Microbes

Microbes

Research: Human activity (Fertilizers and Pesticides, Deforestation) affecting microbes in soil

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“Adding nitrogen and phosphorous, commonly used as fertilizers, to the soil beneath grasslands shifts the natural communities of fungi, bacteria and microscopic organisms”

Can you imagine the rampant destruction of our soil in last 50 years? So called Green revolution destroyed microbial wealth we once had. Reason why India was known as land of golden sparrows.

Urea Microbes
Urea Microbes

Our present govt is planning to promote second wave of Green Revolution. Few more forests will be cut and soil nurtured for 1000s of years will become desert in few years.

There is only one solution. Gau mata and her prasad. Cow-dung, urine, milk – they can only replenish dying soil in shortest possible time.


Research


Consistent responses of soil microbial communities to elevated nutrient inputs in grasslands across the globe

http://www.pnas.org/content/112/35/10967.abstract

Significance

Human activities have resulted in large increases in the availability of nutrients in terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. Although plant community responses to elevated nutrients have been well studied, soil microbial community responses remain poorly understood, despite their critical importance to ecosystem functioning. Using DNA-sequencing approaches, we assessed the response of soil microbial communities to experimentally added nitrogen and phosphorus at 25 grassland sites across the globe. Our results demonstrate that the composition of these communities shifts in consistent ways with elevated nutrient inputs and that there are corresponding shifts in the ecological attributes of the community members. This study represents an important step forward for understanding the connection between elevated nutrient inputs, shifts in soil microbial communities, and altered ecosystem functioning.

Abstract

Soil microorganisms are critical to ecosystem functioning and the maintenance of soil fertility. However, despite global increases in the inputs of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to ecosystems due to human activities, we lack a predictive understanding of how microbial communities respond to elevated nutrient inputs across environmental gradients. Here we used high-throughput sequencing of marker genes to elucidate the responses of soil fungal, archaeal, and bacterial communities using an N and P addition experiment replicated at 25 globally distributed grassland sites. We also sequenced metagenomes from a subset of the sites to determine how the functional attributes of bacterial communities change in response to elevated nutrients. Despite strong compositional differences across sites, microbial communities shifted in a consistent manner with N or P additions, and the magnitude of these shifts was related to the magnitude of plant community responses to nutrient inputs. Mycorrhizal fungi and methanogenic archaea decreased in relative abundance with nutrient additions, as did the relative abundances of oligotrophic bacterial taxa. The metagenomic data provided additional evidence for this shift in bacterial life history strategies because nutrient additions decreased the average genome sizes of the bacterial community members and elicited changes in the relative abundances of representative functional genes. Our results suggest that elevated N and P inputs lead to predictable shifts in the taxonomic and functional traits of soil microbial communities, including increases in the relative abundances of faster-growing, copiotrophic bacterial taxa, with these shifts likely to impact belowground ecosystems worldwide.

Toxic Mouthwash, Microbes, Nitric Oxide and Blood Pressure

 

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Solution for foul mouth smell is not mouthwash but healthy eating habit. Foul smell is an early sign of faulty GI track (digestive track).

But since we consider ourselves citizens of scientific age, and we trust TV ads as equal to science experiments, trusting superficial perception more over age-old practices, we use mouthwash
😀
.

And what do we get in return?

We kill part of ourselves. We kill bacteria in mouth who help us in reducing nitrate metabolites from food into NO (nitric oxide). NO (nitric oxide) plays important role in maintaining blood vessel wall pressures. It keeps the blood pressure optimum. So far medical science was ignorant of this usage of NO. In the past 5 years, nitric oxide (NO) has become recognized as a major player in most physiological and pathophysiological processes. Not only blood pressure maintenance, NO plays important role in brain processes.

So when we kill bacteria in mouth, we kill one of the sources of NO (nitric oxide). This results in high blood pressure and related anomalies.

What is the solution?

1) Use natural mouth freshener if needed i.e. Paan without tobacco. Only after heavy meals. Not daily.
2) Do dant manjan (teeth cleaning) using powder prepared from cow dung ash. It is full of nitrogen metabolites i.e. food for bacteria which ultimately results in NO that keep blood pressure normal.
3) Mix sesame oil with dant manjan and use this paste to do gentle massage too teeth roots. Gargle sesame oil.
4) Gau milk, ghee, urine, gobar, chemical free jaggery, honey procured ethically from jungle – these all are rich sources of good bacteria and their food. When you include them in food, body always remain in healthy state.

