,” Gershon says.

The second brain informs our state of mind in other more obscure ways, as well. “A big part of our emotions are probably influenced by the nerves in our gut,” Mayer says. Butterflies in the stomach—signaling in the gut as part of our physiological stress response, Gershon says—is but one example. Although gastrointestinal (GI) turmoil can sour one’s moods, everyday emotional well-being may rely on messages from the brain below to the brain above. For example, electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve—a useful treatment for depression—may mimic these signals, Gershon says.

Given the two brains’ commonalities, other depression treatments that target the mind can unintentionally impact the gut. The enteric nervous system uses more than 30 neurotransmitters, just like the brain, and in fact 95 percent of the body’s serotonin is found in the bowels. Because antidepressant medications called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) increase serotonin levels, it’s little wonder that meds meant to cause chemical changes in the mind often provoke GI issues as a side effect. Irritable bowel syndrome—which afflicts more than two million Americans—also arises in part from too much serotonin in our entrails, and could perhaps be regarded as a “mental illness” of the second brain.

Gau Gavya and Gau-Raksha

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When someone represent गौ-रक्षक in negative image, my blood boils. As a leader, I should actually promote that every citizen should be गौ-रक्षक!

गाय & गव्य
गाय & गव्य

Gavya is a Sanskrit word. It has multiple meanings. It is actually a bridge between different forms of Gau.

Gau means Cow. Gau means senses. Gau means mother Earth. Gavya is their prasad. One produces and another consumes. Cycle goes on forever.

गौ रक्षक
गौ रक्षक

Panchgavya is elixir from Gau, for Gau (Human senses and Mother Earth). Result again is Gavya (Seva from Humans and produce from Mother earth) from gau, for Gau (Cow).

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Method of preparation
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Pancha-Gavya and Gau Raksha
Pancha-Gavya and Gau Raksha

Panchagavya, an organic product has the potential to play the role of promoting growth and providing immunity in plant system. Panchagavya consists of nine products viz. cow dung, cow urine, milk, curd, jaggery, ghee, banana, Tender coconut and water. When suitably mixed and used, these have miraculous effects.

Cow dung – 7 kg
Cow ghee – 1 kg
Mix the above two ingredients thoroughly both in morning and evening hours and keep it for 3 days

Cow Urine – 10 liters
Water – 10 liters
After 3 days mix cow urine and water and keep it for 15 days with regular mixing both in morning and evening hours. After 15 days mix the following and panchagavya will be ready after 30 days.

Cow milk – 3 liters
Cow curd – 2 liters
Tender coconut water – 3 liters
Jaggery – 3 kg
Well ripened poovan banana – 12 nos.

Read more: http://agritech.tnau.ac.in/org_farm/orgfarm_panchakavya.html

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We all have Vishnu seated in us. We must perform duties in his form. Being Gopati.

Conch-shell, Sound and Microbes

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Conch-shell and microbes https://i.ytimg.com/vi/qgVhFBHSYRk/maxresdefault.jpg
Conch-shell and microbes
https://i.ytimg.com/vi/qgVhFBHSYRk/maxresdefault.jpg

Blowing conch-shell is a well-known ritual. If try to do research (Or rather Google search 🙂 ), you will find many spiritual answers.

For example:
” When the conch is blown with controlled breath, the primordial sound of “Om” emanates from it. This eternal sound is the origin of all Vedas. All knowledge enshrined in the Vedas is an elaboration of the omnipresent sublime sound of Om. It was this sound that was chanted by the Lord before manifesting the cosmos. It represents the creation and the Truth behind it.”
“It is believed the blowing shankha destroys enemies and also pleases goddess Lakshmi.”

For individuals blowing conch, following benefits are found

Not just for religion, blowing shankha has scientific and ayurvedic benefits also. As per them, blowing shankha during puja has benefits on our lungs. This is because for blowing a shankha pure air reaches the lungs and impure air comes out. This makes the lungs strong.Blowing shankha also cures diseases of intestines.

