History

History

Myth Breaker : Was British Empire Benevolent?

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According to the views of most European politicians, the rule of one country over another has no purpose other than the draining of the latter’s wealth to the ruling country. This can best be done by exploiting the resources of the subject-country.
So many methods were evolved and adopted for the exploitation of India’s resources in the interests of England (before and after 1947), some of them under the guise of “development”. Main purpose of so called ‘Development’ is to provide benefits to ruling country and if there are any benefits to local, they are minuscule by-products.

For example, Railways.

Railways. These were constructed and run with the money collected by the English from India in various ways and a large part of it was spent in England. “It has been computed,” declared Swift MacNeill in the House of Commons, on August 14, 1890, “that out of every shilling spent in railway enterprise, 8d makes its way to England.” So the Railways, through various channels and thus indirectly filled the pockets of English capitalists.

The Railways were intended and used chiefly for cheap and quick transport of wheat, cotton. and other raw materials to the ports of embarkation for being shipped to England, and for similarly transporting the goods made in and exported from England to every nook and corner of India. They also provided fast-moving transport for the army whenever it became essential to move its contingents within the shortest possible time from one end of the vast .. country to another. This facility was a sine qua non for keeping intact the British hold on the country. The benefit to India, if any, was only a by-product of the railways.
So when British apologists argue with you on this line, shut their mouth with this proof.

Who really forced British to quit?

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Our Brave forefathers in Naval Services, inspired by Subhash Chandra Bose INA’s heroic tryst with destiny, wrote with their blood a new chapter in the history of our freedom struggle. NO THING CAN WIPE OUT THE MEMORY OF those five historic days which shook the very foundations of imperial rule in India.

And you were taught that Mr. Gandhi & his team gave you freedom! Re-read real history and know your real HEROES!

RIN mutiny
RIN mutiny

If you want to know, who really gave you freedom, dedicate your Today for reading this.

1) RIN 1946 – Book by victimized RIN Ratings, Oct 1954 (Part)
https://docs.google.com/open?id=0B7R8KcZtJUs3TlVTTlhfeVliWjA

2) THE RIN strike by a group of victimized R.I.N. Ratings (1954) (Full)
https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B7R8KcZtJUs3LUxiRVdnczJza1E/edit?pli=1 (Google Docs, 20 MB)

3) RIN : 1946 (References and guide for all) by Biswanath Bose
https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B7R8KcZtJUs3XzFkd0VTN1B5ODA/edit (Google docs, 48 MB)

4) INDIAN NAVY REVOLTED AGAINST BRITAIN IN 1946 AND FORCED IT TO GIVE FREEDOM TO INDIA IN 1947-

http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.in/2008/07/indian-naval-mutiny-of-1946-against.html

Following India’s Independence in 1947, generations of Indians have been taught that the real heroes of the Freedom Movement were Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru, with grudging respect paid to Sardar Patel. Subhas Bose is all but forgotten. Even worse, he is the victim of a propaganda campaign by the Nehru Government and its successors that runs along the following lines: (i) Subhas Bose was an ineffective dreamer who played an insignificant part in the Freedom Struggle; and (ii) anyone questioning the official ‘truth’, including the account of his death, is some kind of a crackpot. The following passage by Surjit Mansingh in the Historical Dictionary of India illustrates both:

“Many Indians, especially in Bengal and Maharashtra, refused to believe [in his death in an air crash]…, perhaps because of a deep seated need to believe in an immortal hero, a saintly warrior king, even a Kalki or a future incarnation of Vishnu who would return to the nation when needed.” And later, writing about Subhas Bose himself: “…the Bose cult has not died despite his lack of a broad political base or solid political achievement when alive.”

So, according to Mansingh, who incidentally is a JNU professor and a former fellow at the Nehru Museum and Library, Subhas Bose is nothing but a cult figure who did little when he was alive. While this happens to be the ‘official’ (read Congress-Communist) line, not many historians today are prepared to buy it. Probably the most distinguished historian to highlight Bose’s real contribution was the late R.C. Majumdar. In his monumental, three-volume History of the Freedom Movement in India (which the Congress-led by Maulana Azad tried to suppress), Majumdar provided the following extraordinary information:

