Microbes

Microbes

Urban Forests : Must to maintain healthy microbial communities

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http://allswalls.com/images/central-park-nyc-wallpaper-3.jpg
http://allswalls.com/images/central-park-nyc-wallpaper-3.jpg

I discussed here several times how your local architecture/landscape shape microbial communities. And why Vastu-Vidhya revival is urgent need of the hour. Adding real smartness to the cities and villages. In my city, in name smart city, local civic body is converting Green plots into vertical slums for petty short-sighted vote-bank politics!


Research


Urban greenness influences airborne bacterial community composition

linkhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969716314826

“Urban green space provides health benefits for city dwellers, and new evidence suggests that microorganisms associated with soil and vegetation could play a role. While airborne microorganisms are ubiquitous in urban areas, the influence of nearby vegetation on airborne microbial communities remains poorly understood. We examined airborne microbial communities in parks and parking lots in Eugene, Oregon, using high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene on the Illumina MiSeq platform to identify bacterial taxa, and GIS to measure vegetation cover in buffer zones of different diameters. Our goal was to explore variation among highly vegetated (parks) versus non-vegetated (parking lots) urban environments. A secondary objective was to evaluate passive versus active collection methods for outdoor airborne microbial sampling. Airborne bacterial communities from five parks were different from those of five parking lots (p = 0.023), although alpha diversity was similar. Direct gradient analysis showed that the proportion of vegetated area within a 50 m radius of the sampling station explained 15% of the variation in bacterial community composition. A number of key taxa, including several Acidobacteriaceae were substantially more abundant in parks, while parking lots had higher relative abundance of Acetobacteraceae. Parks had greater beta diversity than parking lots, i.e. individual parks were characterized by unique bacterial signatures, whereas parking lot communities tended to be similar to each other. Although parks and parking lots were selected to form pairs of nearby sites, spatial proximity did not appear to affect compositional similarity. Our results also showed that passive and active collection methods gave comparable results, indicating the “settling dish” method is effective for outdoor airborne sampling. This work sets a foundation for understanding how urban vegetation may impact microbial communities, with potential implications for designing neighborhoods and open space systems that foster better human health.”

Research : GUT Microbes controls circadian clocks

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GutMicrobesClocks

While selfish mankind is focusing more and investing more in understanding internal circadian rhythms, we are utter foolish in recording every day disturbed circadian rhythms in outer environment. If someone notices, they are called climate hoax creators, conspiracy theorists etc.

“5 elements outside. 5 elements inside. No difference. If the outside is disturbed, such disturbances can occur on the inside too. The reverse also becomes true if done so deeply that we’re all the zombies who destroy everything for no good reason (okay, our current “good reason” is to make money) and will ultimately turn into cannibal zombies to end the feeding frenzy.” – Suraj Kumar

It is vicious cycle. You eat junk, disturb GUT bacteria and your circadian rhythms are disturbed (body clocks).

On the other hand, disturb rhythms by shift jobs, late night movies, parties, irregular life routine – all results into disturbed GUT.


Research


http://harvardmagazine.com/2015/06/engineering-circadian-clock

Engineering an Internal Clock

Gut microbes affect circadian rhythms in mice, study says

http://www.anl.gov/articles/gut-microbes-affect-circadian-rhythms-mice-study-says

A study including researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago found evidence that gut microbes affect circadian rhythms and metabolism in mice.

We know from studies on jet lag and night shifts that metabolism—how bodies use energy from food—is linked to the body’s circadian rhythms. These rhythms, regular daily fluctuations in mental and bodily functions, are communicated and carried out via signals sent from the brain and liver. Light and dark signals guide circadian rhythms, but it appears that microbes have a role to play as well.

All humans have a set of bacteria, viruses and fungi living in our guts, called the gut microbiome, which helps us digest food—and also interacts with the body in a number of other ways: there is evidence they affect allergies, mental health, weight and other metabolic conditions.