Reference material:

Shitala Mata and Microbial Vaccum

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Mother Nature abhors microbial / viral vacuum. This is cardinal truth (सनातन सत्य). Granting that you take microbes as your enemy, antibiotics often only allows you to choose your enemy. You push X pathogens out and create vacuum for Y pathogens, another set of enemies. The foolish war plan ever.

Shitala Mata
Shitala Mata

For healthy life, consider microbes as your friends. In difficult situation when your immunity is compromised, seek shelter from dynamic medicines i.e. live plant based medicines which has intelligence to push pathogens selectively without affecting friendly bacteria. Antibiotics are dead code. They don’t have intelligence.

In this season, across the world, human immunity observe downfall. It is compromised. So epidemics are inevitable if you do not take care. Pharma companies exploits them every 2-3 years by giving new names. Bird flu, swine flu, H1N1, ebola! All fancy names! Yes, these dead DNA imprints (Virus) are of different design but they essential become active because our immunity is compromised.

Indian life style suggest fasting during this season. Fasting boosts immunity. So epidemics don’t occur often here except in urban areas where modern life style is predominant over local culture. Fasting is made fun of by so called rationalists.शीतला सातम is considered अंधविश्वास-supersitiotions. Whereas, Almost all communities in India have some festival around the spring season that revolves around “stale food”. This overnight stale food is purposely kept at room temperature and often gets sour, but the custom is not to reheat the stale food and eat it for all meals the next day (शीतला सातम/શીતળા સાતમ in Gujarat). This has been a great way to introduce the body to the coming season’s probiotic as well as pathogenic microbes through overnight food. The probiotic bacteria help build good immunity, boosting gut flora, and the inoculation with pathogenic bacteria in small numbers prepares the immune system for seasonal illnesses by switching on the Immunoglobulin M protein, a basic antibody, as the first immune response.

Notably, this overnight meal is eaten on a day called Sheetalshashthi by Bengalis and around the same time of the year, by Marathis and Sindhis as well. It is supposed to bring immunity from small pox infections. MaaSheetala is considered the goddess who treats small pox and this ritualistic consumption of fermented food is interesting in this regard.
Sindhis call this festival Satam around the shrawan month and the stale food is called kanbo and includes fried fritters of the sweet and savoury variety. Mithila Brahmins also eat overnight stale daalpoori, kheer, sattu, badiyan (dried lentil cakes) and drink the extract of a herb called chirata, which is an immunity boosting agent. The association of this ritual in different communities with immunity is also notable.

Fear mongering will continue. Take a bold stand. Live life as per your rich glorious Bharatiya culture, live life as per seasonal change and save yourself every year from epidemics.

If you do not believe in nature’s laws, you are the king of rational arrogant educated fools. Don’t be one. Take care.

Cow and Bee: Diet for Pregnancy and Childhood : Blood-Brain barrier and Gut

Cow and Bee to Save Our Sanity
Cow and Bee to Save Our Sanity

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Part 1 Diet regime for children and pregnancy
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Some facts from cultural practices related to pregnancy and childhood care.

1) There is an Ayurvedic sutra which prescribes 4 types of rice preparation for pregnant women. Out of which, curd-rice is considered the best. It is said that, if Garbhini eats curd-rice daily, the child will develop unimagined Medha buddhi (intellect) which is enough to understand and realize all 4 Veda(s) (Mind you: To realize even 1 hymn of Veda is super hard work for ordinary minds like us).
2) In last three months of pregnancy, Ayurveda prescribes increased amount of ghee. This is the same time when neural development, neuron network development happens in brain at highly rapid speed.
3) For child below age7, ghee and honey are most important food items. Needless to maintain chaas (butter milk) and Curd (dahi). This is the also highly active brain development period.
Dahi, butter milk, Ghee, Honey – They all are carrier of healthy bacteria. They all are in fact full of healthy bacteria. They are full of prana Shakti which can help healthy bacteria to establish in Gut.
Now, let us understand latest research findings.

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Part 2 Blood–brain barrier & GUT
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Gut and Brain barrier
Gut and Brain barrier

The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective permeability barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain extracellular fluid (BECF) in the central nervous system (CNS).

The findings suggest that a woman’s diet or exposure to antibiotics during pregnancy may influence the development of this barrier.