“It seldom falls to the lot of a historian to have his views, differing radically from those generally accepted without demur, confirmed by such an unimpeachable authority. As far back as 1948 I wrote in an article that the contribution made by Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose towards the achievement of freedom in 1947 was no less, and perhaps, far more important than that of Mahatma Gandhi…” The ‘unimpeachable authority’ he cited happens to be Clement Attlee, the Prime Minister of Britain at the time of India’s Independence. As this is of fundamental importance, and Majumdar’s conclusion so greatly at variance with conventional history, it is worth placing it on record. (See Volume III, pp. 609-10). When B.P. Chakravarti was acting as Governor of West Bengal, Lord Attlee visited India and stayed as his guest for three days at the Raj Bhavan. Chakravarti asked Attlee about the real grounds for granting Independence to India. Specifically, his question was, when the Quit India movement lay in ruins years before 1947, what was the need for the British to leave in such a hurry. Attlee’s response is most illuminating and important for history. Here is the Governor’s account of what Attlee told him:

“In reply Attlee cited several reasons, the most important were the activities of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose which weakened the very foundation of the attachment of the Indian land and naval forces to the British Government. Towards the end, I asked Lord Attlee about the extent to which the British decision to quit India was influenced by Gandhi’s activities. On hearing this question Attlee’s lips widened in a smile of disdain and he uttered, slowly, putting emphasis on each single letter-”mi-ni-mal”.”
“The Government of India had hoped, by prosecuting members of the INA, to reinforce the morale of the Indian army. It succeeded only in creating unease, in making the soldiers feel slightly ashamed that they themselves had supported the British. If Bose and his men had been on the right side-and all India now confirmed that they were-then Indians in the Indian army must have been on the wrong side. It slowly dawned upon the Government of India that the backbone of the British rule, the Indian army, might now no longer be trustworthy. The ghost of Subhas Bose, like Hamlet’s father, walked the battlements of the Red Fort (where the INA soldiers trial was going on), and his suddenly amplified figure overawed the conference that was to lead to independence.[1]”

[1] The Last Years of British India, Cleveland, World Pub. Co., 1964, by Edwardes, Michael p. 106

 

Forest and Rainfall: The Imperial Gazetteer Of India records

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Value of forest was well understood by British govt as it is described in The Imperial Gazetteer Of India – part 3 (Economic).

 

The Imperial Gazetteer Of India 3
The Imperial Gazetteer Of India 3
The Imperial Gazetteer Of India 3 - pg 105
The Imperial Gazetteer Of India 3 – pg 105
The Imperial Gazetteer Of India 3 - pg 104
The Imperial Gazetteer Of India 3 – pg 104

Forest Cover India

Forest Cover India

When India is on the verge of server water crisis, this records should remind us critical role forest play in conserving water.  Our urban tree plantation drives are not enough.

Analysis of Changing Forest Cover and its Impact on Environment with Special Reference to Umtrew Basin, North East India

“The study elucidates that the population growth, migration, developmental activities and agricultural activities are the main driven force deforestation; however there is a spatial variation in contribution to the causative factors. Change in local population is directly related to forest degradation. In some places jhooming is one of the important problem. Agricultural expansion, development of industries caused the deforestation in many ways.It is observed from the analysis of satellite data of last thirty years; it becomes clear that the forest cover has been tremendously decreasing in the Umtrew basin. As a result, soil erosion and siltation on the river bed has already been increased manifold in the said area. The geo-environmental condition of this part has already been deteriorated. There is every possibility of micro climatic change due to such changes. So, this area needs more afforestation including the social forestry programme for restoring the conditions as prevailed earlier. Therefore, considering the trend of forest change there is an umpteen need to take protection measures in the Umtrew Basin to maintain the environmental quality, restricting the possibilities of micro climatic change and meet the national demand of forest cover.”

http://clarion.ind.in/index.php/clarion/article/view/30/44

 

Pro-British Convent Class roots

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pro-brits

C Sankaran Nair, he became a member of the Viceroy’s Council in 1915 with the charge of the Education portfolio. As member, he wrote in 1919 two famous Minutes of Dissent in the Despatches on Indian Constitutional Reforms, pointing out the various defects of British rule in India and suggesting reforms. For an Indian to offer such criticism and make such demands was incredible in those days. The British government accepted most of his recommendations.

Above note is part of his famous reform suggestions.

FYI: In 1915, Gandhi returned to India permanently. He brought an international reputation as a leading Indian nationalist, theorist and organizer. He joined the Indian National Congress and was introduced to Indian issues, politics and the Indian people primarily by Gopal Krishna Gokhale.

