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भारतीय इतिहास 101 – When Kings were elected by Citizens (प्रजा आधीन राजा) – Part 2

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भारतीय इतिहास 101 – When Kings were elected by Citizens (प्रजा आधीन राजा) – Part 2

Right to elect-Right to Recall in Ramayana, true essence of Raam-rajya
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Ramayan-Ram-Rajyabhishek-storykatha-in-hindi

If you say, you love Raam, it is your prime duty to become responsible citizen and take part in Citizen welfare actively (By designing,supporting and implementing laws required for present time for welfare of mass).

If you just chant Raam, it is pretty selfish act for false personal peace(illusion/delusion) when world around you is passing through chaotic times.

Remember, true peace comes when you and your environment is at peace at same time. Take care of both. Spend time for inner peace as well as outer peace(By designing,supporting and implementing laws required for present time for welfare of mass).

There is a remarkable passage in Ramayana which shows that the popular voice was a powerful element in the selection of leader of the Nation at all levels.
In Ayodhya Kanda, when King Dasratha intended to ordain Raam as the Crown Prince, he called the chiefs of all Cities and Villages in his assembly.

नानानगरवास्तव्यान पृथग्जानपदान अपि
समानिनाय मेदिन्याः परधानान पृथिवीपतिः || 2.1.45

“Dasaratha called for other kings and officers staying in various cities and villages in his kingdom separately.”

What was common characteristic of those who were assembled?

All were ‘राजानो लोकसंमताः’ i.e. those who were duly liked by their people. [2.1.48]
What gazette was presented by Dasratha in assembly?

यदीदम् मेऽनुरूपार्धं मया साधु सुमन्त्रितम् |
भवन्तो मेऽनुमन्यन्तां कथं वा करवाण्यहम् || २-२-१५
यद्यप्येषा मम प्रीतिर्हितमन्यद्विचिन्त्यताम् |
अन्या मद्यस्थचिन्ता हि विमर्दाभ्यधिकोदया || २-२-१६

“I am telling this after lot of thinking. Give consent to me if you feel this to be good and befitting. How else shall I do it?”
“This is my desire. Yet, let there be thinking on any other beneficial way. Thinking by impartial neutral people will be distinctive and well developed through grinding of opposing views.”

[Marut: Please note Dasratha’s proposal regarding Raam as King and his desire in impartial people’s voice.]

Who were लोकसंमताः? And what did they reply in assembly?

तस्य धर्मार्थविदुषो भावमाज्ञाय सर्वशः |
ब्राह्मणा जनमुख्याश्च पौरजानपदैः सह || २-२-१९
समेत्य मन्त्रयित्वा तु समतागतबुद्धयः |
ऊचुश्च मनसा ज्ञात्वा वृद्धं दशरथं नृपम् || २-२-२०
अनेकवर्षसाहस्रो वृद्धस्त्त्वमसि पार्थिव |
स रामं युवराजानमभिषिञ्चस्व पार्थिवम् || २-२-२१

After understanding the opinion of King Dasaratha, who knew the holy and worldly matters, the Brahmans, important people, urban and rural citizens came to a consensus after discussing together and told the aged king as follows.

“Oh king! You are an elderly person with thousands of years of age. Hence, inaugurate Rama as the ruling prince.”

[Marut: Please note the age criteria. If King/Leader is old enough, he must resign from the post. Unlike our present breed of leaders.]

After listening this, Dasratha replied

कथं नु मयि धर्मेण पृथिवीमनुशासति |
भवन्तो द्रष्टुमिच्छन्ति युवराजं ममात्मजम् || २-२-२५

“Why do you desire to see my son as the prince, when I am ruling this earth with righteousness?”

People representatives replied:
गुणान् गुणवतो देव देवकल्पस्य धीमतः |
प्रियानानन्ददान् कृत्स्नान् प्रवक्ष्यामोऽद्यतान् शृणु || २-२-२७

“Oh king! We shall tell you now the various virtues of your wise son, listen to them. His qualities are equal to those of celestials. They are liked by all. They give happiness to all.”