The blood–brain barrier may prevent the entry of lipophilic, potential neurotoxins by way of an active transport mechanism mediated by P-glycoprotein and allows only water, some gases, and lipid soluble molecules by passive diffusion, as well as the selective transport of molecules such as glucose and amino acids that are crucial to neural function.

Germ-free mice even have leaky blood-brain barriers as adults. But those leaks closed after the researchers gave the animals the microbes from normal mice for 2 weeks, Pettersson says.

In short, it is most critical filter designed by Mother Nature. Better the barrier, less chances of impaired brain development.

Leaky BBB allows toxins, pathogens and other non-useful molecules to pass the barrier and cause damage to brain. Damage to brain means inability to serve the mind. This may lead to following diseases.
• Meningitis
• Brain abscess
• Epilepsy
• Multiple sclerosis
• Neuromyelitis optica
• Late-stage neurological trypanosomiasis (Sleeping sickness)
• Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)
• De Vivo disease
• Alzheimer’s disease
• Cerebral edema

As per latest research [1], healthy gut bacteria repairs leaks in BBB and protects brain from all outside toxins.

Now re-read part 1 and draw your conclusion.

Ghee, Dahi, Milk, Chass, Honey in diet of pregnant mother, lactating mother and child -> Healthy GUT -> Better BBB -> Healthy brain development for a child.
Conclusion: Without Gau mata, it is impossible to imagine citizens of future with adequate abilities to live self-reliant life.

Concluding thoughts and hints for future research:

• For the future of our children, find Gau shala nearby and start worshipping gau mata (Take care of her. Do her seva)
• Use only her Prasad (Milk, ghee, Dahi, gobar, mutra) in diet. This exclude dairy products. Dairy is a greatest sin of our society.
• Provide pure Ghee, Dahi, Milk, Chass, Honey to all pregnant mothers in our society. There is no great charity than this in my humble opinion.
• Just for your reference, I have witnessed my friend curing several brain disorders (Headache, migraine, Epilepsy) cases by Gau ghee based medicines. Doctors should use this treatment to cure Epilepsy & Meningitis which are now common among children age below 5.
• Avoid Antibiotics. If not avoidable in extreme situation, take jaggery water / dahi / ghee in diet during antibiotic course.


Supporting Research


Body’s bacteria may keep our brains healthy

http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2014/11/bodys-bacteria-may-keep-our-brains-healthy

The microbes that live in your body outnumber your cells 10 to one. Recent studies suggest these tiny organisms help us digest food and maintain our immune system. Now, researchers have discovered yet another way microbes keep us healthy: They are needed for closing the blood-brain barrier, a molecular fence that shuts out pathogens and molecules that could harm the brain.

The studies showed that the blood-brain barrier typically forms a tight seal a little more than 17 days into development. Antibodies infiltrated the brains of all the embryos younger than 17 days, but they continued to enter the brains of embryos of germ-free mothers well beyond day 17, the team reports online today in Science Translational Medicine. Embryos from germ-free mothers also had fewer intact gap junction proteins, and gap junction protein genes in their brains were less active, which may explain the persistent leakiness. (The researchers didn’t look at the mice’s guts.)

Germ-free mice even have leaky blood-brain barriers as adults. But those leaks closed after the researchers gave the animals the microbes from normal mice for 2 weeks, Pettersson says.

But how? In the gut, bacteria may influence the gut wall’s integrity through one of their byproducts, energy-laden molecules called short-chain fatty acids. So Pettersson and his colleagues infected germ-free mice with either bacteria that made these fatty acids or ones that did not. The blood-brain barrier improved only when the bacteria made these fatty acids, Pettersson says. He thinks that these molecules may get into the blood and stimulate gene activity that leads to the closure of the barrier.

The gut microbiota influences blood-brain barrier permeability in mice

http://stm.sciencemag.org/content/6/263/263ra158

Pivotal to brain development and function is an intact blood-brain barrier (BBB), which acts as a gatekeeper to control the passage and exchange of molecules and nutrients between the circulatory system and the brain parenchyma. The BBB also ensures homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS). We report that germ-free mice, beginning with intrauterine life, displayed increased BBB permeability compared to pathogen-free mice with a normal gut flora. The increased BBB permeability was maintained in germ-free mice after birth and during adulthood and was associated with reduced expression of the tight junction proteins occludin and claudin-5, which are known to regulate barrier function in endothelial tissues. Exposure of germ-free adult mice to a pathogen-free gut microbiota decreased BBB permeability and up-regulated the expression of tight junction proteins. Our results suggest that gut microbiota–BBB communication is initiated during gestation and propagated throughout life.