No ritual of Hinduism is for selfish motives. What about environmental impact that can help all in vicinity?

For optimum environmental help, responsibility of blowing conch-shell is given to only those who has full control over breathe. Not everyone can blow it. It is not about the intensity but about the right sound frequencies.

Why?

Microbes(=Maruts) can sense sonic vibrations[1]. Link between sonic vibrations of Conchshell blowing on auspicious days/begining of new task and behaviour of Maruts should be studied. Right sound, right microbes.

When microbial conversations get physical

It is widely accepted that microorganisms are social beings. Whereas communication via chemical signals (e.g. quorum sensing) has been the focus of most investigations, the use of physical signals for microbial cell-cell communication has received only limited attention. Here, I argue that physical modes of microbial communication could be widespread in nature. This is based on experimental evidence on the microbial emission and response to three physical signals: sound waves, electromagnetic radiation, and electric currents. These signals propagate rapidly and, even at very low intensities, they provide useful mechanisms when a rapid response is required. I also make some suggestions for promising future research avenues that could bring novel and unsuspected insights into the physical nature of microbial signaling networks.
The average spectrum had three broad frequency peaks that matched well with the B. carboniphilus growth-promoting frequencies. Thus, these early studies suggested that some microbial cells might be able to communicate using sounds.
Sound waves are generated when objects vibrate. Essential cellular processes, such as the activity of molecular motors and the cytoskeleton, enzymatic reactions, chromosome packaging and replication, transcription, and protein synthesis, folding or unfolding, generate forces that induce intracellular motions [1019]. The polar oscillation of proteins during cell division [20] or cytoskeleton assembly [21] also contribute greatly to the dynamics of the cell interior and generate polarizing ionic currents inside the cell and charge-induced nanoscale motions. The global effect of intracellular motions is that cells and their components vibrate. Using the sensitivity of an atomic force microscope (AFM) to probe cellular nanomechanics in an acoustically insulated environment, Pelling et al. demonstrated that the cell wall of single, living cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibited local, periodic nanoscale motions of similar average amplitude (3.0 ± 0.5 nm), yet variable, temperature-dependent frequencies (0.9–1.6 kHz) [22]. These results not only demonstrated that intracellular motions were strong enough to propagate across the stiff yeast cell wall, they also showed they could generate reproducible acoustic signals. Furthermore, the motions disappeared after treatment with the metabolic inhibitor sodium azide, suggesting they had a metabolic origin. The oscillations of single cells had activation energies (58 kJ/mol) and velocities such as those reported for cytoskeleton motors. The magnitude of the forces (~10 nN) was such that it would have required the concerted action of several molecular motors, as expected of a dedicated system that transmitted the metabolic status of the cell as mechanical vibration and sound [22].
Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3057284/

Production of sound waves by bacterial cells and the response of bacterial cells to sound.

Bacterial cells enhance the proliferation of neighboring cells under stress conditions by emitting a physical signal. Continuous single sine sound waves produced by a speaker at frequencies of 6-10, 18-22, and 28-38 kHz promoted colony formation by Bacillus carboniphilus under non-permissive stress conditions of high KCl concentration and high temperature. Furthermore, sound waves emitted from cells of Bacillus subtilis at frequencies between 8 and 43 kHz with broad peaks at approximately 8.5, 19, 29, and 37 kHz were detected using a sensitive microphone system. The similarity between the frequency of the sound produced by B. subtilis and the frequencies that induced a response in B. carboniphilus and the previously observed growth-promoting effect of B. subtilis cells upon B. carboniphilus through iron barriers, suggest that the detected sound waves function as a growth-regulatory signal between cells.

Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12501293
Sound and Microbes http://link.springer.com/article/10.1134/S0026261715020125#/page-1
Sound and Microbes
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1134/S0026261715020125#/page-1

keep blowing Conchshell with full faith. I am sure, it is helping Marut(s) to develop positive environment for our success. 🙂

While we discussed sound waves and microbes, radio waves also create impact.

