History

History

Forest and Rainfall: The Imperial Gazetteer Of India records

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Value of forest was well understood by British govt as it is described in The Imperial Gazetteer Of India – part 3 (Economic).

 

The Imperial Gazetteer Of India 3
The Imperial Gazetteer Of India 3
The Imperial Gazetteer Of India 3 - pg 105
The Imperial Gazetteer Of India 3 – pg 105
The Imperial Gazetteer Of India 3 - pg 104
The Imperial Gazetteer Of India 3 – pg 104

Forest Cover India

Forest Cover India

When India is on the verge of server water crisis, this records should remind us critical role forest play in conserving water.  Our urban tree plantation drives are not enough.

Analysis of Changing Forest Cover and its Impact on Environment with Special Reference to Umtrew Basin, North East India

“The study elucidates that the population growth, migration, developmental activities and agricultural activities are the main driven force deforestation; however there is a spatial variation in contribution to the causative factors. Change in local population is directly related to forest degradation. In some places jhooming is one of the important problem. Agricultural expansion, development of industries caused the deforestation in many ways.It is observed from the analysis of satellite data of last thirty years; it becomes clear that the forest cover has been tremendously decreasing in the Umtrew basin. As a result, soil erosion and siltation on the river bed has already been increased manifold in the said area. The geo-environmental condition of this part has already been deteriorated. There is every possibility of micro climatic change due to such changes. So, this area needs more afforestation including the social forestry programme for restoring the conditions as prevailed earlier. Therefore, considering the trend of forest change there is an umpteen need to take protection measures in the Umtrew Basin to maintain the environmental quality, restricting the possibilities of micro climatic change and meet the national demand of forest cover.”

http://clarion.ind.in/index.php/clarion/article/view/30/44

 

Real Bahubali : Kaliyugi Arjuna in Modern India

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https://www.desiretrees.in/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Baahubali-2-Posters.jpg
https://www.desiretrees.in/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Baahubali-2-Posters.jpg

 

Many friends groomed by modern education, made fun of this poster. Calling it fake and impossible. Three arrows together? Yes, it is different thing that technical aspect of bow-arrow handling is not followed perfectly, this art of shooting three arrows is not Utopian or imaginary or larger than life!! We had one such example alive in last century!


kaliyugiArjun
The tradition of ancient Indian archery is kept alive even today by a handful of display archers in the country. In the early years of the current century a famous archer from South India, nicknamed Kaliyugi Arjuna, shot a number of tigers and other wild beasts with his bow and arrows. Possessed of a powerful physique and an uncanny aim, he did great things with his favorite weapon, and for some time taught archery to the students of the Prem Maha Vidyalaya, Brindaban.

He could shoot four arrows simultaneously from the same bow and hit four difficult and different targets all at once. He made people put up spectacle frames fitted with silver rupees instead of glasses, which he shot down with two arrows of such an impeccably calculated force as to displace the little discs without injuring the man. He smeared exceedingly sharp arrow-tips with chalk dust and shot them at the bare backs of students with a perfect delicacy of control, so that they left only chalk marks on their tender targets without even grazing them. But he could also shoot powerful shafts that ripped through copper and iron plates. He could easily support a football in mid air for more than five minutes with a continuous shower of arrows.

Imprisoned for seditious activities during the first world war, under the British Rule, he died in jail.

This last century’s archer is micro version of Arjun. This glorious part of history was never taught to you so that you would never believe that there was mighty warrior named Arjun. And since you wouldn’t believe existence of Arjun, you will never strive to become of such. To add a fuel to your imagination, B of Backward class (BC – Bollywood + Cricket) manifested several fight sequences using camera techniques in last 50 years, giving you proof that such fighting skills are only possible in imagination and you are dumb weak Indian who can never excel. You just watch on screen and get satiated by virtual feast of warrior skills (or any extra ordinary skill for that matter).