 

Ganesha, The protector of second brain

Ganesha
Ganesha

गणेश चतुर्थी to गणेश चतुर्दशी : Here is your yearly chance to contemplate on ageless doubt “Who am I?” and strengthen self-belief.

Happy Festival!Best wishes for your ultimate joyous conversation with self!

Season’s Rain has done his job.
Seeds for new beginning are already sprouted.
Welcome to lord of beginning in our heart. May we become live example of गणपति.

During monsoon, our digestive power remains very low and so there are high chances that GUT remains polluted. So just when the monsoon is on the verge of end, we worship गणेश for 10 days.

गणपति resides in GUT area . And to worship him, we generally keep fast. Fasting clean the GUT and transforms it from GUTTER into Heaven. So clean GUT means right decisions, right actions and in real sense गणेश acts as विध्नहर्ता.

The part of the alimentary canal between the stomach and the anus is known as GUT. This is reservoir of microbes. Critical digestive processes happen here.

Muladhara
Muladhara

In Ayurveda, this place is considered as मूलाधार चक्र.गणपति resides here. Ayurveda considers body beyond physical body and energy layer is one of such layer, प्राणमय कोष. Energy @ मूलाधार चक्र is responsible for person’s intelligence, valor and many other traits. And Ganapati resides here. He controls all activities.

Now, modern science says, GUT is our second brain. 🙂 🙂 We use this second brain as gutter. We eat anything and everything. Creating highly polluted environment. So second brain hardly works. 🙂 🙂 😉 😛

Moral of the post: Do not make fun of your rituals under the influence of media, TV, Bollywood and some so called rational authors. If you do not understand a bit, still follow your culture. There are ample hidden benefits.

When you meditate on मूलाधार by chanting ganapati atharvashirsha, unique mental and physical state emerge. In modern science language, you actually help your second brain to work well.

Antibiotics disturbs this area most. This is the reason I advocate alternative use of controlling bacterial infection and not antibiotics. As it directly affect our emotions and thinking capacity.

See all photos with post. Think about it. Read more:


Research


http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/gut-second-brain/

Think Twice: How the Gut’s “Second Brain” Influences Mood and Well-Being

Gut - Second brain
Gut – Second brain

Technically known as the enteric nervous system, the second brain consists of sheaths of neurons embedded in the walls of the long tube of our gut, or alimentary canal, which measures about nine meters end to end from the esophagus to the anus. The second brain contains some 100 million neurons, more than in either the spinal cord or the peripheral nervous system, Gershon says.

This multitude of neurons in the enteric nervous system enables us to “feel” the inner world of our gut and its contents. Much of this neural firepower comes to bear in the elaborate daily grind of digestion. Breaking down food, absorbing nutrients, and expelling of waste requires chemical processing, mechanical mixing and rhythmic muscle contractions that move everything on down the line.

Thus equipped with its own reflexes and senses, the second brain can control gut behavior independently of the brain, Gershon says. We likely evolved this intricate web of nerves to perform digestion and excretion “on site,” rather than remotely from our brains through the middleman of the spinal cord. “The brain in the head doesn’t need to get its hands dirty with the messy business of digestion, which is delegated to the brain in the gut,” Gershon says. He and other researchers explain, however, that the second brain’s complexity likely cannot be interpreted through this process alone.

“The system is way too complicated to have evolved only to make sure things move out of your colon,” says Emeran Mayer, professor of physiology, psychiatry and biobehavioral sciences at the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles (U.C.L.A.). For example, scientists were shocked to learn that about 90 percent of the fibers in the primary visceral nerve, the vagus, carry information from the gut to the brain and not the other way around. “Some of that info is decidedly unpleasant,” Gershon says.

The second brain informs our state of mind in other more obscure ways, as well. “A big part of our emotions are probably influenced by the nerves in our gut,” Mayer says. Butterflies in the stomach—signaling in the gut as part of our physiological stress response, Gershon says—is but one example. Although gastrointestinal (GI) turmoil can sour one’s moods, everyday emotional well-being may rely on messages from the brain below to the brain above. For example, electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve—a useful treatment for depression—may mimic these signals, Gershon says.