Researchers found that mice with a normal set of gut microbes showed evidence of a regular daily microbial cycle, with different species flourishing in different parts of the day and producing different compounds as a result. These compounds appear to act on the liver—they affected how circadian clock genes were expressed in the liver.

A high-fat diet reduced the variation in the microbial cycle; the circadian clock genes were disrupted, and the mice gained weight.

Meanwhile, “germ-free” mice raised without a normal gut microbiome showed evidence of a disrupted circadian clock cycle, but did not gain weight even on a high-fat diet.

The researchers hypothesize that high-fat diets change the compounds that microbes produce, thus disrupting the liver’s circadian clock signaling.

“The earlier explanation for microbiome-related weight gain was that some bacteria make calories from food more available to your body, but this is a fundamental alternative explanation,” said Jack Gilbert, an Argonne microbial ecologist who co-authored the study.

Research: GUT Microbe to stop food allergies

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Kenya Honda, Science/AAAS (21 January 2011)
Kenya Honda, Science/AAAS (21 January 2011)

Food allergies have increased about 50% in children since 1997. I see children with diet restrictions. I see toddlers with long list of ‘No to eat’ list. This is the price we pay for disrespecting microbes, our friends, philosophers and guides.

Microbes can save growing epedemic of allergies. Respect them. Take care of them. Eat GUT-friendly food. Do not treat your body as gutter by eating anything and everything at anytime.

Include microbe-rich ghee, honey, dahi, butter-milk in regular diet.


Research


http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2014/08/gut-microbe-stops-food-allergies

A gut microbe that stops food allergies

A class of bacteria commonly found in the guts of people—and rodents—appears to keep mice safe from food allergies, a study suggests. The same bacteria are among those reduced by antibiotic use in early childhood. The research fits neatly into an emerging paradigm that helps explain a recent alarming increase in food allergies and other conditions, such as obesity and autoimmune disease, and hints at strategies to reverse the trend.

Food allergies have increased about 50% in children since 1997. There are various theories explaining why. One is that the 21st century lifestyle, which includes a diet very different from our ancestors’, lots of antibiotic use, and even a rise in cesarean section deliveries, has profoundly changed the makeup of microbes in the gut of many people in developed countries. For example, the average child in the United States has taken three courses of antibiotics by the time he or she is 2 years old, says Martin Blaser, an infectious disease specialist and microbiologist at New York University in New York City. (See here for more on the reach of microbiome research these days.)

Cathryn Nagler, an immunologist at the University of Chicago in Illinois, has spent years probing links between the immune system, intestinal bacteria, and the onset of allergies. Back in 2004, she and her colleagues reported that wiping out gut bacteria in mice led to food allergies. Since then, Nagler has continued trying to understand which bacteria offer allergy protection and how they accomplish that.

Maa Lakshmi and Microbial Wealth

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Real wealthy human carries rich microbial colonies in his Gut (The part of the alimentary canal between the stomach and the anus).

Rich in variety of healthy bacteria in Gut, healthier life, healthy brain -> healthy mind -> affirmative actions.

Health is wealth. 🙂

What do we do? We kill carriers of Maa Lakshmi at our door step.

How?

Smoking, alcohol, drugs, antibiotics.

Utter Nonsense called Darwinian competition

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proal2009ica.003

For almost entire past century, modern science fooled us by sharing fancy numbers of genes we possess.

The count started with 100000 and now reduced to 19000. I am sure, it will further reduce.

Why am I damn sure?

Your body is composed of an estimated 30 trillion human cells, but it is host to more than 100 trillion bacterial and fungal cells, the friendly microbes that coevolved with our species. Think about that: right now in your body bacterial cells substantially outnumber your own human cells.
If you are host to 100 trillion microbes and each microbe is a tiny genetic machine, how many genes are cranking away within your resident microbes and what are those genes doing?

The shift of numbers is from our genes to microbial genes. In other words, 99 percent of the unique genes in your body are bacterial, and only about 1 percent are human.

We acquire microbial genes, not only from parents but from environment i.e. our foster mother, Mother Nature.

