Microbes

Microbes

Bacteria Living in Your Nose decides cold severity

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nose

Link Between Severity of Cold Symptoms, Bacteria Living in Your Nose

In news with several layers of weird, researchers have determined that the mix of bacteria that live inside your nose – yes, there are organisms living inside your nose – correlates with the type and severity of cold symptoms you develop.

We have discuss this in past here that bacteria living in body play vital role, not only in disease manifestation but also healthy maintenance:

Immunity Part 3: Your nose generates antibiotics

Pranic Science: How Good Bacteria Might Help Prevent Middle Ear Infections

Ok but then who decides what bacteria will be present in your nose? We need to go back and understand science of breathing to realize what bacteria will stay in nose. And at larger scale, it is all leads to our environment.

To understand this,

Microbes are nothing but manifestation of our bodily Prana. They are not organized as organ but do work as community with special purpose to serve the body. And since they are manifested based on Prana, they can be controlled by Pranic exercises. Asana(s) and specifically Surya Namaskar plays vital role here for their well-designed postures and bends with regulated breathing.

सूर्य नमस्कार for Healthy GUT : How exercise alone shapes GUT Microbes

If we go little deeper and see the movement of prana by breathing in form of 5 basic elemental form, we will realize how exactly it controls our health or diseases intensity.

Even professor at IIT mumbai shares the same research where he explains how environmental conditions (temperature, moisture and nitrates) decide which pests will be present at your home! (I have personally observed it between two homes where kitchen is exactly in opposite directions. In one kitchen, cockroaches rule and in another mosquito.)

Damaged/Disturbed Ecology induces vector borne epidemics

What solution scientists of this paper[1] refer:

Could Probiotics Shorten Your Cold Symptoms?

Turner and his colleagues were interested to see whether giving people probiotics – beneficial bacteria – might improve their cold symptoms or affect the composition of their nasal microbiomes. The answer? Nope.

The researchers gave study participants a probiotic to drink. Not only did it not affect the microbiomes in their noses, it didn’t have much effect on the microbiomes in their stomachs, either. “We can detect the probiotic in the gut very frequently. Not in everybody, but very frequently,” Turner said. “It didn’t really dramatically influence the microbiomic pattern of the gut. So it’s not like the probiotic alters the microbiome of the gut in any substantial way.”

It’s possible that administering a probiotic directly to the nose, such as through a spray, could have more effect. But Turner, who has been researching colds for decades, is skeptical that it would make a big difference.

“It’s not going to be so simple, I don’t think, as saying, ‘OK, what happens if you give a probiotic?’” he said. “One of the things that would be interesting to ask, and this would be a completely different study, is, what happens if you give antibiotics? Can you change the nasal flora by giving antibiotic? And is that a good thing or is that a bad thing? Those are all unknowns.”

Implant probiotic bacteria in nose! 😀 This is very short term vision. Our nose environment is not static. Based on environment, breathing techniques and air quality, and even mental state of the subject, things will again change!!

Wait for second post about how different breathing states can provide vital health information and how correct them by changing breathing patterns.

Here are two more links to understand how breathing affects health. (Received via Paramtap Mewada)

Now try to connect the dots

  1. Why polluted regions have lower life expectancy and increased chronic diseases
  2. Why children must be taught disciplined life, pranayama,  sandhya when they reach the age 7 or 8?
  3. Why schools (age 8 to 18) in forest?
  4. Why Pranayama based Surya Namaskar and not just exercise steps?
  5. Why mantra japa? Why changing ॐ?

Research


[1] newsroom.uvahealth.com/2018/09/26/uva-discovers-link-between-cold-severity-bacteria-living-in-your-nose/

Nasal microbiota clusters associate with inflammatory response, viral load, and symptom severity in experimental rhinovirus challenge

The role of nasal and fecal microbiota in viral respiratory infections has not been established. We collected nasal swabs and washes, and fecal samples in a clinical study assessing the effect of probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04 on experimental rhinovirus infection. The nasal and fecal microbiota were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The resulting data were compared with nasal inflammatory marker concentrations, viral load, and clinical symptoms. By using unsupervised clustering, the nasal microbiota divided into six clusters. The clusters predominant of Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium/Alloiococcus, Moraxella, and Pseudomonadaceae/Mixed had characteristic inflammatory marker and viral load profiles in nasal washes. The nasal microbiota clusters of subjects before the infection associated with the severity of clinical cold symptoms during rhinovirus infection. Rhinovirus infection and probiotic intervention did not significantly alter the composition of nasal or fecal microbiota. Our results suggest that nasal microbiota may influence the virus load, host innate immune response, and clinical symptoms during rhinovirus infection, however, further studies are needed.