And they explained reasons why Raam is best suited for King’s post.
Dasratha wants to remain as King but People desired Raam as King (This is because, at the age of 16, Raam was ordained to start his nationwide Tirth Yatra, and by that he met and lived with people of all states and became popular leader by his able-bodied characteristics as King)

In this example from our history, it is clear that King left the final decision of the question to the assembly, and even authorized it to suggest new measures, if his own proved little worth.

He also forewarned them not to decide based on sentiments associated with Dasratha’s family prestige but according to real welfare of the Kingdom.

Further in the epic, when Dasratha died, very same assembly suggested that someone from इक्ष्वाकू family line should become King (out of their sheer sentiments followed by tragic death). Cheif Preist, Vashistha replied, unaffected by emotions and sentiments:

“Since Bharat is selected by us, in absence of Raam, let him drive the Nation and not any one else from इक्ष्वाकू family line, just because Bharat is not here right now and we have good sentiments associated with Family.”

– Dasratha’s proposal
– People’s voice to recall Dasrath on age criteria
– People’s voice to elect Raam, not by sentiments but by valid reasons backed by
– Raam’s Nationwide work during this Tirth-Yatra.

Above historical (ऐतिहासिक) account furnishes a striking instance of the constitutional power exercised by People to select their future King.

 

भारतीय इतिहास 101 – When Kings were elected by Citizens (प्रजा आधीन राजा)

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भारतीय इतिहास 101 – When Kings were elected by Citizens (प्रजा आधीन राजा)
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11693816_419457014845879_9191726435145930217_n

‘King elected by People’ is relatively unknown aspect of Indian History for us since we are taught in schools that what we had as National legacy is nothing but Nasty Monarchy with few exceptions. 
This is partial of Strong People’s power that we as Bharat Enjoyed in during her heydays.

German Indologits Zimmer & Geldner believed that Kings were elected by Citizens in Ancient India. According to them, Vedic Rituals and Vedic chanting during commemoration ceremony indicates ‘Total Acceptance’ and not mere ‘Selection’.

Until time of बिम्बिसार, Magadha King was selected by Gamikas (Chief of Villages) and as per महावग्गा book, बिम्बिसार was elected by 80000 Villages as their leader.

Satpath Brahmana(SB)’s following passage summaries selection criteria: “He is the King, whose strength is People or Maruts [1])” SB further explains that King is King only when there is assurance by People. In all Vedic Prayers, ‘People’ are in center and not the Kings. e.g. ‘People, lord of People’, ‘Chief of People’ etc/

** Election of King in Post-Vedic period:

There are also clear references to election or selection of King in post-vedic history literature. In Panchagaru-Jataka’ and ‘Telapatta-Jataka’, Bodhisattva was mentioned as Kind elected by People. Maha-Samanta (महा-सामंत/महा-समंत) , as mentioned in Mahavamsa(Chapter 2), is leader consented by all.सामंत, popularly known now as Feud, is nothing but corrupt form word ‘समंत’ which means ‘Agreed upon by all’.

Reminiscence of this power of election may also be gathered from the inscriptions of later period. Thus the Girnar Inscription[2] of 150 AD reads about Kind Rudra Daman “The elected King by all the castes, for their protection.”

The Khalimpur inscription informs us that Gopala, founder of Pala Dynasty, was elected King by the people, in order to get rid of Anarchy.[3]

People were real King Makers…

[1] “मरुत :- मर + उत् = मरने तक, धर्म संस्थापना के लिए लड़नेवाले नागरिक | For example, Body’s immune system.”

[2] http://goo.gl/SsLH4 [Junagarh Rock Inscription] |http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rudradaman_I

[3] http://goo.gl/UUANj [Inscription details] – Verse : श्रीगोपाल इति क्षितीशशिरसां ….

Pseudo secularism and the assassination of Swami Shraddhananda

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220px-Swami_shraddhanand

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भारतीय इतिहास 101 : Outcomes of Pseudo secularism

The assassin Brother of Gandhi

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On 23rd December 1926, a Muslim assassin called Abdul Rashid stabbed Swami Shraddhananda to death, when the Swami was ill and lying on his bed. The reader may recall that Swami Shraddhananda was a preacher of Arya Samaj and he started a Suddhi Yajna (True Path) to bring converted Muslims of India back to Hinduism. It should also be mentioned here that when Gandhi’s eldest son Hiralal converted to Islam, he sought the help of Swami Shraddhananda to bring him back to Hinduism.