This was the time when British felt real threat of mass uprising again, like 1857.

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How pro-British class emerged?

Education.

Purpose of intensive English education was crafted in early 1800.

Looking back on these years. Duff later wrote. “It now appeared that the choice could only lie between . . . Sanscrit . . . and English. The determination of this choice involved 
the decision of one of the momentous practical questions connected with the ultimate evangelization of India. . . . The question was ‘Which shall hereafter be established as the language of learning in India 1 Which will prove the most effective instrument of a large. liberal and enlightened education l’ The wrong determination of so vital a question. at the outset, would have greatly retarded . . . every subsequent movement. It was not, therefore. without earnest prayer to God for counsel and direction, 
that a decision was attempted.”
[http://img203.imageshack.us/img203/5585/2376a93f920e479ab1b3e3f.png]

Source :http://www.biblicalstudies.org.uk/pdf/eq/1961-3_133.pdf

Pseudo secularism and the assassination of Swami Shraddhananda

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220px-Swami_shraddhanand

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भारतीय इतिहास 101 : Outcomes of Pseudo secularism

The assassin Brother of Gandhi

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On 23rd December 1926, a Muslim assassin called Abdul Rashid stabbed Swami Shraddhananda to death, when the Swami was ill and lying on his bed. The reader may recall that Swami Shraddhananda was a preacher of Arya Samaj and he started a Suddhi Yajna (True Path) to bring converted Muslims of India back to Hinduism. It should also be mentioned here that when Gandhi’s eldest son Hiralal converted to Islam, he sought the help of Swami Shraddhananda to bring him back to Hinduism.

Naturally the Swami’s activities infuriated Muslims. A couple of months earlier, a Muslim woman came to the Swami and expressed her desire to return to Hinduism with her children. Her husband took the Swami to court on charges of abduction of his wife and children. The court quashed the allegation and set the Swami free. The verdict left Muslims extremely furious. Within a few days, Abdul Rashid assassinated him.

A few days after this incident, Gandhi delivered a speech at the national conference of Indian National Congress at Gauhati amidst an atmosphere of gloom and depression among Hindus due to unusual cruel assassination of Shraddhananda. But Gandhi left everyone dumbfounded by addressing the assassin Abdul Rashid as “Bhai Abdul Rashid” and added: “Now you will perhaps understand why I have called Abdul Rashid a brother, and I repeat it. I do not even regard him as guilty of Swami’s murder. Guilty indeed are those who excited feeling of hatred against one another.”

Thus, he indirectly held Swami Shraddhananda responsible for his murder, as he was propagating hatred through his Suddhi Yajna. Yet, quite contradicting himself, he wrote in the obituary note: “He (the Swami) lived a hero. He died a hero.”

Hypocrisy for political advantage? Don’t you smell it?

Worshiping False Gods

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Your kid will celebrate Teachers day but will hardly pay attention to Guru Purnima. Why?

Education brain-wash.

I don’t have any issue with you celebrating his birthday as Teachers day or XYZ day but it is my duty to show you this side of scholar.

I know, no one is perfect. And I prefer not to worship imperfects.

Sharing 5 years old post for objective minds. Sentimental may ignore post.

545272_190987927692790_1667950574_n

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Worshiping False Gods
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Wikipedia says, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan,was an Indian philosopher and statesman who was the first Vice President of India (1952–1962) and the second President of India from 1962 to 1967.

One of India’s most influential scholars of comparative religion and philosophy, Radhakrishnan built a bridge between the East and the West by showing how the philosophical systems of each tradition are comprehensible within the terms of the other. He wrote authoritative exegeses of India’s religious and philosophical literature for the English speaking world.

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My online friend complained. Why do I write more posts, comparing Bharat’s superiority vs west? Here is the answer for him.

I do it because majority of us were conditioned to worship false Gods like Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan. Children in school are taught to celebrate his birthday is celebrated in India as Teachers’ Day on 5 September. For children, he is the scholar to follow. His books are text books in colleges.

Know real Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and his derogatory writings.

Certain great scholars and the so-called patriots of India also had profound effects of western education on their minds that held the feeling of lowness for Hindu culture, history and religion. They too collected the intellectual dirt of the western writers and used it in their writings.