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-29793-w

Exposome, our microbial cloud : Ojas, Tejas and Prana

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microbecloud

We all have our own microbiome cloud that we’re schlepping around and spewing out.

We are bombarded by thousands of diverse species and chemicals

What is exposome?

Exposome is a profiling output showing how many chemicals and microbes are surrounded  to an individual due to his/her environmental interaction.

We are all exposed to a vast and dynamic cloud of microbes, chemicals and particulates that, if visible, might make us look something like Pig-Pen from Peanuts.

Using a re-engineered air-monitoring device, scientists from the Stanford University School of Medicine have peered into that plume and discovered a smorgasbord of biological and chemical minutia that swirl in, on and around us. Their findings show, in unprecedented detail, the variety of bacteria, viruses, chemicals, plant particulates, fungi, and even tiny microscopic animals that enter our personal space — a bombardment known as the human “exposome.”

“Human health is influenced by two things: your DNA and the environment,” said Michael Snyder, PhD, professor and chair of genetics at Stanford. “People have measured things like air pollution on a broad scale, but no one has really measured biological and chemical exposures at a personal level. No one really knows how vast the human exposome is or what kinds of things are in there.”

That curiosity — to see, for the first time, what a person’s exposure looks like at an individual level and how much it varies among people — was what motivated the study, Snyder said. But studying the exposome also provides an opportunity to clarify environmental influencers of human health that are otherwise obscure, he said. For example, rather than simply blaming pollen, those with seasonal allergies would be able to identify exactly what they’re allergic to by monitoring their exposome data and symptoms throughout the year.[1]


This was about modern research. We have discussed about our own personal microbial cloud here in past:

Man is known by the company he keeps : We all have individual microbial cloud

What is missing in this view of profiling personal signature of microbial and chemicla cloud surrounded to us is neglect of other body layers and body’s internal environment effects on it.

The three doshas are combinations of five elements (*पञ्च महाभूत). ओजस,तेजस,प्राण are the subtler, energetic forms of the doashas. Ojas is pure essence of Kapha. Tejas is pure essence of pitta and prana is pure essence of Vayu dosha. Their quality and quantity are measure of optimum health and individual’s immunity. The word प्रभावशाली which we use for someone who can easily influence others, has great प्रभा/आभा and it is outcome of good quality and quantity of tejas. What modern science describes as microbial cloud or chemical cloud, is not only because of external environment but also due to level of ojas, prana and tejas. They decide, what is identified as part of this body in non-organ form i.e. microbes or free-radicals.

[1] http://med.stanford.edu/news/all-news/2018/09/we-are-bombarded-by-thousands-of-diverse-species-and-chemicals.html

https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(18)31121-8

Parent? Go back to jungle or send kids to forest-school (गुरुकुल)

ForestGurukul

GUT microbes is a buzz-word in medical fraternity of western world. It is welcome sign as they are unlearning useless DNA dogma and mindless antibiotic treatment practices.

In Bharat(India), child development is intervened in वर्णाश्रम धर्म. Everyone was following it 100 years back. And it was very reason why we were never worried about health by minor details like GUT microbes.

वर्ण & आश्रम were potent tools to take care and nurture पंचकोशीय बंधारण. As soon as you hit the age of Upanayan, you are sent to forest for learning. It is very essential.

In many countries, they are shifting schools to forest. Forest-school is growing concept in finland, japan and US. (Google it to know  more).

Our गुरुकुल शिक्षण happened in forest. Forest and cows were prerequisites. Both act as प्राणवर्धक & प्राण-संवर्धन.

When GUT-microbes of growing kids are not taken care (unfortunately, me and many in my generations missed it. Present generation of urban kids are missing it. Present generation of rural kids also miss it due to urban influence but they are still in good position compare to urban kids), adult life is miserable, feeble and weak.

Why Worry about Children’s GUT health?