Given the two brains’ commonalities, other depression treatments that target the mind can unintentionally impact the gut. The enteric nervous system uses more than 30 neurotransmitters, just like the brain, and in fact 95 percent of the body’s serotonin is found in the bowels. Because antidepressant medications called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) increase serotonin levels, it’s little wonder that meds meant to cause chemical changes in the mind often provoke GI issues as a side effect. Irritable bowel syndrome—which afflicts more than two million Americans—also arises in part from too much serotonin in our entrails, and could perhaps be regarded as a “mental illness” of the second brain.

Vitamin B12 Deficiency, GUT and Muladhara

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Yesterday was harsh day of this season. Heavy rain, humid, and extreme heat. My friend and I, working on critical task, felt exhausted. Dehydrated.

Friend suggested :”I think it is again Vitamin B12 deficiency! I think I will need injections again!”

I wondered. How a simple season driven exhaustion is turned into deficiency! 🙁

There were two things at play for both of us. 1) Stress induced non-healthy GUT 2) lack of healthy food for days.

Solution is to take rest. Worship Ganesha and eat healthy season driven food!

 

B12 Eyewash
B12 Eyewash

Modern medicine has reduced wholesome food into supplement status symbols.

Oh, B12 ? Take injections!
Oh Vit A? Take this supplement!

This is nothing but eyewash. Unless we correct our GUT, there is no hope for malnutrition.Malnutrition may manifest as either obesity or undernutrition. Accumulating evidence suggests that the gut microbiota plays an important role in the harvest, storage, and expenditure of energy obtained from the diet.

Gut Health
Gut Health

One person might have stronger nerves than another because she has a better stock of vitamin B–producing bacteria. Another person might be able to deal easily with bit of bread mold eaten by mistake. Yet another might have a tendency to gain weight because the “chubby” bacteria in his gut feed him a bit too willingly. Science is just beginning to understand that each of us is an entire ecosystem.

You take all costly B-12 injections or Vitamin A supplement or Vitamin C but if your GUT is not healthy, they are garbage and will be purged within 72 hrs via urine and stool!

There is no shortcut for healthy life. Stop nonsensical torture on body first. Stop all processed acidic food so that bacteria have chance to get flourished in you GUT. Then stop stressful events in life. Late night parties, tongue-lust driven non-seasonal food – stop it if you really want your B12 injections to work.

Above all physical nutrition, health is all mental. To correct your mental stress and linked sick GUT, this is best season. गणपति is protector of GUT. As per Tantra-Shashtra, गणपति lives in Muladhara, an energy center near GUT. It is your mind that helps प्राणमय शरीर (cellular intelligence) to form health अन्नमय शरीर (physical body) (Do not ask proof. Modern proof-based science cannot swim in this sea of knowledge at this moment). Experiment! Does not matter if you are an atheist! Or follow any other religion. गणपति is eternal, beyond religious boundaries.

Worship and surrender to गणपति. That is the beginning of the yearly healthy GUT.

ॐ गणेशाय नमः |

Muladhara Protector
Muladhara Protector

Research


Bacteria as vitamin suppliers to their host: a gut microbiota perspective.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22940212

Food-related lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as well as human gut commensals such as bifidobacteria can de novo synthesize and supply vitamins. This is important since humans lack the biosynthetic capacity for most vitamins and these must thus be provided exogenously. Although vitamins are present in a variety of foods, deficiencies still occur, mainly due to malnutrition as a result of insufficient food intake and because of poor eating habits. Fermented milks with high levels of B-group vitamins (such as folate and riboflavin) can be produced by LAB-promoted and possibly bifidobacteria-promoted biosynthesis. Moreover, certain strains of LAB produce the complex vitamin cobalamin (or vitamin B12). In this review, fermented foods with elevated levels of B-group vitamins produced by LAB used as starter cultures will be covered. In addition, genetic abilities for vitamin biosynthesis by selected human gut commensals will be discussed.

Vitamin B12 synthesis by human small intestinal bacteria.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7354869

In man, physiological amounts of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) are absorbed by the intrinsic factor mediated mechanism exclusively in the ileum. Human faeces contain appreciable quantities of vitamin B12 or vitamin B12-like material presumably produced by bacteria in the colon, but this is unavailable to the non-coprophagic individual. However, the human small intestine also often harbours a considerable microflora and this is even more extensive in apparently healthy southern Indian subjects. We now show that at least two groups of organisms in the small bowel, Pseudomonas and Klebsiella sp., may synthesise significant amounts of the vitamin.