Not knowing what were they doing, their writings like: “Ram was only a good man. He was not God.” betrayed and confused millions of Hindus and contempted the authentic writings of Ved Vyas which are the national treasures of India.

We will give you a few examples.

[1] Rigved has the impassionate utterances of the primitive poetic souls. (IP/I-71)

[2] Atharvaved contains the pre-Vedic animist religion of spirits and ghosts. It gives an idea of demonology prevalent in the tribes of India. (PU-45;IP/I-121)

[3] The earliest Vedic seers worshipped nature… the Vedic gods were stupidly self-centered… gods and ghosts governed the life of people. (IP/I-121)

[4] The Upnishads (aranyakas) are the speculations of the hermits. Their teachings are lost in the jumbled chaos of puerile superstition. (IP/I-355)

[5] He (Radhakrishnan) cannot accept Krishn of the Puranas. It was only the unknown author of the Gita who made Krishn famous through his writings and devised him to pose as God (brahm). (IP/I-496, 521)

[6] Ram was only a good man. He was not God. His religion is polytheistic and external.

[7] Shankara’s arid logic made his system unattractive, and Ramanuja’s story of the other world carries no weight. (IP/II-711)

IP = Indian Philosophy Vol 1 and Vol 2
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He calls the Vedic Rishis as primitive poets whose impassionate utterances are the Rigved. He says that Atharvaved incorporates the demonology of primitive tribes; Vedic gods are stupidly self-centered; and the Upnishads are childish superstitions.

The derogatory writings of the western scholars, as initiated by the British, left a great impact on the Indian minds. But the reconfirmation of those western views by Radhakrishnan had much more damaging effects and confused millions of scholars of philosophy and religion around the world by giving them entirely wrong input about Hindu philosophy, Hindu scriptures and the Hindu religion. Just examine some of his mistranslations.

Radhakrishnan’s derogatory writings confused millions of good souls looking for the path to God. Covering all the aspects of Hindu religion (the scriptures, the writings of the acharyas and the descensions of God) he tried to implode the entire structure of Hinduism.

So, my dear friend, it is necessary to uncover false Gods so that intellectuals of the land understand real Sanatan Dharm and paths of God realization.

Motives of cultural terrorists aka British funded Oriental researchers

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With what purpose and mindset you approach foreigners, matters a lot. It reflects real motive of you approaching them. Jaundiced vision, yellow view. Clear vision, clear view.

Asiatic Society is iconic name in the field of oriental research. This Society remained the chief advisory body to the Government of India in matters relating to all kinds of scientific subjects (even after Independence).

Here is excerpt from their Second year completion president address.

Now, guess what! William Jones and Max Muller type paid-researchers are Guru of many researchers in India! Media puppets use their research as reference!

Is Medical Science A Myth?

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Medical Science Myth
Medical Science Myth

“In some ways disease does not exist until we have agreed that it does, by perceiving, naming, and responding to it,”

– Charles E. Rosenberg

So many of us are now used to live with scientific myths. One of them is, with modern science development, we have been gifted secured hygiene tools. But if you read latest research on The hygiene hypothesis, it postulates that an environment with a high incidence of infectious diseases protects against allergic and autoimmune diseases, whereas hygienic surroundings increase the incidence of these disorders. Read on.

Ever since modern medicine has waged war against bacteria and viruses, using their dumb weapons like antibiotics and antiviral chemicals, world has seen gradual decrease in occurrence of deadly infectious diseases.

War victory! Good, right?

Wait.

Further, same data points suggests that while infectious diseases occurrence is reduced, occurrence of immune system disorders like Type 1 diabetes , Asthma, Multiple sclerosis and Crohn’s disease, have increased significantly.

Moreover, countries whom you consider DEVELOPED show higher trend of immune system disorders. Oh yeah, development side effects! Epidemiologic data provide strong evidence of a steady rise in the incidence of allergic and autoimmune diseases in developed countries over the past three decades. [1]

In fact, due to overuse of dumb weapons like antibiotics and antiviral chemicals, not so surprisingly, intestinal colonization with gram-negative bacteria, for instance, occurs later in developed than in less-developed countries, both quantitatively and qualitatively [2]. And if you don’t know, early intestinal colonization by friendly bacteria is very critical for physical and mental growth of a child. [3] [4] [5]

For your surprise, countries/regions not affected by so called globalization of life style, do not suffer much from immune system disorder. Common and layman will respond that it is because in less-developed countries, all cases are not reported. Well, then you must study what biologists are saying about UNDERLYING MECHANISMS before passing general statement.