And for healthy life, it is critical to live in healthy environment.

Sheer presence[1] of microbial world in our Body proves one thing for sure that idea of ‘dog-eat-dog world of Darwinian competition’ is utter nonsense. Sadly, same survival of the fittest idea is so much ingrained in our psyche by modern education that we waste precious youth life in chasing false alarms and unnecessary competitions.

Life is about living for each other, helping each other. Darwinian illusion is catastrophic. Unlearn it..If we cannot unlearn, we are like those pathogens who make us feel sick selfish and self-centered.

[1] Your body is composed of an estimated 30 trillion human cells, but it is host to more than 100 trillion bacterial and fungal cells, the friendly microbes that coevolved with our species. Think about that: right now in your body bacterial cells substantially outnumber your own human cells.
———-

Multiple evidence strands suggest that there may be as few as 19 000 human protein-coding genes

https://academic.oup.com/hmg/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/hmg/ddu309

Determining the full complement of protein-coding genes is a key goal of genome annotation. The most powerful approach for confirming protein-coding potential is the detection of cellular protein expression through peptide mass spectrometry (MS) experiments. Here, we mapped peptides detected in seven large-scale proteomics studies to almost 60% of the protein-coding genes in the GENCODE annotation of the human genome. We found a strong relationship between detection in proteomics experiments and both gene family age and cross-species conservation. Most of the genes for which we detected peptides were highly conserved. We found peptides for >96% of genes that evolved before bilateria. At the opposite end of the scale, we identified almost no peptides for genes that have appeared since primates, for genes that did not have any protein-like features or for genes with poor cross-species conservation. These results motivated us to describe a set of 2001 potential non-coding genes based on features such as weak conservation, a lack of protein features, or ambiguous annotations from major databases, all of which correlated with low peptide detection across the seven experiments. We identified peptides for just 3% of these genes. We show that many of these genes behave more like non-coding genes than protein-coding genes and suggest that most are unlikely to code for proteins under normal circumstances. We believe that their inclusion in the human protein-coding gene catalogue should be revised as part of the ongoing human genome annotation effort.

Churning: Mother nature does not like vacuum

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Churning

Mother nature does not like vacuum. She will always act whenever there is vacuum in our body. Most of possible vacuum places in body are filled by bacteria. To maintain pro-health bacteria for prolonged time in GUT, food prepared by churning and fermentation is critical.

Churning and fermentation are two essential processes of Indian diet. Ghee, Honey, Gau-mutra, gau-gobar, Dahi, Idli, Dhosa etc. They invite beneficial microbial world in local environment to share the food. The purposeful application of fermentation and churning for food preservation, palatability, and other reasons is an ancient art. And benefits are not limited to this. When this microbial world reaches to Gut, they establishes colonies there. They prevent any pathogens to create colonies. They maintain mental health and exhibit resiliency against depression in particular.
Churning and fermentation used to perform at home. Not it is outsourced to demon establishments like Dairy. So all benefits are lost.

To begin with
1) Always churn/ferment at home
2) Prefer to procure fresh milk/ghee from a gau-shala practicing ethics ( Those who do not snatch calves milk, do not force artificial pregnancy, do not use hormones, do not mix polluted water, do not give processed food to gaus, allow gau to graze freely, allow potable drinking water to gaus)

If you cannot procure such raw milk, avoid dairy products.

GUT Microbes : Junk Food Isn’t Just Making Us Fat—It’s Making Us Stupid

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Junk food

Take that. And participate in making future generations stupid by offering them biscuits,chocolates and all range of fast food. When I request friends and families not to offer fast food to my son, they often make fun of me. Now, please don’t.

I almost worship bacteria as lower incarnation of the God (And so I worship Hanuman and Ganesh as they are representative of Gana or group of bacteria living in GUT). Read this. Fat, sugar cause bacterial changes that may relate to loss of cognitive function. Bacterial combination in GUT is very important for your thinking capacity. Don’t deliberately kill your child’s creativity.