Effects of Gut Microbes on Nutrient Absorption and Energy Regulation

Malnutrition may manifest as either obesity or undernutrition. Accumulating evidence suggests that the gut microbiota plays an important role in the harvest, storage, and expenditure of energy obtained from the diet. The composition of the gut microbiota has been shown to differ between lean and obese humans and mice; however, the specific roles that individual gut microbes play in energy harvest remain uncertain. The gut microbiota may also influence the development of conditions characterized by chronic low-level inflammation, such as obesity, through systemic exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide derived from the gut microbiota. In this review, the role of the gut microbiota in energy harvest and fat storage is explored, as well as differences in the microbiota in obesity and undernutrition.

 

Brain infection starts in gut, meat responsible

Factory Farms
Factory Farms

मूलाधार चक्र (seat of गणपति/हनुमान/कुण्डलिनी) is severely corrupt for most of us. And that is primary reason for so many life style sicknesses we have around.

Days are not far when modern medical science will start worshiping GUT like they used to worship and glorify brain. 🙂 After all, GUT deserves its long overdue importance as central place to maintain chemical life of the body.

Your brain health depends upon what you eat. If you are eating meat in chaotic times when animals are raised in factory farms, you are prone to deadly brain conditions. Because it is via GUT, any brain conditions take shape.

The study[See reference section] reveals how the proteins – called prions – spread from the gut to the brain after a person or animal has eaten contaminated meat.

This is one reason why society relying on factory farm based meat, will produce more zombies and psychopath.


Reference


Brain infection starts in gut, study finds

http://www.ed.ac.uk/news/2015/prions-040815

The study reveals how the proteins – called prions – spread from the gut to the brain after a person or animal has eaten contaminated meat.

Prions

Prions are infectious proteins with abnormal shapes that can be passed between people and animals by eating contaminated meat.

Until now, it was not known how prions spread from the gut to the brain after consuming infected meat.

Infection

Researchers at University of Edinburgh’s Roslin Institute studied the course of prion infection in mice.

They found that prions must first build up in specialised structures in the lining of the small intestine before they are able to spread throughout the body to the brain.

Hijack

The structures – called Peyer’s patches – are part of the body’s immune system and form the first line of defence against contaminated food.

The study suggests prions hijack Peyer’s patches to cause infection.

The gut-associated lymphoid tissues in the small intestine, not the large intestine, play a major role in oral prion disease pathogenesis

  1. David S. Donaldsona,
  2. Kathryn J. Elseb and
  3. Neil A. Mabbotta#

http://jvi.asm.org/content/early/2015/07/03/JVI.01544-15.abstract

ABSTRACT

Prion diseases are infectious neurodegenerative disorders characterised by accumulations of abnormally folded cellular prion protein in affected tissues. Many natural prion diseases are acquired orally and following exposure the early replication of some prion isolates upon follicular dendritic cells (FDC) within gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) is important for the efficient spread of disease to the brain (neuroinvasion). Prion detection within large intestinal GALT biopsies has been used to estimate human and animal disease prevalence. However, the relative contributions of the small and large intestinal GALT to oral prion pathogenesis were unknown. To address this issue we created mice that specifically lacked FDC-containing GALT only in the small intestine. Our data show that oral prion disease susceptibility was dramatically reduced in mice lacking small intestinal GALT. Although these mice had FDC-containing GALT throughout their large intestines, these tissues were not early sites of prion accumulation or neuroinvasion. We also determined whether pathology specifically within the large intestine might influence prion pathogenesis. Congruent infection with the nematode parasite Trichuris muris in the large intestine around the time of oral prion exposure did not affect disease pathogenesis. Together, these data demonstrate that the small intestinal GALT are the major early sites of prion accumulation and neuroinvasion after oral exposure. This has important implications for our understanding of the factors that influence the risk to infection and the pre-clinical diagnosis of disease.

 

मातृप्राण (Maternal Microbes) drives immunity development

In my native culture, pregnant mothers are asked to eat ghee based food during last trimester. Along with it, curd rice.

PregnancyFood

I am sure similar regimes must exist in all cultures who prefer intellectually and physically strong generations. Ask your grandmother, she can guide. Her is the last generation with traditional legacies.

Ghee and Curd when produced from Zebu cattle (Indian breed), it is rich in GUT-friendly microbes. Healthy food for mother ==> Good immunity of child. This is because Zebu cattle’s physiology allows her to transform maximum प्राण from the Sun.