Biologists are saying that infection is good for us! Infections protect against allergic and autoimmune diseases. The term that they use is ‘antigenic competition’. Antigenic competition, in which the immune response to an antigen is decreased by a concomitant immune response against an unrelated antigen. [6][7] Story of this Antigenic competition starts when married couples decide to have baby. The transfer of maternal antiviral antibodies to newborns may also have a role in the susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. Decreased exposure of women to particular viruses before pregnancy may subsequently reduce the degree of protection against these viruses afforded to their newborns [8] Exposure to these viruses could provoke an immune response in the children that could ultimately lead to an autoimmune disease. This hypothesis could apply to the development of type 1 diabetes, in which rubella virus and coxsackie B virus have been implicated. Now imagine our educated urban middle class young females, influenced by western life style and bombarded by TV ads, using tons of antibacterial chemicals, taking antibiotics for trivial cold and fever, using toxic cosmetics….what should we expect from future mothers?

One more example: Hay fever or Allergic rhinitis, is an allergic inflammation of the nasal airways. Excess nasal secretion), itching, and nasal congestion and obstruction. Nasal allergy may cause recurrent sinusitis because of the obstruction to the sinus Ostia. It may lead to the formation of nasal polypi. Nasal allergy can result in serious otitis media and orthodontic problems. Patients of nasal allergy have four times more risk of developing bronchial asthma.
Number of people in the U.S. who have either allergy or asthma symptoms: one in five.
Percentage of the U.S. population that tests positive to one or more allergens: 55%. [9] Same stats is true in metros and tier 2 cities of India, under the influence of massive and mindless urbanization.
But farmers in my village, despite living in so called hell full of pollens, rarely experience this condition. And this is worldwide true for communities living close to nature.
In short, there is a certain irony in the fact that we must now search for new ways to reproduce the infectious diseases against which MODERN MEDICINE have been fighting with great success over the past three decades. Whom you consider as developed countries are nothing but nations living on continuous confused, chaotic and self-centered trial and error methods about standard of living. On the other hand, when we talk about Manu and his smriti prescribing certain code of conducts, we either laugh on them or ignore considering them as ancient, designed for some ancient civilization.

Seriously, we need to relook to our scriptures, including Ayurveda and start re-designing life styles. Otherwise, Type 1 diabetese and asthama like immune system disorders are here to stay with us.

The philosophical result of chemical medicine’s success has been belief in the Technological Fix. Drugs became the best or only valid treatments for all ailments. Prevention, nutrition, exercise, lifestyle, the patient’s physical and mental uniqueness, environmental pollutants—all were glossed over.

No one who’s seen the decline of pneumonia and a thousand other infectious diseases, will deny the benefits of technology. But, as most advances do, this one has cost us something irreplaceable: Degenerative diseases— heart attacks, arteriosclerosis, cancer, stroke, arthritis, hypertension, ulcers, and all the rest—have replaced infectious diseases as the major enemies of life and destroyers of its quality.

The failure of technological medicine is due, paradoxically, to its success, which at first seemed so overwhelming that it swept away all aspects of medicine as an art.

Solution?

Keep aside your intellectual arrogance, have faith in nature, read Manu Smriti (and other scriptures), unveil ageless hints, do research, find truths behind instructions, design solutions in present context like start nurturing gau mata (desi cows), start using cow-dung, urine for basic cleanliness and discard all foolish weapons against so called enemies i.e. bacteria and viruses.

[1] http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra020100
[2] Adlerberth I, Carlsson B, de Man P, et al. Intestinal colonization with Enterobacteriaceae in Pakistani and Swedish hospital-delivered infants. Acta Paediatr Scand 1991;80:602-10.
[3] http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/08/130822091026.htm
[4] http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2013/07/18/autistic-children-gut-flora.aspx
[5] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0068322
[6] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1407818/
[7] http://goo.gl/RQKDYo (Google book link for ADVANCES IN IMMUNOLOGY, Volume 18)
[8] http://www.direct-ms.org/pdf/HygienePrinciples/ZinkerImmuno.pdf
[9] http://www.webmd.com/allergies/allergy-statistics

Indian Pioneer in Plastic Surgery in 19th Century

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 Dr. Tribhovandas Motichand Shah (1850-1904)
Assistant Surgeon, Cheif Medical Officer of Junagarh State
Fellow of Bombay university

The tradition of rebuilding the nose was reimported from Europe into India following the establishment of the Raj. Within the Westernized tradition of India surgery in the 19th century there was a further development of this reception. Indian surgeons did indeed stress the idea of the “nose job” as an “original” Indian contribution to surgery. They read these origins quite differently from the way Europeans did .