Exchange of information is critical for bacterial social behaviors. Bacterias aka Maruts never survive individually. They live in groups. Their existence critically depends upon their communication.

How do they communicate?

Chemically triggered messages that can easily couriered from one body to another.
Radio frequency waves. Yes the ones that we use in our communication

There is no doubt that our Wi-fried transmission of unlimited 2G,3G,4G is disturbing their communication channels. One communication lines are attacked, it is difficult for microbial communities to survive.

Result?

Something that modern medicine and technology has not yet linked (or do not want to link for vested interests). Our dieseases -> dying healthy bacteria -> damanged communication -> 2G,3G,4G nuke bombs.

Theoretical physicists offer explanation of how bacteria might generate radio waves

Chemical reactions can be induced at a distance due to the propagation of electromagnetic signals during intermediate chemical stages. Although is is well known at optical frequencies, e.g. photosynthetic reactions, electromagnetic signals hold true for muck lower frequencies. In E. coli bacteria such electromagnetic signals can be generated by electric transitions between energy levels describing electrons moving around DNA loops. The electromagnetic signals between different bacteria within a community is a “wireless” version of intercellular communication found in bacterial communities connected by “nanowires”. The wireless broadcasts can in principle be of both the AM and FM variety due to the magnetic flux periodicity in electron energy spectra in bacterial DNA orbital motions.

Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2011-04-theoretical-physicists-explanation-bacteria-radio.html#jCp

Bacteria Might Communicate Using Radio Waves

The research revolves around a feature called circular DNA (DNA loops), which is found in simple organisms like viruses and bacteria. As free electrons move around these loops, a radio wave can be produced — and as quantum objects, these electrons can also take on different energy levels. It is posited that these two factors could allow bacteria to transmit radio waves at frequencies of 0.5, 1 and 1.5KHz.

 

http://www.extremetech.com/extreme/84198-bacteria-might-communicate-using-radio-waves

Take care. At least, keep your home clean from electro-magnetic waves. Sleep away from wifi and cell phone networks.

 

 

Research: Human activity (Fertilizers and Pesticides, Deforestation) affecting microbes in soil

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“Adding nitrogen and phosphorous, commonly used as fertilizers, to the soil beneath grasslands shifts the natural communities of fungi, bacteria and microscopic organisms”

Can you imagine the rampant destruction of our soil in last 50 years? So called Green revolution destroyed microbial wealth we once had. Reason why India was known as land of golden sparrows.

Urea Microbes
Urea Microbes

Our present govt is planning to promote second wave of Green Revolution. Few more forests will be cut and soil nurtured for 1000s of years will become desert in few years.

There is only one solution. Gau mata and her prasad. Cow-dung, urine, milk – they can only replenish dying soil in shortest possible time.


Research


Consistent responses of soil microbial communities to elevated nutrient inputs in grasslands across the globe

http://www.pnas.org/content/112/35/10967.abstract

Significance

Human activities have resulted in large increases in the availability of nutrients in terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. Although plant community responses to elevated nutrients have been well studied, soil microbial community responses remain poorly understood, despite their critical importance to ecosystem functioning. Using DNA-sequencing approaches, we assessed the response of soil microbial communities to experimentally added nitrogen and phosphorus at 25 grassland sites across the globe. Our results demonstrate that the composition of these communities shifts in consistent ways with elevated nutrient inputs and that there are corresponding shifts in the ecological attributes of the community members. This study represents an important step forward for understanding the connection between elevated nutrient inputs, shifts in soil microbial communities, and altered ecosystem functioning.