Basically, everything sums up as Prana.

प्राणवान mother = Child with great immunity. प्राण is cellular intelligence that helps to identify and act upon non-self matters and purge them.

Ghee and Curd are full of प्राण.

“During gestation, a mother’s microbiome shapes the immune system of her offspring, a new study in mice suggests. While it’s known that a newborn’s gut microbiota can affect its own immune system, the impact of a mother’s microbiota on her offspring has largely been unexplored.”


Research


https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2016-03/aaft-mmi031416.php

Mom’s microbes influence her offspring’s immune system, mice study shows

 Credit Mercedes Gomez de Agüero, Stephanie Ganal-Vonarburg, Kathy D. McCoy, and Andrew J. Macpherson

Credit
Mercedes Gomez de Agüero, Stephanie Ganal-Vonarburg, Kathy D. McCoy, and Andrew J. Macpherson

During gestation, a mother’s microbiome shapes the immune system of her offspring, a new study in mice suggests. While it’s known that a newborn’s gut microbiota can affect its own immune system, the impact of a mother’s microbiota on her offspring has largely been unexplored. Here, Mercedes Gomez de Agüero et al. infected the guts of pregnant mice with E.coli engineered to dwindle over time, allowing the mothers to become germ-free again around the time they gave birth. This temporary colonization of E.coli in the mother affected the immune system of her offspring; after birth, the offspring harbored more innate lymphoid and mononuclear cells in their intestines compared to mice born to microbe-free pregnant mothers. Similar results were seen when pregnant mothers were temporarily colonized with a cocktail of eight other microbes. An RNA analysis of offspring born to gestation-only colonized mothers compared with controls revealed greater expression of numerous genes, including those that influence cell division and differentiation, mucus and ion channels, and metabolism and immune function. By transferring serum from bacteria-colonized pregnant mice to non-colonized pregnant mice, the researchers found that maternal antibodies likely facilitate the transmission and retention of microbial molecules from a mother to her offspring. The results of this study add another surprising chapter to the growing body of literature surrounding the effects of the gut microbiota on immune functioning.

Humans as Superorganisms: How Microbes, Viruses, Imprinted Genes shapes Our Behavior

You will be assimilated. Resistance is futile.
—The Borg, Star Trek: The Next Generation

For entire last century and till now, we were groomed with a high human EGO. We are educated to see illusion of our body separate from the world. This delusion did not just went against our health but also developed destructive ideas which are right now creating havoc on earth.

What is the way ahead?

Break the illusion and develop new insight about our existence i.e. Human as a super-organism complex.

To understand better, consider beehive as super-organism. Anthill as super-organism. They do share their social decisions. They do work like one entity.

Img src: http://darwinian-medicine.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/modern-lifestyle-microbiome.jpg
Img src: http://darwinian-medicine.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/modern-lifestyle-microbiome.jpg

Unbeknownst to many people, our emotions, cognition, behavior, and mental health are influenced by a large number of entities that reside in our bodies while pursuing their own interests, which need not coincide with ours. Such entities include microbes, viruses, foreign human cells, and imprinted genes regulated by virus like elements. This article provides a broad overview, aimed at a wide readership, of the consequences of our coexistence with these entities. Its aim is to show that we are not unitary individuals in control of ourselves but rather “holobionts” or superorganisms—meant here as collections of human and nonhuman elements that are to varying degrees integrated and, in an incessant struggle, jointly define who we are.

Read this[1] research paper and learn to self with different outlook. I bet, if you alter your outlook towards self and others, we will have far better life than what we have right now. Take care.
If I take opportunity to connect the dots, as per Ayurveda, this body is nothing but infinite rhythms (नाड़ी) working together based on Pranic Intelligence (प्राणमय शरीर). Many of such rhythms form cells-complex and organs and many remain as separate organisms like microbes, viruses etc. Ultimately, it is प्राण that is controlling the physical body.

[1] Do read this: http://www.psy.unipd.it/~kramer/files/KramerBressan2015.pdf

In computer engineering, I learned bottom up approach. Just like that, we emerge as 1 single universe. 1 Mind divided into many…and that goes on to the infinity level. 🙂

Our body is just one state in between. 🙂 (Y)

So you and me, we all, are related. Are actually one super-organism like how trillions+ microbes and worms are part of each one of us.