Naturally the Swami’s activities infuriated Muslims. A couple of months earlier, a Muslim woman came to the Swami and expressed her desire to return to Hinduism with her children. Her husband took the Swami to court on charges of abduction of his wife and children. The court quashed the allegation and set the Swami free. The verdict left Muslims extremely furious. Within a few days, Abdul Rashid assassinated him.

A few days after this incident, Gandhi delivered a speech at the national conference of Indian National Congress at Gauhati amidst an atmosphere of gloom and depression among Hindus due to unusual cruel assassination of Shraddhananda. But Gandhi left everyone dumbfounded by addressing the assassin Abdul Rashid as “Bhai Abdul Rashid” and added: “Now you will perhaps understand why I have called Abdul Rashid a brother, and I repeat it. I do not even regard him as guilty of Swami’s murder. Guilty indeed are those who excited feeling of hatred against one another.”

Thus, he indirectly held Swami Shraddhananda responsible for his murder, as he was propagating hatred through his Suddhi Yajna. Yet, quite contradicting himself, he wrote in the obituary note: “He (the Swami) lived a hero. He died a hero.”

Hypocrisy for political advantage? Don’t you smell it?

Real Bahubali : Kaliyugi Arjuna in Modern India

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https://www.desiretrees.in/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Baahubali-2-Posters.jpg
https://www.desiretrees.in/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Baahubali-2-Posters.jpg

 

Many friends groomed by modern education, made fun of this poster. Calling it fake and impossible. Three arrows together? Yes, it is different thing that technical aspect of bow-arrow handling is not followed perfectly, this art of shooting three arrows is not Utopian or imaginary or larger than life!! We had one such example alive in last century!


kaliyugiArjun
The tradition of ancient Indian archery is kept alive even today by a handful of display archers in the country. In the early years of the current century a famous archer from South India, nicknamed Kaliyugi Arjuna, shot a number of tigers and other wild beasts with his bow and arrows. Possessed of a powerful physique and an uncanny aim, he did great things with his favorite weapon, and for some time taught archery to the students of the Prem Maha Vidyalaya, Brindaban.

He could shoot four arrows simultaneously from the same bow and hit four difficult and different targets all at once. He made people put up spectacle frames fitted with silver rupees instead of glasses, which he shot down with two arrows of such an impeccably calculated force as to displace the little discs without injuring the man. He smeared exceedingly sharp arrow-tips with chalk dust and shot them at the bare backs of students with a perfect delicacy of control, so that they left only chalk marks on their tender targets without even grazing them. But he could also shoot powerful shafts that ripped through copper and iron plates. He could easily support a football in mid air for more than five minutes with a continuous shower of arrows.

Imprisoned for seditious activities during the first world war, under the British Rule, he died in jail.

This last century’s archer is micro version of Arjun. This glorious part of history was never taught to you so that you would never believe that there was mighty warrior named Arjun. And since you wouldn’t believe existence of Arjun, you will never strive to become of such. To add a fuel to your imagination, B of Backward class (BC – Bollywood + Cricket) manifested several fight sequences using camera techniques in last 50 years, giving you proof that such fighting skills are only possible in imagination and you are dumb weak Indian who can never excel. You just watch on screen and get satiated by virtual feast of warrior skills (or any extra ordinary skill for that matter).

And potency (पुरुषत्व), Intelligence and skills of Arjun’s level remains like a impossible dream sequence. If you don’t strive for excellence, you live mediocre life. That is what precisely cunning lords(Britishers and cunning foxes of India) of this land wants.

Ref: appendix – Ancient Indian Warfare with Special Reference to the Vedic Period – By Sarva Daman Singh

kaliyugiArjun2

Original: https://books.google.co.in/books?id=bp6he8Roj_UC&q=Kaliyugi+arjuna#v=snippet&q=Kaliyugi%20arjuna&f=false

 

 

 

Pro-British Convent Class roots

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pro-brits

C Sankaran Nair, he became a member of the Viceroy’s Council in 1915 with the charge of the Education portfolio. As member, he wrote in 1919 two famous Minutes of Dissent in the Despatches on Indian Constitutional Reforms, pointing out the various defects of British rule in India and suggesting reforms. For an Indian to offer such criticism and make such demands was incredible in those days. The British government accepted most of his recommendations.