The role of gut microbiota in early life and its impact on gut health and subsequent diseases remain unclear. There is a lack of research and awareness in this area, especially in the Asia‐Pacific region, including Malaysia. This paper reports the position of a Malaysian Working Group on some key issues surrounding gut microbiota in early life and its role in gut health and diseases, as well as experts’ stand on probiotics and prebiotics. The group reached a consensus that certain factors, including elective caesarean; premature deliveries; complementary feeding; use of antibiotics, prebiotics and/or probiotics; and exposure to the external environmental, have an impact on gut microbiota in early life. However, as evidence is lacking, especially from the Asia‐Pacific region, further studies are needed to understand how gut microbiota in early life affects subsequent diseases, including allergy, inflammatory bowel disease, obesity and infantile colic. Lastly, although beneficial in acute diarrhoeal disease and probably allergic eczema, probiotics (and/or prebiotics) should be used cautiously in other gut dysbiotic conditions until more data are available.

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jpc.13640

Check the GUT microbe-perspective.

Answer hints for

  1. Why forest based gurukul for age 7 to 16
  2. Why cows in school?
  3. Why even naturalized urban school garden is not enough?

Research


Switching from an Urban to Hunter-Gatherer Lifestyle may Increase Diversity in Children’s Gut Microbes

An international team of researchers has shown that immersing city dwellers in the traditional lifestyle and diet of a rainforest village for two weeks increases the diversity of the visiting children’s—but not the adults’—gut microbiota. In a small pilot study published this week in mSphere®, an open-access journal of the American Society for Microbiology, the team shows that the immersion visit did little to shift the adults’ skin, oral, nasal and fecal microbiota.

“We wanted to look at the question of whether microbiota change during a drastic, radical change of diet and lifestyle,” says Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello, a microbial ecologist at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey who led the study with microbiologist Monica Contreras from the Venezuelan Institute of Scientific Research. “In this village, there was no market economy, no bodega, no Coca-Cola—so this represented a radical shift in diet from a high percentage of processed foods in urban places to zero processed foods and an all-natural diet.”

Dominguez-Bello, along with researchers from New York University and two Venezuelan institutes, took advantage of a visit planned by five, city-dwelling adult visitors—and two of their children—to live among an indigenous Yekwana village in the Bolivar State of Venezuela for 16 days. The village has a hunter-gatherer-gardener lifestyle and diet.

Typical fare includes cassava (a starchy, high-fiber tuber), corn, various wild fruits, including plantains, pineapples, and berries, fish, and small amounts of game meat and eggs gathered from wild birds. Visitors had two meals a day that consisted of soup with a bit of fish or meat. The rest of their diet consisted of “all-day snacking on cassava with fruit” says Dominguez-Bello. The visitors also bathed in the river without soap and followed the natural circadian rhythms of their hosts.

“The diet contains very little animal protein and it’s very, very high in fiber and very low in fat,” compared to Western diets, says Dominguez-Bello.

While it is known that people with traditional diets have higher gut microbiota diversity compared to those with urban diets, it was unknown if urban dwellers could shift the diversity of their microbiota higher simply by following a traditional lifestyle and diet. In the gut, a high diversity of microbes is considered a sign of good health.

Traditional people eat diets rich in unprocessed plant material, which are much more chemically complex compared to processed foods. The smorgasbord of chemicals acts as fuel for a higher variety of microbes. Traditional people use less antimicrobial medicines and compounds in daily life, which might also contribute to their increased gut microbe diversity.

During the 16-day visit, the researchers collected samples from the visitors’ skin, mouth, nose, and from a fecal swab. Age-matched samples were also collected from villagers. The samples were sequenced and compared.

Surprisingly, none of the adult visitors’ microbiota shifted significantly during the visit, while the two children’s gut microbiota trended toward a higher number of total microbial species present. Although these results were not statistically significant and in just two subjects, the researchers saw this as interesting nonetheless, given the children’s ages of 4 and 7.

Up to now, it was thought that children’s gut microbiota become stable and more ‘adult-like’ by the time they reach 3 years of age. “This indicates that the window for maturing your microbiome may not be 3 years of age, but longer,” says Dominguez-Bello. Her team plans to do a larger study with 12 children participating in an “immersion summer camp” to a traditional village.