And when some of the microbes forget their duty towards super-organism i.e. our body, we get sickness, same way, when some of us forget duties towards the universe,yet another state of super-organism, we get pollution, wars, weapons etc.

http://dailynous.com/2015/07/24/we-are-not-human-individuals/

 

Probiotic food, Rama, Ravana and Dussehra

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Probiotic food, Rama, Ravana and Dashera
Probiotic food, Rama, Ravana and Dashera

In all ages, we need Ravana to rise so that we realize value of Rama (Life force in us). The faithful Vanar Sena (Microbial world who is known as मरुत गण (सेना) in Sanskrit and their leader मरुतनंदन or मारुतिनंदन हनुमान) of Rama, make sure that Rama wins over Ravana in all ages and times.
वानरसेना or मरुत गण helps Rama to re-establish life force in Lanka (Gut in our body) so that life can survive.

Antibiotics, pesticides, hormones, X-ray, CT-Scan, Irradiation of food for long shelf life, GM food are 10 faces of modern Ravana of our times. It has helped us to re-establish value of Rama and वानरसेना in our life. You see people talking about probiotic food often now in social circles (online and real life)

This is important time when we re-establish Rama Rajya in our body by wiping out Ravana (Antibiotics and alike toxins) with the help of वानरसेना (Microbes).

So it is our critical duty of train वानरसेना and help them realize their real potential.

How?
By avoiding anti-microbe food. By taking pro-microbe food. By using Pro-microbe methods to grow food.

Who can help?
Gau mata -> Gobar, Ghee, Dahi, Milk, Urine = All are full of healthy microbes and potential breeding ground for microbes.

Almost all communities in India have some festival around the spring season that revolves around “stale food”. This overnight stale food is purposely kept at room temperature and often gets sour, but the custom is not to reheat the stale food and eat it for all meals the next day (शीतला सातम/શીતળા સાતમ in Gujarat). This has been a great way to introduce the body to the coming season’s probiotic as well as pathogenic microbes through overnight food. The probiotic bacteria help build good immunity, boosting gut flora, and the inoculation with pathogenic bacteria in small numbers prepares the immune system for seasonal illnesses by switching on the Immunoglobulin M protein, a basic antibody, as the first immune response.

Notably, this overnight meal is eaten on a day called Sheetalshashthi by Bengalis and around the same time of the year, by Marathis and Sindhis as well. It is supposed to bring immunity from small pox infections. MaaSheetala is considered the goddess who treats small pox and this ritualistic consumption of fermented food is interesting in this regard.
Sindhis call this festival Satam around the shrawan month and the stale food is called kanbo and includes fried fritters of the sweet and savoury variety. Mithila Brahmins also eat overnight stale daalpoori, kheer, sattu, badiyan (dried lentil cakes) and drink the extract of a herb called chirata, which is an immunity boosting agent. The association of this ritual in different communities with immunity is also notable.

Apart from the ritualistic consumption of probiotic foods, almost all communities in the country have something cooked or prepared regularly that helps build up probiotic flora. These are mostly the foods that are fermented with the expertise handed down through generations, involving recipes that are woven around the availability of some fresh produce, scarcity of some other in a particular geographic location.
The popular breakfast dish of puffed rice (murmura) or poha is good probiotic food too. The rice products are made after parboiling paddy and sun drying it for a few hours before either beating it flat to make poha or roasting it in sand to get puffed rice. The rice ferments partially after parboiling and retains the microbial flora, getting superior food value as well as partially digested proteins and carbohydrates.

At the end of monsoon season, we celebrate victory of Rama over Ravana on Dashera (meaning: You survived entire year as healthy being with the help of वानरसेना or Microbial world . Now it is easy for you realize value of your festivals. Such a great epic poem which can give these hints about life! Should we not teach this to kids at school? Ramayana and Mahabharat are not for one religion. They are books of humanity. Real Indian, irrespective of religion, should read Ramayana and Mahabhrara to their kids.

To celebrate real Dashera, we must stop anti-microbe practices in society. Stop antibiotics. Stop floor cleaners. Stop Coca cola. Stop chemically processed food. Stop GM seeds. Stop pesticides. Protect Gau mata. Promote Gau-prasad (Gobar,Urine, Dahi, milk, ghee) based farming. Include live pro-biotic food in diet. Enjoy Dashera with really healthy life force (Rama), by killing Ravana in environment, within body and in universe.

Read this further:

http://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/ferment-food-for-the-gut-45574

 

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