Above note is part of his famous reform suggestions.

FYI: In 1915, Gandhi returned to India permanently. He brought an international reputation as a leading Indian nationalist, theorist and organizer. He joined the Indian National Congress and was introduced to Indian issues, politics and the Indian people primarily by Gopal Krishna Gokhale.

This was the time when British felt real threat of mass uprising again, like 1857.

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How pro-British class emerged?

Education.

Purpose of intensive English education was crafted in early 1800.

Looking back on these years. Duff later wrote. “It now appeared that the choice could only lie between . . . Sanscrit . . . and English. The determination of this choice involved 
the decision of one of the momentous practical questions connected with the ultimate evangelization of India. . . . The question was ‘Which shall hereafter be established as the language of learning in India 1 Which will prove the most effective instrument of a large. liberal and enlightened education l’ The wrong determination of so vital a question. at the outset, would have greatly retarded . . . every subsequent movement. It was not, therefore. without earnest prayer to God for counsel and direction, 
that a decision was attempted.”
[http://img203.imageshack.us/img203/5585/2376a93f920e479ab1b3e3f.png]

Source :http://www.biblicalstudies.org.uk/pdf/eq/1961-3_133.pdf

Myth Breaker : Was British Empire Benevolent?

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According to the views of most European politicians, the rule of one country over another has no purpose other than the draining of the latter’s wealth to the ruling country. This can best be done by exploiting the resources of the subject-country.
So many methods were evolved and adopted for the exploitation of India’s resources in the interests of England (before and after 1947), some of them under the guise of “development”. Main purpose of so called ‘Development’ is to provide benefits to ruling country and if there are any benefits to local, they are minuscule by-products.

For example, Railways.

Railways. These were constructed and run with the money collected by the English from India in various ways and a large part of it was spent in England. “It has been computed,” declared Swift MacNeill in the House of Commons, on August 14, 1890, “that out of every shilling spent in railway enterprise, 8d makes its way to England.” So the Railways, through various channels and thus indirectly filled the pockets of English capitalists.

The Railways were intended and used chiefly for cheap and quick transport of wheat, cotton. and other raw materials to the ports of embarkation for being shipped to England, and for similarly transporting the goods made in and exported from England to every nook and corner of India. They also provided fast-moving transport for the army whenever it became essential to move its contingents within the shortest possible time from one end of the vast .. country to another. This facility was a sine qua non for keeping intact the British hold on the country. The benefit to India, if any, was only a by-product of the railways.
So when British apologists argue with you on this line, shut their mouth with this proof.

French Catholic missionary (1799) Account of Indian Social Fabric

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Abbe J.A. Dubois or Jean-Antoine Dubois was a French Catholic missionary in India. He was unique missionary because he replied back to his church that there is no need of conversion in India. He was the one who refuted all European propogandas against India.

Here is what he said about Bharatiya Varna Vyavastha.

“MANY persons study so imperfectly the spirit and character of the different nations that inhabit the earth, and the influence of climate on their manners, customs, predilections, and usages, that they are astonished to fine how widely such nations differ from each other. Trammeled by the prejudices of their own surroundings, such persons think nothing well regulated that is not included in the polity and government GI their own country. They would like to see all nations of the earth placed on precisely the same footing as themselves. Everything which differs from their own customs they consider either uncivilized or ridiculous.

“If citizens are not kept within limits of duty and obedience by the system of Varna, their life calling, the whole country would fall into a state of hopeless anarchy, reckoned amongst the most uncivilized Nations of the world. The legislators (Sages who wrote Dharma-shashtras), whoever they may have been, were far too wise and too well acquainted with natural character of people. “

Now, although man’s nature is pretty much the same all the world over, it is subject to so many differentiation caused by soil, climate, food, religion, education, and other circumstances peculiar to different countries, that the system of civilization adopted by one people would plunge another into a state of barbarism and cause its complete downfall.