Abstract

Soil microorganisms are critical to ecosystem functioning and the maintenance of soil fertility. However, despite global increases in the inputs of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to ecosystems due to human activities, we lack a predictive understanding of how microbial communities respond to elevated nutrient inputs across environmental gradients. Here we used high-throughput sequencing of marker genes to elucidate the responses of soil fungal, archaeal, and bacterial communities using an N and P addition experiment replicated at 25 globally distributed grassland sites. We also sequenced metagenomes from a subset of the sites to determine how the functional attributes of bacterial communities change in response to elevated nutrients. Despite strong compositional differences across sites, microbial communities shifted in a consistent manner with N or P additions, and the magnitude of these shifts was related to the magnitude of plant community responses to nutrient inputs. Mycorrhizal fungi and methanogenic archaea decreased in relative abundance with nutrient additions, as did the relative abundances of oligotrophic bacterial taxa. The metagenomic data provided additional evidence for this shift in bacterial life history strategies because nutrient additions decreased the average genome sizes of the bacterial community members and elicited changes in the relative abundances of representative functional genes. Our results suggest that elevated N and P inputs lead to predictable shifts in the taxonomic and functional traits of soil microbial communities, including increases in the relative abundances of faster-growing, copiotrophic bacterial taxa, with these shifts likely to impact belowground ecosystems worldwide.

Toxic Mouthwash, Microbes, Nitric Oxide and Blood Pressure

 

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Solution for foul mouth smell is not mouthwash but healthy eating habit. Foul smell is an early sign of faulty GI track (digestive track).

But since we consider ourselves citizens of scientific age, and we trust TV ads as equal to science experiments, trusting superficial perception more over age-old practices, we use mouthwash
😀
.

And what do we get in return?

We kill part of ourselves. We kill bacteria in mouth who help us in reducing nitrate metabolites from food into NO (nitric oxide). NO (nitric oxide) plays important role in maintaining blood vessel wall pressures. It keeps the blood pressure optimum. So far medical science was ignorant of this usage of NO. In the past 5 years, nitric oxide (NO) has become recognized as a major player in most physiological and pathophysiological processes. Not only blood pressure maintenance, NO plays important role in brain processes.

So when we kill bacteria in mouth, we kill one of the sources of NO (nitric oxide). This results in high blood pressure and related anomalies.

What is the solution?

1) Use natural mouth freshener if needed i.e. Paan without tobacco. Only after heavy meals. Not daily.
2) Do dant manjan (teeth cleaning) using powder prepared from cow dung ash. It is full of nitrogen metabolites i.e. food for bacteria which ultimately results in NO that keep blood pressure normal.
3) Mix sesame oil with dant manjan and use this paste to do gentle massage too teeth roots. Gargle sesame oil.
4) Gau milk, ghee, urine, gobar, chemical free jaggery, honey procured ethically from jungle – these all are rich sources of good bacteria and their food. When you include them in food, body always remain in healthy state.

Reference material:

Microbes and Food Security

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After 100 years of ignorance, modern intellect has started accepting role of Prana in sustaining life. Whether we accept or not due to our brainwashed mindset, Prana is the enabler. We must revive traditions respecting Prana.

Microbes ? Prana.

Fungus ? Prana.

For plants, Muladhara is in roots. Roots are protected by Soil. Their Ganapati resides in soil!

ganapati

The microbial sciences have provided great advances in our understanding of foodborne pathogens, leading to prescriptions for food safety standards and giving lawmakers and policy experts ways  to protect human populations. However, when looking at the global community, it’s hard to ignore an even greater issue when it comes to food: the food insecurity that an estimated 795 million people grapple with on a daily basis, worldwide (FAO, The State of Food Insecurity 2015).

If we look a bit closer, we see that these issues cannot be measured solely on the number of people who have a certain level of caloric intake. Specifically, when looking at micronutrient deficiencies throughout the world, those numbers balloon to more than 2 billion people (USAID, Opportunities for Micronutrient Interventions). That would be the equivalent of more than 1 in 3 people you encounter on a daily basis being nutrient deficient.

While discussions about tackling these challenges often exclude or skim the surface of the role of microbes, microbiology, and in particular harnessing microbe-plant symbionts, has the potential to spark a second “Green Revolution.”