Tribhovandas Motichand Shah (1850-1904), writing in Junagadh in 1889, rationalized his clinical account of a hundred cases of rhinoplasty by labeling the Indian patients the victims of criminal activity: “The Makrani outlaws, who carried out depredations against the Jungadh State for a period of nearly three years, had not infrequently indulged in mutilating the noses of undefended and unarmed ryots [peasants] of villages.”

Such activities are criminal. Unsanctioned by the state. It is true that there is a tradition of vendettas in India, Motichand Shah continues, in which the nose is cut off, in contrast to the (much worse, he implies) Western tradition of vendettas in which the chief modes of mortal revenge are homicide, either by poisoning, shooting, or wounding.

It is true, of course, that the West, too, has a problem with lost noses: In these countries loss of the nose is only a consequence of disease- chiefly syphilis. The rationale for the rebuilding of the Indian nose, on the other hand, is the reconstitution of delicate feelings of honour and the overcoming of “feelings of the greatest humiliation.”

• Remember Tribhovandas Motichand Shah as first known modern plastic surgery surgeon!
• Europe was brutal and barbaric as far as vendettas and revenges are concerned.
• Europe of 19th century was suffering from infectious diseases like syphilis.

[1] http://journals.lww.com/plasreconsurg/Citation/1970/02000/RHINOPLASTY__A_Short_Description_of_One_Hundred.11.aspx
His paper was accessible online till last week when I first accessed. Now it shows access denied.

भारतीय इतिहास 101 – When Kings were elected by Citizens (प्रजा आधीन राजा)

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भारतीय इतिहास 101 – When Kings were elected by Citizens (प्रजा आधीन राजा)
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11693816_419457014845879_9191726435145930217_n

‘King elected by People’ is relatively unknown aspect of Indian History for us since we are taught in schools that what we had as National legacy is nothing but Nasty Monarchy with few exceptions. 
This is partial of Strong People’s power that we as Bharat Enjoyed in during her heydays.

German Indologits Zimmer & Geldner believed that Kings were elected by Citizens in Ancient India. According to them, Vedic Rituals and Vedic chanting during commemoration ceremony indicates ‘Total Acceptance’ and not mere ‘Selection’.

Until time of बिम्बिसार, Magadha King was selected by Gamikas (Chief of Villages) and as per महावग्गा book, बिम्बिसार was elected by 80000 Villages as their leader.

Satpath Brahmana(SB)’s following passage summaries selection criteria: “He is the King, whose strength is People or Maruts [1])” SB further explains that King is King only when there is assurance by People. In all Vedic Prayers, ‘People’ are in center and not the Kings. e.g. ‘People, lord of People’, ‘Chief of People’ etc/

** Election of King in Post-Vedic period:

There are also clear references to election or selection of King in post-vedic history literature. In Panchagaru-Jataka’ and ‘Telapatta-Jataka’, Bodhisattva was mentioned as Kind elected by People. Maha-Samanta (महा-सामंत/महा-समंत) , as mentioned in Mahavamsa(Chapter 2), is leader consented by all.सामंत, popularly known now as Feud, is nothing but corrupt form word ‘समंत’ which means ‘Agreed upon by all’.

Reminiscence of this power of election may also be gathered from the inscriptions of later period. Thus the Girnar Inscription[2] of 150 AD reads about Kind Rudra Daman “The elected King by all the castes, for their protection.”

The Khalimpur inscription informs us that Gopala, founder of Pala Dynasty, was elected King by the people, in order to get rid of Anarchy.[3]

People were real King Makers…

[1] “मरुत :- मर + उत् = मरने तक, धर्म संस्थापना के लिए लड़नेवाले नागरिक | For example, Body’s immune system.”

[2] http://goo.gl/SsLH4 [Junagarh Rock Inscription] |http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rudradaman_I

[3] http://goo.gl/UUANj [Inscription details] – Verse : श्रीगोपाल इति क्षितीशशिरसां ….

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