Because the children’s gut microbiota exhibited more plasticity, these results raise an interesting possibility that urban children who eat a more traditional, high-fiber, low-fat and low-processed diet early in life might cultivate a more diverse set of gut microbes. Conversely, adults may have a limited response due to their low microbiome plasticity.

Dominguez-Bello was not terribly surprised that the adults’ gut and other microbiota changed so little: “If you take traditional people and bring them to New York, give them antibiotics and McDonald’s to eat everyday, it’s not surprising that they lose diversity,” she says. “But if, as an urban dweller, you’ve already lost that gut microbe diversity and you move to a high-diversity diet, maybe you cannot ‘bloom’ diversity because you simply don’t have those microbes present anymore.”

https://www.asm.org/index.php/newsroom/item/7458-switching-from-an-urban-to-hunter-gatherer-lifestyle-may-increase-diversity-in-children-s-gut-microbes

Reinventing wheels : Soil microbes are key for sustainable agriculture

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When I read research like this, I imagine how far we tolerated these profit-devils in agri-business? To earn petty profits, they killed soil, made farmers more and more poor and created crisis everywhere.

Chemical agriculture is a curse for mankind. Especially, most fertile land owner country India, it is greatest fall of dharma. This land’s dharma is to feed the world and not her own subjects. We are now in a position where we have to import food. So great green revolution.

“The fact that the traits that govern these partnerships vary between plants of the same species and are heritable shows that they can be selected for by breeders,” Wendlandt said. “Ultimately, we hope that agronomists will use this research to develop plant varieties that make the most of the soil microbes they encounter. This could reduce reliance on chemical fertilizers, which are expensive for growers and can pollute the environment.”

There is only way to reverse this. Cow-based farming. Only cow can help soil. Both are called गौ in Sanskrit. Only one Gau can cuddle another one. Our job is to facilitate this relation.


Research


GauSeva

Top-Performing Soil Microbes Could Be Key to Sustainable Agriculture

RIVERSIDE, Calif. (www.ucr.edu) — Beautiful things can happen when plants surround themselves with the right microbes. A study on Acmispon strigosus, a plant in the pea family, showed a 13-fold growth increase in plants that partnered with a highly effective strain of the nitrogen-fixing bacteria Bradyrhizobium.

The ability of plants to use beneficial microbes to boost their growth is not lost on agronomists. Some breeders think understanding the traits that enable crops to recruit top-performing microbes is key to the future of sustainable agriculture.

A roadblock in capitalizing on the beneficial work of microbes is the complex genetic and environmental factors that govern their role in plant growth. Left unattended, plants don’t always recruit beneficial microbes, instead surrounding themselves with a mix of both helpful and ineffective bacteria. Attempts to manage the microbial populations plants encounter in the soil—by inoculating with beneficial strains—have largely failed.

“It is very difficult to predict which combinations of microbes will be successful under field conditions, since the microbes that are beneficial to plants in the lab do not always compete successfully against microbes that already exist in the field,” said Joel Sachs, a professor of evolutionary ecology at the University of California, Riverside and member of the university’s Institute for Integrative Genome Biology. “A promising alternative is to breed plants that are better at managing their own microbial partners, an advancement that will be passed down to future generations.”

In a study published today in New Phytologist, Sachs’ team has advanced our understanding of how plant genetics and environmental factors affect microbial soil populations in the field. The paper’s first author is Camille Wendlandt, a graduate student in Sachs’ research group.

The researchers investigated whether Acmispon strigosus (the pea plant) changes how it associates with different strains of nitrogen-fixing bacteria when its environment changes. Surprisingly, they found that changing the plants’ environment by fertilizing the soil did not change how plants associated with microbes. Instead, the researchers found that genetic variation between the pea plants was most important in explaining whether plants invested in relationships with the most beneficial microbes. In other words, some variants of the plant are better than others at developing these beneficial partnerships.

Only Cow-Culture can protect plants from extreme weather

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Yes, call it cow-culture or गौ-संस्कृति. It is only with the help cows, we can help our crops and man-made forests to sustain extreme temperatures.

Plants are less stressed if they have these natural microbes

With cows, we receive two extremely important prasad (प्रसाद). Essence. No, it is not milk! It is dung and urine! Let there be rivers of dung and urine flowing on our land! That is how we can live weather-proof life.

gauseva


Research


Microbes help plants survive in severe drought

http://www.washington.edu/news/2016/09/19/microbes-help-plants-survive-in-severe-drought/

With California in its fifth year of severe drought and many western states experiencing another year of unusually dry conditions, plants are stressed.