I have heard some persons, sensible enough in other respects, but imbued with all the prejudices that they have brought with them from Europe, pronounce what appears to me an altogether erroneous judgment in the matter of caste divisions amongst the Hindus. In their opinion, caste is not only useless to the body politic, it is also ridi­culous, and even calculated to bring trouble and disorder on the people. For my part, having lived many years on friendly terms with the Hindus, I have been able to study their national life and character closely, and I have arrived at a quite opposite decision on this subject of caste. I believe caste division to be in many respects the chef – d’ ceuvre, the happiest effort, of Hindu legislation. I am, persuaded that it is simply and solely due to the distribu- tion of the people into castes that India did not lapse into a state of barbarism, and that she preserved and perfected the arts and sciences of civilization whilst most other nations of the earth remained in a state of barbarism.”

East India Company and Education

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East India Company was not interested, interfering in local Indian’s education affairs. They ignored it until 19th century. When British government first made proposal to East India Company, to introduce school masters and missionaries in Indian Society as their humble Duty, Board of directors of East India Company replied:

“India has her own system of education which had been in existence from time immemorial. The Hindus have as good a system of faith as most people and that it would be madness to attempt their conversion or to give them any more learning or any description of learning than what they already have”

Three people came on state during 1820s and 1830s. William Bentinck as Governor General. Macaulay as Legislative member of supreme council and William Adam as Education system surveyor.

William Bentinck was appointed to take decision whether to promote conversion via education or not. William Adam was in favor of continuing with native education. Macaulay was in favor of introducing English education and missionaries.

Bentinck liked Macaulay’s idea and on the 7th march, 1835, passed a resolution in favor of promotion of European education among Native India and diverted all education funds for English education. This exclusive proposal sealed the fate of Sanskrit based education in her own land. Adam’s proposal was later rejected stating it as ‘Impracticable’ and thus western education got the monopoly in India and a splendid opportunity was lost to introduce unified education system based on Sanskrit.

Why Bentinck approved Macaulay’s plan instead Adam’s when he himself appointed Adam to do Survey of Native education system?

Conditioned citizens are better obedient slaves than free thinking individuals.

Motives of cultural terrorists aka British funded Oriental researchers

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29829_190655111059405_1723261330_n

With what purpose and mindset you approach foreigners, matters a lot. It reflects real motive of you approaching them. Jaundiced vision, yellow view. Clear vision, clear view.

Asiatic Society is iconic name in the field of oriental research. This Society remained the chief advisory body to the Government of India in matters relating to all kinds of scientific subjects (even after Independence).

Here is excerpt from their Second year completion president address.

Now, guess what! William Jones and Max Muller type paid-researchers are Guru of many researchers in India! Media puppets use their research as reference!

Forest and Rainfall: The Imperial Gazetteer Of India records

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Value of forest was well understood by British govt as it is described in The Imperial Gazetteer Of India – part 3 (Economic).

 

The Imperial Gazetteer Of India 3
The Imperial Gazetteer Of India 3
The Imperial Gazetteer Of India 3 - pg 105
The Imperial Gazetteer Of India 3 – pg 105
The Imperial Gazetteer Of India 3 - pg 104
The Imperial Gazetteer Of India 3 – pg 104

Forest Cover India

Forest Cover India

When India is on the verge of server water crisis, this records should remind us critical role forest play in conserving water.  Our urban tree plantation drives are not enough.

Analysis of Changing Forest Cover and its Impact on Environment with Special Reference to Umtrew Basin, North East India

“The study elucidates that the population growth, migration, developmental activities and agricultural activities are the main driven force deforestation; however there is a spatial variation in contribution to the causative factors. Change in local population is directly related to forest degradation. In some places jhooming is one of the important problem. Agricultural expansion, development of industries caused the deforestation in many ways.It is observed from the analysis of satellite data of last thirty years; it becomes clear that the forest cover has been tremendously decreasing in the Umtrew basin. As a result, soil erosion and siltation on the river bed has already been increased manifold in the said area. The geo-environmental condition of this part has already been deteriorated. There is every possibility of micro climatic change due to such changes. So, this area needs more afforestation including the social forestry programme for restoring the conditions as prevailed earlier. Therefore, considering the trend of forest change there is an umpteen need to take protection measures in the Umtrew Basin to maintain the environmental quality, restricting the possibilities of micro climatic change and meet the national demand of forest cover.”

http://clarion.ind.in/index.php/clarion/article/view/30/44

 

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