And potency (पुरुषत्व), Intelligence and skills of Arjun’s level remains like a impossible dream sequence. If you don’t strive for excellence, you live mediocre life. That is what precisely cunning lords(Britishers and cunning foxes of India) of this land wants.

Ref: appendix – Ancient Indian Warfare with Special Reference to the Vedic Period – By Sarva Daman Singh

kaliyugiArjun2

Original: https://books.google.co.in/books?id=bp6he8Roj_UC&q=Kaliyugi+arjuna#v=snippet&q=Kaliyugi%20arjuna&f=false

 

 

 

Worshiping False Gods

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Your kid will celebrate Teachers day but will hardly pay attention to Guru Purnima. Why?

Education brain-wash.

I don’t have any issue with you celebrating his birthday as Teachers day or XYZ day but it is my duty to show you this side of scholar.

I know, no one is perfect. And I prefer not to worship imperfects.

Sharing 5 years old post for objective minds. Sentimental may ignore post.

545272_190987927692790_1667950574_n

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Worshiping False Gods
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Wikipedia says, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan,was an Indian philosopher and statesman who was the first Vice President of India (1952–1962) and the second President of India from 1962 to 1967.

One of India’s most influential scholars of comparative religion and philosophy, Radhakrishnan built a bridge between the East and the West by showing how the philosophical systems of each tradition are comprehensible within the terms of the other. He wrote authoritative exegeses of India’s religious and philosophical literature for the English speaking world.

========================

My online friend complained. Why do I write more posts, comparing Bharat’s superiority vs west? Here is the answer for him.

I do it because majority of us were conditioned to worship false Gods like Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan. Children in school are taught to celebrate his birthday is celebrated in India as Teachers’ Day on 5 September. For children, he is the scholar to follow. His books are text books in colleges.

Know real Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and his derogatory writings.

Certain great scholars and the so-called patriots of India also had profound effects of western education on their minds that held the feeling of lowness for Hindu culture, history and religion. They too collected the intellectual dirt of the western writers and used it in their writings.

Not knowing what were they doing, their writings like: “Ram was only a good man. He was not God.” betrayed and confused millions of Hindus and contempted the authentic writings of Ved Vyas which are the national treasures of India.

We will give you a few examples.

[1] Rigved has the impassionate utterances of the primitive poetic souls. (IP/I-71)

[2] Atharvaved contains the pre-Vedic animist religion of spirits and ghosts. It gives an idea of demonology prevalent in the tribes of India. (PU-45;IP/I-121)

[3] The earliest Vedic seers worshipped nature… the Vedic gods were stupidly self-centered… gods and ghosts governed the life of people. (IP/I-121)

[4] The Upnishads (aranyakas) are the speculations of the hermits. Their teachings are lost in the jumbled chaos of puerile superstition. (IP/I-355)

[5] He (Radhakrishnan) cannot accept Krishn of the Puranas. It was only the unknown author of the Gita who made Krishn famous through his writings and devised him to pose as God (brahm). (IP/I-496, 521)

[6] Ram was only a good man. He was not God. His religion is polytheistic and external.

[7] Shankara’s arid logic made his system unattractive, and Ramanuja’s story of the other world carries no weight. (IP/II-711)

IP = Indian Philosophy Vol 1 and Vol 2
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He calls the Vedic Rishis as primitive poets whose impassionate utterances are the Rigved. He says that Atharvaved incorporates the demonology of primitive tribes; Vedic gods are stupidly self-centered; and the Upnishads are childish superstitions.

The derogatory writings of the western scholars, as initiated by the British, left a great impact on the Indian minds. But the reconfirmation of those western views by Radhakrishnan had much more damaging effects and confused millions of scholars of philosophy and religion around the world by giving them entirely wrong input about Hindu philosophy, Hindu scriptures and the Hindu religion. Just examine some of his mistranslations.