Fungal endophytes live in symbiosis with a vast majority of plant species on earth, and with the vast majority of the plant species humans cultivate for agricultural purposes. These symbionts have co-evolved for hundreds of millions of years, and formed some of the earliest symbioses on land.

Dr. Rusty Rodriguez and his team are one of the groups leading the charge in studying fungal endophytes and the ways in which we can harness their vast potential in agriculture. According to Dr. Rodriguez, there are at least four areas where microbes can be utilized to address issues of food security:

1. Symbiotic and free-living organisms can provide nitrogen and phosphorous to plants.
2. Symbiotic and free-living microorganisms can provide disease protection.
3. Symbiotic microorganisms can alter plant physiology and increase metabolic efficiency.
4. Symbiotic microorganisms can confer abiotic stress tolerance to plants.

Dr. Rodriguez and his team have used these principles in creating fungal inoculants for a number of important crop species, including rice and corn. To learn more, read Dr. Rusty Rodriguez’s full article in Cultures!

Scientists are also finding ways to use microbes to grow other key crops around the world. In this Cultures video, Dr. Ian Sanders and Dr. Alia Rodriguez show us how they are using the same principles to harness fungal endophytes to improve cassava production, a crop that feeds nearly a billion people worldwide!

Could microbes be the key to ensuring a food secure future? Comment below!

 

http://www.asm.org/index.php/cultures-blog/item/463-microbes-and-food-security-green-revolution-2-0

 

Gau Prasad (गौ प्रसाद – पंचगव्य – Microbes) can cure radiation-induced toxicity

Radiation

Problem with cow promoters in India is that they don’t talk the language of mass. And sometimes, become object of mockery.

One such case was when it was proclaimed that cow dung can protect against the radiation.

Yes, it does. How? Most of the times, we don’t have citations to support it.

Here is one research to help connect the dots.

Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) increased the survival rate of irradiated animals, elevated peripheral white blood cell counts and improved gastrointestinal tract function and intestinal epithelial integrity in irradiated male and female mice.


Remember one thing : Microbes are manifestation of Prana. Like how your body cells are. Life is interplay of different forms of Prana. Microbes, no exception.

If the faecal transplant can help protecting against radiation-induced toxicity, panchgavya (product made up of 5 prasad, rich in the form of microbes) can do wonder.

Faecal of an individual is not perfect but cow dung and urine of desi cow is perfect when cow is taken care well. (Well-fed, stress-free, grazing)


Research


Faecal microbiota transplantation protects against radiation‐induced toxicity

Severe radiation exposure may cause acute radiation syndrome, a possibly fatal condition requiring effective therapy. Gut microbiota can be manipulated to fight against many diseases. We explored whether intestinal microbe transplantation could alleviate radiation‐induced toxicity. High‐throughput sequencing showed that gastrointestinal bacterial community composition differed between male and female mice and was associated with susceptibility to radiation toxicity. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) increased the survival rate of irradiated animals, elevated peripheral white blood cell counts and improved gastrointestinal tract function and intestinal epithelial integrity in irradiated male and female mice. FMT preserved the intestinal bacterial composition and retained mRNA and long non‐coding RNA expression profiles of host small intestines in a sex‐specific fashion. Despite promoting angiogenesis, sex‐matched FMT did not accelerate the proliferation of cancer cells in vivo. FMT might serve as a therapeutic to mitigate radiation‐induced toxicity and improve the prognosis of tumour patients after radiotherapy.

Faecal microbiota transplantation ameliorates radiation‐induced toxicity in irradiated mice by improving gastrointestinal tract function and epithelial integrity, preserving gut bacterial composition and maintaining the small intestine transcriptome.

  • Gut microbiota determines the radiosensitivity of hosts.

  • Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) fights against radiation‐induced gastrointestinal toxicity.

  • FMT preserves enteric bacterial composition and retains the RNA expression profile of irradiated hosts.

  • FMT might emerge as a therapeutic schedule in tumour radiotherapy to improve prognosis.

Read more: http://embomolmed.embopress.org/content/early/2017/02/27/emmm.201606932

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