GUT

GUT

Cospeciation : Coevolution, Gut Microbes and role of Prana

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Conspeciation
This science paper confirms eternity of प्राण | Bacteria are manifestation of वैश्विक प्राण | So, not all Gut bacteria are acquired at birth! Some of them followed eternal journey with us!! And they depend upon host lineages!
 
“Gut bacteria therefore are not simply acquired from the environment, but have coevolved for millions of years with hominids to help shape our immune systems and development.”
 
Like how Prana drives growth of body from conception to birth to the youth, same Prana manifest microbial bacteria in GUT as per the need !
 
Our gutter-satisfying eating habits, medications ruin the legacy received from lineages!
 
“The evolutionary origins of the bacterial lineages that populate the human gut are unknown. Here we show that multiple lineages of the predominant bacterial taxa in the gut arose via cospeciation with humans, chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas over the past 15 million years. Analyses of strain-level bacterial diversity within hominid gut microbiomes revealed that clades of Bacteroidaceae and Bifidobacteriaceae have been maintained exclusively within host lineages across hundreds of thousands of host generations. Divergence times of these cospeciating gut bacteria are congruent with those of hominids, indicating that nuclear, mitochondrial, and gut bacterial genomes diversified in concert during hominid evolution. This study identifies human gut bacteria descended from ancient symbionts that speciated simultaneously with humans and the African apes.”
 

Cospeciation of gut microbiota with hominids

http://science.sciencemag.org/content/353/6297/380

Human-microbiota coevolution

The bacteria that make their home in the intestines of modern apes and humans arose from ancient bacteria that colonized the guts of our common ancestors. Moeller et al. have developed a method to compare rapidly evolving gyrB gene sequences in fecal samples from humans and wild chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas (see the Perspective by Segre and Salafsky). Comparison of the gyrB phylogenies of major bacterial lineages reveals that they mostly match the apehominid phylogeny, except for some rare symbiont transfers between primate species. Gut bacteria therefore are not simply acquired from the environment, but have coevolved for millions of years with hominids to help shape our immune systems and development.

Heart Failure starts with Gut (मूलाधार) : Worship गणेश

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GUT bacteria and Heart failure
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Heart Ganesh

I am not microbiologist but हनुमान & गणेश भक्त. And they give enough hints about the गण they protect for me within this body-universe.

I repeat almost daily and urge friends to take care of GUT by proper diet, surya Namaskar.

Area from GUT to Navel – very critical for existence. Protect it.

गणपति resides in GUT area . And to worship him, we generally keep fast. Fasting clean the GUT and transforms it from GUTTER into Heaven. So clean GUT means right decisions, right actions and in real sense गणेश acts as विध्नहर्ता.

During monsoon, our digestive power remains very low and so there are high chances that GUT remains polluted. So just when the monsoon is on the verge of end, we worship गणेश for 10 days.


Research


Heart failure is associated with loss of important gut bacteria

https://dzhk.de/en/news/latest-news/article/heart-failure-is-associated-with-loss-of-important-gut-bacteria/

“In the gut of patients with heart failure, important groups of bacteria are found less frequently and the gut flora is not as diverse as in healthy individuals. Data obtained by scientists of the German Centre for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK) provide valuable points of departure for understanding how gut colonisation is associated with the development and progress of heart failure.”

Influential factors: diet, medication, smoking

“Of course, other factors also affect the composition of our gut bacteria. We know that the gut flora of a vegan who starts eating meat changes within three days”, explains associate professor Dr. Mark Lüdde of the University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel. For this reason, we asked the Kiel-based researchers of dietary habits beforehand. Individuals with an extreme diet, such as a vegan diet, were not allowed to participate in their study. Instead, they chose individuals with a standard diet comprising both meat and vegetables for both groups.

In addition to diet, medication also affect the gut flora. It was, therefore, important that the control group also took medicinal products that patients with heart failure must take routinely. Antibiotics could not have been administered for at least three months prior. Smokers were also included in both groups. All participants were from the same region and were the same age; gender distribution and BMI were equal in both groups.

Consequence or cause of the disease?

The observed pattern of the reduced genera and families of bacteria seems very characteristic of heart failure, which is why these results may be new points of departure for therapies. The differences between healthy individuals and those with heart failure, thus, came about mainly through the loss of bacteria of the genera Blautia and Collinsella, as well as two previously unknown genera that belong to the families Erysipelotrichaceae and Ruminococcaceae. 

The Gut, the Heart, and TMAO

Here’s how it works: When people ingest certain nutrients, such as choline (abundant in red meat, egg yolks, and dairy products) and L-carnitine (found in red meat as well as some energy drinks and supplements), the gut bacteria that break it down produce a compound called trimethylamine (TMA). The liver then converts TMA into the compound, trimethylene N-oxide (TMAO).

The trouble with TMAO is that data show high levels contribute to a heightened risk for clot-related events such as heart attack and stroke—even after researchers take into account the presence of conventional risk factors and markers of inflammation that might skew the results. In their most recent analysis, scientists showed that high blood levels of TMAO were associated with higher rates of premature death in a group of 2235 patients with stable coronary artery disease. Those found to have higher blood levels of TMAO had a four-fold greater risk of dying from any cause over the subsequent five years.

The implications are intriguing. Taken together, the new studies suggest that positively altering the gut microbiota may help to reduce damage to blood vessels, resulting in a stronger cardiovascular system, and they point to targets for potential new heart disease therapies.

The Gut, the Heart, and TMAO

 

Research : GUT Microbes controls circadian clocks

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GutMicrobesClocks

While selfish mankind is focusing more and investing more in understanding internal circadian rhythms, we are utter foolish in recording every day disturbed circadian rhythms in outer environment. If someone notices, they are called climate hoax creators, conspiracy theorists etc.