Radhakrishnan’s derogatory writings confused millions of good souls looking for the path to God. Covering all the aspects of Hindu religion (the scriptures, the writings of the acharyas and the descensions of God) he tried to implode the entire structure of Hinduism.

So, my dear friend, it is necessary to uncover false Gods so that intellectuals of the land understand real Sanatan Dharm and paths of God realization.

The history of Hindu maritime activity

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Vessels

“Indian vessels are so admirably adapted to the purposes for which they are required that , not withstanding their superior science, EUROPEANS WERE UNABLE, during an intercourse with India for 200 years, to suggest or to bring into successful practice one single improvement!”

– John Malcolm in first volume of the journal of the Royal asiatic society, London

If you want to rule group of humans, be it small clan or a nation like Bharat, you must kill their self-esteem & self-confidence. Britishers knew this tactic very well and hence many chapters of glorious past have been eliminated from Education. For example, Hindus’ maritime technologies and activities.

The history of Hindu maritime activity, though a forgotten chapter for 21st century students, had great value as demonstrating the practical capabilities of the Hindu genius in days of yore.

Navigation and especially ocean navigation, is one of the difficult arts, and the pursuit of the same before advent of locomotives, exhibits daring, enterprise, skill and resourcefulness.

To show how far the pursuit of art was successful, here is the testimony from French soil in 1811

Reference:

http://goo.gl/2ivkY

Anti-Bharat Hate of Indian National Congress And Ayurveda

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Ever wondered why every other Indian around us, groomed  under colonial legacy education system setup by 1947 Independence custodians i.e. Indian National Congress, hate local culture or have very ostrich view about their roots?

It is because Indian National Congress was rooted in Anti-Sanatana Culture.

Let me share pain of renowned Ayurvedacharya Dr Bhudeb Mukerjee’s book Rasa Jala Nidhi published in 1938.

For everyone’s surprice, M K Gandhi is known to entire world as follower of naturopathy, makes comment against Ayurveda! 🙂

PS: Mind you – Naturopathy is not Ayurveda! Former is whims and fancies of few based on local benefits while Ayurveda is pure principles led  science!

Read it to realize why modern Indians around us don’t trust Ayurveda and make fun of it. Read it why we failed to produce real Ayurvedic doctor (due to lack of trust on scriptures and blind pattern of modern education followed in modern Ayurvedic colleges)

Anti Indian Indian National Congress
Anti Indian Indian National Congress
Anti Indian Indian National Congress
Anti Indian Indian National Congress
Pre-Independence state of Ayurveda
Pre-Independence state of Ayurveda

This was about Dr. Bhudeb Mukerjee’s pain about then INC political leaders western love and hate for local science and culture.

Here is what Mr. Nehru said once:

Nehru’s views on village society:

“A village, normally speaking, is backward intellectually and culturally and no progress can be made from a backward environment.” [1]

[1] pg 9, http://el.doccentre.info/eldoc1/dsc/DSC1_B1004.pdf

With such biased views against local culture and civilization, no wonder Congress led govt promoted cow slaughter after 1947.

———————————————————————
Roots of cow slaughter in India
1954 Expert Committee on the Prevention of Slaughter of Cattle in India
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In 1954, the Government of India (Ministry of Food and Agriculture) appointed an “Expert Committee on the Prevention of Slaughter of Cattle in India”, which gave its report in January 1955.

Do you want to know committee’s startling conclusion?

Hold your breadth! 😀

In the very middle of the report, the Committee began to say that as we do not have enough fodder we cannot maintain more than 40% of our cattle. According to it, 60% of the rest had to be culled from the Indian Cattle stock, whenever possible.

Can you imagine the reason? There is no fodder so kill! 😀 Insane, illogical and fabricated!

Points to ponder upon:

1) It was Congress govt led by Nehru
2) Nehru was a meat-eater, specially beef-eater, a regular wine-drinker
3) He regularly took guidance from British Govt and queen even after 1947. It is documented fact that Kashmir mess was due to he asked Mountbatten to take decisions.