Crossword, Sudoku, and Jeopardy! enthusiasts beware: Every french fry and candy bar you consume might be throwing off your game.

study conducted by researchers at Oregon State University and published in the journal Neuroscience suggests that high-fat, high-sugar diets have a detrimental effect on what they refer to as “cognitive flexibility,” or the power to adapt and adjust to changing situations.


http://oregonstate.edu/ua/ncs/archives/2015/jun/fat-sugar-cause-bacterial-changes-may-relate-loss-cognitive-function

Fat, sugar cause bacterial changes that may relate to loss of cognitive function

A study at Oregon State University indicates that both a high-fat and a high-sugar diet, compared to a normal diet, cause changes in gut bacteria that appear related to a significant loss of “cognitive flexibility,” or the power to adapt and adjust to changing situations.

This effect was most serious on the high-sugar diet, which also showed an impairment of early learning for both long-term and short-term memory.

The findings are consistent with some other studies about the impact of fat and sugar on cognitive function and behavior, and suggest that some of these problems may be linked to alteration of the microbiome – a complex mixture in the digestive system of about 100 trillion microorganisms.

The research was done with laboratory mice that consumed different diets and then faced a variety of tests, such as water maze testing, to monitor changes in their mental and physical function, and associated impacts on various types of bacteria. The findings were published in the journal Neuroscience, in work supported by the Microbiology Foundation and the National Science Foundation.

“It’s increasingly clear that our gut bacteria, or microbiota, can communicate with the human brain,” said Kathy Magnusson, a professor in the OSU College of Veterinary Medicine and principal investigator with the Linus Pauling Institute.

“Bacteria can release compounds that act as neurotransmitters, stimulate sensory nerves or the immune system, and affect a wide range of biological functions,” she said. “We’re not sure just what messages are being sent, but we are tracking down the pathways and the effects.”

Story of Cordyceps fungi and our food, microbes and GUT

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I often talk about importance of microbes in our physical well-being or in sickness. What I am going to share is very about impact on our mind.

Cordyceps is a fungus. Organism with large work to do for nature than microbes. Photos shared with this posts shows ants infected by this fungi. Once infected by Cordyceps, an ant becomes a zombie. It ignores its usual duties with its colony on the forest floor, and succumbs to the urge to climb a tree. Yes, that is how this fungi can control the ant’s mind. Some 100 cm or more above the forest floor, this ant is forced by fungi to bites down leaf vein and killing self. This is known as the ‘death grip’, as shortly afterwards, the fungus takes the ant’s life. Fungus grows and infect more ants on the forest floor.

The Cordyceps has changed the ant’s behavior, controlling it in an incredibly specific way, to help it give rise to the next generation of fungi.

Example I gave is about fungus but it is not just fungus but microbes, viruses and all living and dead organisms control our behavior. This is because all of them are manifestation of प्राण. Specific combination of प्राण which is programmed to alter your behavior.

Microbes in out Gut also do the same thing. First they take the place. And then control our behavior. You may eat some fast food for taste once but when they microbes loving fast food grows in the GUT, they will force you to eat more and more fast food. That is how food addictions are working in humans. Microbes controlling your habits.

If we understand this, many mental disorders treatment will become easy. Alter the Prana of the environment and see the magic. Same goes with Autistic children.

Only way to control Prana is Mind. मनोमय कोष had higher control over disturb or polluted प्राणमय कोष. But our mind is engaged in worldly pleasures and addictions. TV, News, Gossips, stress of daily life makes mind dull. Pollution by burning fossil fuels, cutting forest, cement cities reduces our pranic intelligence. In short, we all slowly become zombies like the ant becomes after fungus infection. Easy to control like slaves.

Ant has no choice but to succumb to fungus control due to limited mind but we have unlimited mind. Use it.

What you eat is important. Where you eat is equally important. How you eat is too. Eat = Physical food, mental food. Where you live is important. How clean you keep your home is also important. Ultimately how good you are at controlling प्राणिक & मानसिक exchange with environment will decide well-being of your life.