Agricultural crops, grasses and garden plants alike can get sick and die when factors such as drought and excess sun force them to work harder to survive.

Now, plants can better tolerate drought and other stressors with the help of natural microbes, University of Washington research has found. Specifically, plants that are given a dose of microbes stay green longer and are able to withstand drought conditions by growing more leaves and roots and using less water.

“Plants are less stressed if they have these natural microbes,” said senior author Sharon Doty, a UW professor of environmental and forest sciences. “They will help plants deal with environmental challenges, especially with climate change.”

Fertilizers consume Prana and kills Microbes

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Post world war-2, there was question of managing unused raw material planned for bombs. How to use it? Typical profit devil. Sell it to third world slave countries as fertilizers! Make them believe that their land can’t produce enough to feed the population and then on based on this false narrative, sell them fertilizers! And since it became profitable model, more and more money was invested in wrong direction of science.

We don’t consider (We as in Sanatana dharma followers, popularly known as Hindus) mother earth dead or mere a component in a cycle. She is alive. She breathes. She has prana. Her prana is something that decides specific part’s fertility. It is job of her son to maintain the prana of her body. We used to do it with the help of cow-dung and urine. Enough. We mastered the ecology. Just one weak point : Gullible mass and selfish leaders. We lost to market forces and ruined out golden land! 🙁

Now, read the research

Pranamayplants


Research


“When we change the nutrient environment that plants are in, we are fundamentally altering the plant-microbiome interaction and also, importantly, the microbiome-mediated protection of natural plant/microbe interactions,” said senior author Britt Koskella, a UC Berkeley assistant professor of integrative biology.

The fertilizer effect was not the only surprise from the study, Koskella said. She and co-author Maureen Berg, a graduate student, were investigating how the density of the microbial community on the leaves affected the plants’ resistance to disease and discovered that a lower dose of beneficial microbes sprayed on the leaves was often more effective in protecting the plants from infection than higher doses. Berg sprayed leaves with an artificial microbial community composed of 12 species of bacteria taken from the natural microbiome of healthy tomatoes.

“We found that the most protective community was the most dilute, the least concentrated, the lowest dose,” she said. “This was completely nonintuitive. A medium dose gave medium protection and the highest dose was the least protective.”

microbes from a leaf growing on an agar gel

Microbes growing in hundreds of small yellow colonies on a plate of Kings Broth agar in the shape of the leaf that was previously laid on the surface to illustrate bacterial density and diversity. (Shirley Zhang photo, Koskella Lab)

“The fact that we saw this lower-dose/higher-protection effect suggests it is not as simple as just throwing on more microbes,” Koskella said. “There is a lot of work to be done understanding how to apply a plant probiotic.”

She and Berg will report their findings in the Aug. 6 print edition of the journal Current Biology; the article will be posted online July 26.

Koskella focuses on plants’ above-ground microbiomes, or the phyllosphere, a poorly understood community compared to the well-studied below-ground microbiome associated with plant roots, the rhizosphere. Researchers are finding unsuspected activity within phyllosphere microbes, including that some of the bacteria fix nitrogen from the air like root-associated bacteria. Many studies have demonstrated that microbial communities in the roots can promote plants’ nutrient uptake, growth and resistance to disease, and Koskella is investigating whether this also holds true for the above-ground microbiome.

Human Migration and microbial Churning

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Migrants

We adopt the environment but it takes time. Toll of several generations. In past, migrations were always due to natural calamities and abrupt changes in environment. Now, migrations are forced. As a world, we really don’t wish to calculate toll of forced migrations due to denial of sustainable local economical opportunities. We are in centralisation mode. Decentralisation is an alien concept for our generation. The fall starts by changing pattern of GUT microbes. Of course, things will improve after 3-4 generations but be ready for sacrifice. Or maintain health in very high state by taking care of food, sleep and brahmcharya. Not only outer environment, mental stress of migration also alter GUT microbes.

Watch this video first and then read the research.