Connect the dots. Britishers did not want India to prosper so they promoted cow slaughter. Independent India’s slave rulers followed the same on master’s call.

Last but not the least,

Mr. Nehru believed that Vedas were written by Aryans who invaded India! lol !

For him, Sanskrit scriptures were mere mythology of primitive minds, and it was unfortunate for him that many Indians believes in Vedas as holy scriptures. For him, Vedic Hymns were mere poetic testaments of a people’s collective reaction to the wonder of Nature. For him, only words of Christ and Buddha are relevant to Indians.

Nehru's hate for Vedas
Nehru’s hate for Vedas

East India Company and Education

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East India Company was not interested, interfering in local Indian’s education affairs. They ignored it until 19th century. When British government first made proposal to East India Company, to introduce school masters and missionaries in Indian Society as their humble Duty, Board of directors of East India Company replied:

“India has her own system of education which had been in existence from time immemorial. The Hindus have as good a system of faith as most people and that it would be madness to attempt their conversion or to give them any more learning or any description of learning than what they already have”

Three people came on state during 1820s and 1830s. William Bentinck as Governor General. Macaulay as Legislative member of supreme council and William Adam as Education system surveyor.

William Bentinck was appointed to take decision whether to promote conversion via education or not. William Adam was in favor of continuing with native education. Macaulay was in favor of introducing English education and missionaries.

Bentinck liked Macaulay’s idea and on the 7th march, 1835, passed a resolution in favor of promotion of European education among Native India and diverted all education funds for English education. This exclusive proposal sealed the fate of Sanskrit based education in her own land. Adam’s proposal was later rejected stating it as ‘Impracticable’ and thus western education got the monopoly in India and a splendid opportunity was lost to introduce unified education system based on Sanskrit.

Why Bentinck approved Macaulay’s plan instead Adam’s when he himself appointed Adam to do Survey of Native education system?

Conditioned citizens are better obedient slaves than free thinking individuals.

भारतीय इतिहास 101 – When Kings were elected by Citizens (प्रजा आधीन राजा) – Part 2

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भारतीय इतिहास 101 – When Kings were elected by Citizens (प्रजा आधीन राजा) – Part 2

Right to elect-Right to Recall in Ramayana, true essence of Raam-rajya
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Ramayan-Ram-Rajyabhishek-storykatha-in-hindi

If you say, you love Raam, it is your prime duty to become responsible citizen and take part in Citizen welfare actively (By designing,supporting and implementing laws required for present time for welfare of mass).

If you just chant Raam, it is pretty selfish act for false personal peace(illusion/delusion) when world around you is passing through chaotic times.

Remember, true peace comes when you and your environment is at peace at same time. Take care of both. Spend time for inner peace as well as outer peace(By designing,supporting and implementing laws required for present time for welfare of mass).

There is a remarkable passage in Ramayana which shows that the popular voice was a powerful element in the selection of leader of the Nation at all levels.
In Ayodhya Kanda, when King Dasratha intended to ordain Raam as the Crown Prince, he called the chiefs of all Cities and Villages in his assembly.

नानानगरवास्तव्यान पृथग्जानपदान अपि
समानिनाय मेदिन्याः परधानान पृथिवीपतिः || 2.1.45

“Dasaratha called for other kings and officers staying in various cities and villages in his kingdom separately.”

What was common characteristic of those who were assembled?

All were ‘राजानो लोकसंमताः’ i.e. those who were duly liked by their people. [2.1.48]
What gazette was presented by Dasratha in assembly?