Microbes, Vastu and Pro-कल्याण Architecture

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Vastu

Back to back good news from science field. (First it was micro wind turbine governed by microbes)

I wrote last year here how and why वास्तु विद्या in its truest form is need of the hour. I also wrote how home microbes influence our day to day life. And why home-made dahi and chaas are better than factory made.

Here, one more research, urging architects to take care of home microbes while designing homes.

Recall, my yesterday’s post ({आवह, प्रवह,संवह ,उद्वह,विवह,परिवह,परावह} * {ब्रह्मलोक , इन्द्रलोक ,अंतरिक्ष , भूलोक की पूर्व दिशा , भूलोक की पश्चिम दिशा , भूलोक की उत्तर दिशा और भूलोक की दक्षिण दिशा} = 49 मरुतs , life forces, air movements, governing life. Bow to मरुतs , bow to their democratic existence in groups!)

So in this context, if Vastu suggest no entry from south-west, it is No! If East is favorable, it is! If Kitchen is needed in Agni , it is needed! We live so shallow life that we hardly realize the subtle impact.

Now, when western architects will explain, we will welcome it 😉

Check old posts on same subjects in comments.


Research


Buildings, Beneficial Microbes, and Health

http://www.cell.com/trends/microbiology/abstract/S0966-842X(16)30021-X?_returnURL=http%3A%2F%2Flinkinghub.elsevier.com%2Fretrieve%2Fpii%2FS0966842X1630021X%3Fshowall%3Dtrue

Read on:

Architectural design is often concerned with energy efficiency or aesthetics, not microbial exposure. But, in a Science & Society article published July 7 in Trends in Microbiology, Yale environmental engineers make a case for assessing the benefits of having these unseen organisms in our homes. Maybe, they say, instead of pushing all of them out, we should let the right ones in.

“It’s a common misconception that all microbes found in one’s home are hazardous to your health,” says Yale Professor of Chemical and Environmental Engineering Jordan Peccia (@jordan_peccia), co-author of the review with PhD student Sarah Kwan. “Many have no impact on health, while some may even be beneficial.”

Past studies have shown that children growing up on a farm (or even in a home close to a rural area), are exposed to such beneficial microbes, and are less likely to develop allergies as a result. In one example, children from a Bavarian family (a population known for their agrarian lifestyle, such as working the fields, using horses for transport, and drinking unpasteurized milk) had less than half the levels of asthma compared to a suburban European family (5.2% versus 19.1%). This effect was found to persist into adulthood. This is likely because some microbes in the body send signals to white blood cells known as T cells to form T regulatory cells, which prevent unnecessary immune responses.

“One big question becomes how building design (e.g., the geographical layout, the building materials, occupancy, and ventilation) modulates microbial exposure, and our own microbiomes,” says Peccia. “As more and more beneficial microbes are identified, we–architects, engineers, and the general public–need to think about how we can facilitate our exposure to them.”

“There are certainly trade-offs we need to better understand and circumvent,” he adds. “Indoor air quality is often worse than outdoor air quality, so building ventilation with outdoor air makes a lot of sense. However, in cities with very poor outdoor air quality, increased ventilation results may result in unhealthy exposures to outdoor air contaminants.”

Short of working on a farm, one way we can “train” our immune system is through exposure to animals, especially cats and dogs. Aside from carrying their own families of microbes, they also can track in common bacteria and fungi from the outdoors, further contributing to the aforementioned “beneficial diversity” of indoor microbes. These can then be easily inhaled or swallowed when trapped in a tightly enclosed space, such as a home or office building, where we inhale gallons of air each day and sometimes ingest floor dust.

Although this field is still in its infancy, Peccia does have some advice for building occupants, namely, that there is not a “one size fits all” approach to improving the microbiome in one’s home. “Not everyone should run out and get a dog, of course,” he says, “but we can work to develop new, quantitative approaches for solving these problems–something better than our portable air filters and inhalers.”

Image credit: CREDIT
Peccia and Kwan/Trends in Microbiology 2016

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