Do note: There are certain humans trained for always on the road. They travel with livestock. They get affected if they stabilise! Same applies to migratory birds! 🙂



Research


Younger immigrants at higher risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

The younger a person is when they immigrate to Canada, the higher their risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and its major subtypes Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, according to a study by researchers at the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO), the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) and the University of Ottawa. Canada has one of the highest rates in the world of IBD and while immigrants to Canada have lower rates of IBD compared to Canadian-born residents, that risk goes up in immigrants who are younger at arrival to Canada. In addition, Canadian-born children of immigrants from some regions have a higher risk of developing IBD.

While their parents were at lower risk of developing IBD, once they arrive the children of immigrants from the Middle East, North Africa and South Asia had the same incidence of IBD compared with the children of non-immigrants. In fact, there is a 14 per cent increased risk per younger decade of life at immigration. However, the children of immigrants from East Asia, Eastern Europe, Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean had lower incidence of IBD compared with the children of non-immigrants.

http://www.cheori.org/en/newsreleases?newsid=382

Man’s comfort, Mother’s broken cycles

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Nitrogen

Fritz Haber (left, 1.0 Nobel prizes in 1918) and Carl Bosch (right, 0.5 Nobels in 1931) have probably had a greater impact than anyone in the past 100 years, including Hitler, Gandhi, Einstein, etc.

Yes, they invented a method to bypass soil microbes and provide nitrogen in terms of urea. One of the worse future of mankind was written by this process implementation.

Biological nitrogen fixation – essential natural cycle was disturbed. And many future generations will pay high price for it.

Today, essential nitrogen for your body does not come from soil microbes but Haber-Bosch process! 😀 प्राणविहीन Nitrogen and nitrates! 🙁

Urban Childhood : Loss of essential microbes, Loss of Prana

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Microbes

I was discussing growing cases of organ impairment in urban area. Like Kidney failure, liver damage and so on. And my friend Paramptap brought very critical point into discussion about importance of Vastu of the place!

In his own words:

Despite lot of people doing Yoga as activity, there particular diseases on rise, there is nothing wrong with Yoga but there is something off about how and where we live. In simple words “Not only you are what you do repeatedly, you are also where you live and breath repeatedly.”

Prana of local place play critical role. Not all infants born in same hospital are same forever! As they shift to their home, local environment play critical role in shaping their life.

GUT-Microbes are not only decided based on what you eat but also where you live!! Forest is the ideal place for child-development. No wonder why Gurukul were always in forest! Wild forest! For age 7 to 16, kids used to live in forest! Making of mighty population!


Research


Microbiome differences between urban and rural populations start soon after birth

“We’ve always assumed that the microbiomes of  were the same everywhere, and that differences came later in life,” says senior author Silvia Turroni of the Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology at the University of Bologna in Italy. “We were surprised to find that the microbiomes of infants living in rural areas were missing components that we have long believed were standard to all infant populations—especially that they were essentially devoid of Bifidobacterium.” Bifidobacterium dominates the microbiomes of Western infants and has been considered a key element to healthy growth and development.

Previous studies that have analyzed the microbiomes of rural, hunter-gatherer societies have generally compared them to distant urban populations in Europe or the United States. This study was unique in that it looked at rural and urban African people in the same geographic area. Urban populations in the study were drawn from four state capital cities in Nigeria and the national capital, Abuja.

“This research was specifically designed to fill in gaps of knowledge about the variation of the human gut , as well as the metabolome, in relation to subsistence patterns in geographically close populations,” says first author Funmilola Ayeni of the Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology at the University of Ibadan in Nigeria.

This study was also unique because it looked at both infant and adult microbiomes. For the purposes of this study, infants were defined as children up to age three. Unexpectedly, the investigators found that infants living in  had microbiome profiles that were overall more diverse and more like those of adults.

The rural people included in the study, an agricultural society called the Bassa, consume a diet consisting of tubers, grains, and leafy soups, as well as untreated water. The urban diet contained processed foods and treated water but had more elements of a traditional Nigerian diet than what is seen in Western countries. Rural infants were given foods other than breast milk at a younger age than urban infants were.

Although it is only one factor, diet is an important component affecting the makeup of the intestinal microbiota. The researchers found that the rural  had a higher level of certain bacterial species that are important for digesting fiber. In addition, when metabolites in the samples were analyzed, rural populations had lower levels of amino acids and biogenic amines, suggesting a lower consumption of protein.

https://medicalxpress.com/news/2018-06-microbiome-differences-urban-rural-populations.html

 

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