यदीदम् मेऽनुरूपार्धं मया साधु सुमन्त्रितम् |
भवन्तो मेऽनुमन्यन्तां कथं वा करवाण्यहम् || २-२-१५
यद्यप्येषा मम प्रीतिर्हितमन्यद्विचिन्त्यताम् |
अन्या मद्यस्थचिन्ता हि विमर्दाभ्यधिकोदया || २-२-१६

“I am telling this after lot of thinking. Give consent to me if you feel this to be good and befitting. How else shall I do it?”
“This is my desire. Yet, let there be thinking on any other beneficial way. Thinking by impartial neutral people will be distinctive and well developed through grinding of opposing views.”

[Marut: Please note Dasratha’s proposal regarding Raam as King and his desire in impartial people’s voice.]

Who were लोकसंमताः? And what did they reply in assembly?

तस्य धर्मार्थविदुषो भावमाज्ञाय सर्वशः |
ब्राह्मणा जनमुख्याश्च पौरजानपदैः सह || २-२-१९
समेत्य मन्त्रयित्वा तु समतागतबुद्धयः |
ऊचुश्च मनसा ज्ञात्वा वृद्धं दशरथं नृपम् || २-२-२०
अनेकवर्षसाहस्रो वृद्धस्त्त्वमसि पार्थिव |
स रामं युवराजानमभिषिञ्चस्व पार्थिवम् || २-२-२१

After understanding the opinion of King Dasaratha, who knew the holy and worldly matters, the Brahmans, important people, urban and rural citizens came to a consensus after discussing together and told the aged king as follows.

“Oh king! You are an elderly person with thousands of years of age. Hence, inaugurate Rama as the ruling prince.”

[Marut: Please note the age criteria. If King/Leader is old enough, he must resign from the post. Unlike our present breed of leaders.]

After listening this, Dasratha replied

कथं नु मयि धर्मेण पृथिवीमनुशासति |
भवन्तो द्रष्टुमिच्छन्ति युवराजं ममात्मजम् || २-२-२५

“Why do you desire to see my son as the prince, when I am ruling this earth with righteousness?”

People representatives replied:
गुणान् गुणवतो देव देवकल्पस्य धीमतः |
प्रियानानन्ददान् कृत्स्नान् प्रवक्ष्यामोऽद्यतान् शृणु || २-२-२७

“Oh king! We shall tell you now the various virtues of your wise son, listen to them. His qualities are equal to those of celestials. They are liked by all. They give happiness to all.”

And they explained reasons why Raam is best suited for King’s post.
Dasratha wants to remain as King but People desired Raam as King (This is because, at the age of 16, Raam was ordained to start his nationwide Tirth Yatra, and by that he met and lived with people of all states and became popular leader by his able-bodied characteristics as King)

In this example from our history, it is clear that King left the final decision of the question to the assembly, and even authorized it to suggest new measures, if his own proved little worth.

He also forewarned them not to decide based on sentiments associated with Dasratha’s family prestige but according to real welfare of the Kingdom.

Further in the epic, when Dasratha died, very same assembly suggested that someone from इक्ष्वाकू family line should become King (out of their sheer sentiments followed by tragic death). Cheif Preist, Vashistha replied, unaffected by emotions and sentiments:

“Since Bharat is selected by us, in absence of Raam, let him drive the Nation and not any one else from इक्ष्वाकू family line, just because Bharat is not here right now and we have good sentiments associated with Family.”

– Dasratha’s proposal
– People’s voice to recall Dasrath on age criteria
– People’s voice to elect Raam, not by sentiments but by valid reasons backed by
– Raam’s Nationwide work during this Tirth-Yatra.

Above historical (ऐतिहासिक) account furnishes a striking instance of the constitutional power exercised by People to select their future King.

 

भारतीय इतिहास 101 – When Kings were elected by Citizens (प्रजा आधीन राजा)

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भारतीय इतिहास 101 – When Kings were elected by Citizens (प्रजा आधीन राजा)
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11693816_419457014845879_9191726435145930217_n

‘King elected by People’ is relatively unknown aspect of Indian History for us since we are taught in schools that what we had as National legacy is nothing but Nasty Monarchy with few exceptions. 
This is partial of Strong People’s power that we as Bharat Enjoyed in during her heydays.

German Indologits Zimmer & Geldner believed that Kings were elected by Citizens in Ancient India. According to them, Vedic Rituals and Vedic chanting during commemoration ceremony indicates ‘Total Acceptance’ and not mere ‘Selection’.

Until time of बिम्बिसार, Magadha King was selected by Gamikas (Chief of Villages) and as per महावग्गा book, बिम्बिसार was elected by 80000 Villages as their leader.

Satpath Brahmana(SB)’s following passage summaries selection criteria: “He is the King, whose strength is People or Maruts [1])” SB further explains that King is King only when there is assurance by People. In all Vedic Prayers, ‘People’ are in center and not the Kings. e.g. ‘People, lord of People’, ‘Chief of People’ etc/

** Election of King in Post-Vedic period:

There are also clear references to election or selection of King in post-vedic history literature. In Panchagaru-Jataka’ and ‘Telapatta-Jataka’, Bodhisattva was mentioned as Kind elected by People. Maha-Samanta (महा-सामंत/महा-समंत) , as mentioned in Mahavamsa(Chapter 2), is leader consented by all.सामंत, popularly known now as Feud, is nothing but corrupt form word ‘समंत’ which means ‘Agreed upon by all’.

Reminiscence of this power of election may also be gathered from the inscriptions of later period. Thus the Girnar Inscription[2] of 150 AD reads about Kind Rudra Daman “The elected King by all the castes, for their protection.”

The Khalimpur inscription informs us that Gopala, founder of Pala Dynasty, was elected King by the people, in order to get rid of Anarchy.[3]

People were real King Makers…

[1] “मरुत :- मर + उत् = मरने तक, धर्म संस्थापना के लिए लड़नेवाले नागरिक | For example, Body’s immune system.”

[2] http://goo.gl/SsLH4 [Junagarh Rock Inscription] |http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rudradaman_I

[3] http://goo.gl/UUANj [Inscription details] – Verse : श्रीगोपाल इति क्षितीशशिरसां ….

Brahmin, Casteism and Historical Facts : क्या ब्राह्मण छुत-अछूत में मानते थे?

Hoax

I wrote this post when Bollywood’s brainwashing machine aka Amir Khan ran a show called Satymev Jayate, to spread lies in the society and intensify already prevailing myths.

In one of the episodes, he talked about oppression of shudra and dalit by Brahmins.

First of all : In present times, under govt of India’s biased secular constitution, majority Brahmins are living worse life that we can’t even imagine about their state in past 1000 years.

Let us talk about facts now.


British observations


Alfred Lyall was a British civil servant, literary historian and poet. He joined the Indian Civil Service in 1856.He was there when the Indian Rebellion of 1857 occurred. This was the time when Britishers started intensifying divide and rule strategy.

During his tenure, he observed following:

“…more persons in India become every year Brahmanists than all the converts to all the other religions in India put together… these teachers address themselves to every one without distinction of caste or of creed; they preach to low-caste men and to the aboriginal tribes… in fact, they succeed largely in those ranks of the population which would lean towards Christianity and Mohammedanism if they were not drawn into Brahmanism…” [1]

John Campbell, officer during 1871-72, was also afraid of Brahmins.[2] He objected to Brahmins facilitating upward mobility: “…the Brahmans are always ready to receive all who will submit to them… The process of manufacturing Rajputs from ambitious aborigines (tribals) goes on before our eyes.”

Here is the another proof by numbers which shows that maximum students in Gurukul(s) run by Brahmin(s) were Shudra(s)! [3]

469042_195433830581533_539753890_o

This is proof that Brahmins did not believe in caste discrimination. Instead, they wanted everyone, irrespective of birth caste, to get educated. This was major imperative for British efforts in India. “To empower the unfit and make him/her fit to lead the life” is a vedic principle and Brahmins, being their Varna duty, were following it faithfully.


What about छुत-अछूत rules?


Ok, fine. Then what is it all about छुत-अछूत?

My hypothesis is that, whatever you see about छुत-अछूत is nothing related to bias for a community but to protect each other from incompatible Prana. Do not forget, सनातन धर्म is for मानव कल्याण. Keep aside all your rational doubts and act. These rules were never designed to discriminate but to support healthy life. All rituals were designed for मानव कल्याण. शुचि or cleanliness play great role in maintaining our immunity. Each Varna and Jati works in different profession and field. They carry different pranic footprint, including viruses and bacteria. At community level, living together helps them. Certain interactions like having meal, water, bathing etc are highly prone for high Prana exchange with environment and fellow humans/organisms. Incompatible prana may trigger epidemic. To me, any distance kept between jati and community was for a purpose of greater health and strength for all! There is nothing to do with bias! It was hoax invented by British to rule the largest dharmic society![4]

Will you call University of California, Los Angeles racial and castiest, as they went against the cultural norms and decided to avoid handshake in hospital premises? ( Read more here: Science of Hindu(Sanatana) Social/Community Meal rules  )

Similarly, certain rules were formed for mutual benefits of keeping society healthy. Had it been really a grudge, British accounts wouldn’t fear the varna system as I shared in part 1.

I repeat : सनातन धर्म is for मानव कल्याण. Keep aside all your rational doubts and act. Trust Shastra. Solve doubts by Swadhyay and Satsanga.

References:

[1] https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B7R8KcZtJUs3aldjcU91S0QtSE0/edit?pli=1

[2] https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B7R8KcZtJUs3Qm1adGdoY3hMbEU/view

[3] https://archive.org/details/DharampalCollectedWritingsIn5Volumes

[4] Don’t miss to read 100 years of a hoax

Indian Pioneer in Plastic Surgery in 19th Century

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422012_235736906551225_602217846_n

 Dr. Tribhovandas Motichand Shah (1850-1904)
Assistant Surgeon, Cheif Medical Officer of Junagarh State
Fellow of Bombay university

The tradition of rebuilding the nose was reimported from Europe into India following the establishment of the Raj. Within the Westernized tradition of India surgery in the 19th century there was a further development of this reception. Indian surgeons did indeed stress the idea of the “nose job” as an “original” Indian contribution to surgery. They read these origins quite differently from the way Europeans did .

Tribhovandas Motichand Shah (1850-1904), writing in Junagadh in 1889, rationalized his clinical account of a hundred cases of rhinoplasty by labeling the Indian patients the victims of criminal activity: “The Makrani outlaws, who carried out depredations against the Jungadh State for a period of nearly three years, had not infrequently indulged in mutilating the noses of undefended and unarmed ryots [peasants] of villages.”

Such activities are criminal. Unsanctioned by the state. It is true that there is a tradition of vendettas in India, Motichand Shah continues, in which the nose is cut off, in contrast to the (much worse, he implies) Western tradition of vendettas in which the chief modes of mortal revenge are homicide, either by poisoning, shooting, or wounding.

It is true, of course, that the West, too, has a problem with lost noses: In these countries loss of the nose is only a consequence of disease- chiefly syphilis. The rationale for the rebuilding of the Indian nose, on the other hand, is the reconstitution of delicate feelings of honour and the overcoming of “feelings of the greatest humiliation.”

• Remember Tribhovandas Motichand Shah as first known modern plastic surgery surgeon!
• Europe was brutal and barbaric as far as vendettas and revenges are concerned.
• Europe of 19th century was suffering from infectious diseases like syphilis.

[1] http://journals.lww.com/plasreconsurg/Citation/1970/02000/RHINOPLASTY__A_Short_Description_of_One_Hundred.11.aspx
His paper was accessible online till last week when I first accessed. Now it shows access denied.

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