“5 elements outside. 5 elements inside. No difference. If the outside is disturbed, such disturbances can occur on the inside too. The reverse also becomes true if done so deeply that we’re all the zombies who destroy everything for no good reason (okay, our current “good reason” is to make money) and will ultimately turn into cannibal zombies to end the feeding frenzy.” – Suraj Kumar

It is vicious cycle. You eat junk, disturb GUT bacteria and your circadian rhythms are disturbed (body clocks).

On the other hand, disturb rhythms by shift jobs, late night movies, parties, irregular life routine – all results into disturbed GUT.


Research


http://harvardmagazine.com/2015/06/engineering-circadian-clock

Engineering an Internal Clock

Gut microbes affect circadian rhythms in mice, study says

http://www.anl.gov/articles/gut-microbes-affect-circadian-rhythms-mice-study-says

A study including researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago found evidence that gut microbes affect circadian rhythms and metabolism in mice.

We know from studies on jet lag and night shifts that metabolism—how bodies use energy from food—is linked to the body’s circadian rhythms. These rhythms, regular daily fluctuations in mental and bodily functions, are communicated and carried out via signals sent from the brain and liver. Light and dark signals guide circadian rhythms, but it appears that microbes have a role to play as well.

All humans have a set of bacteria, viruses and fungi living in our guts, called the gut microbiome, which helps us digest food—and also interacts with the body in a number of other ways: there is evidence they affect allergies, mental health, weight and other metabolic conditions.

Researchers found that mice with a normal set of gut microbes showed evidence of a regular daily microbial cycle, with different species flourishing in different parts of the day and producing different compounds as a result. These compounds appear to act on the liver—they affected how circadian clock genes were expressed in the liver.

A high-fat diet reduced the variation in the microbial cycle; the circadian clock genes were disrupted, and the mice gained weight.

Meanwhile, “germ-free” mice raised without a normal gut microbiome showed evidence of a disrupted circadian clock cycle, but did not gain weight even on a high-fat diet.

The researchers hypothesize that high-fat diets change the compounds that microbes produce, thus disrupting the liver’s circadian clock signaling.

“The earlier explanation for microbiome-related weight gain was that some bacteria make calories from food more available to your body, but this is a fundamental alternative explanation,” said Jack Gilbert, an Argonne microbial ecologist who co-authored the study.

GUT Microbes : Junk Food Isn’t Just Making Us Fat—It’s Making Us Stupid

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Junk food

Take that. And participate in making future generations stupid by offering them biscuits,chocolates and all range of fast food. When I request friends and families not to offer fast food to my son, they often make fun of me. Now, please don’t.

I almost worship bacteria as lower incarnation of the God (And so I worship Hanuman and Ganesh as they are representative of Gana or group of bacteria living in GUT). Read this. Fat, sugar cause bacterial changes that may relate to loss of cognitive function. Bacterial combination in GUT is very important for your thinking capacity. Don’t deliberately kill your child’s creativity.


Crossword, Sudoku, and Jeopardy! enthusiasts beware: Every french fry and candy bar you consume might be throwing off your game.

study conducted by researchers at Oregon State University and published in the journal Neuroscience suggests that high-fat, high-sugar diets have a detrimental effect on what they refer to as “cognitive flexibility,” or the power to adapt and adjust to changing situations.


http://oregonstate.edu/ua/ncs/archives/2015/jun/fat-sugar-cause-bacterial-changes-may-relate-loss-cognitive-function

Fat, sugar cause bacterial changes that may relate to loss of cognitive function

A study at Oregon State University indicates that both a high-fat and a high-sugar diet, compared to a normal diet, cause changes in gut bacteria that appear related to a significant loss of “cognitive flexibility,” or the power to adapt and adjust to changing situations.

This effect was most serious on the high-sugar diet, which also showed an impairment of early learning for both long-term and short-term memory.

The findings are consistent with some other studies about the impact of fat and sugar on cognitive function and behavior, and suggest that some of these problems may be linked to alteration of the microbiome – a complex mixture in the digestive system of about 100 trillion microorganisms.

The research was done with laboratory mice that consumed different diets and then faced a variety of tests, such as water maze testing, to monitor changes in their mental and physical function, and associated impacts on various types of bacteria. The findings were published in the journal Neuroscience, in work supported by the Microbiology Foundation and the National Science Foundation.

“It’s increasingly clear that our gut bacteria, or microbiota, can communicate with the human brain,” said Kathy Magnusson, a professor in the OSU College of Veterinary Medicine and principal investigator with the Linus Pauling Institute.

“Bacteria can release compounds that act as neurotransmitters, stimulate sensory nerves or the immune system, and affect a wide range of biological functions,” she said. “We’re not sure just what messages are being sent, but we are tracking down the pathways and the effects.”

Tridosha vs Enterotypes of the human gut microbiome

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Gut Microbes

An enterotype is a classification of living organisms based on its bacteriological ecosystem in the gut microbiome. So far, scientists identified three robust clusters (enterotypes hereafter) that are not nation or continent-specific (In 2011). They confirmed the enterotypes also in two published, larger cohorts suggesting that intestinal microbiota variation is generally stratified, not continuous. Bacteroides (enterotype 1), Prevotella (enterotype 2) and Ruminococcus (enterotype 3).[1]

In Ayurveda, our Prakriti is important for treatment. Each individual has different Prakriti. Kapha Prakriti, Pitta Prakriti, Vata Prakriti and mix.

3 clusters of microbiome. 3 Types of human nature (Physical Prakriti/Constitution/Mental Constitution)

No wonder, soon we will see missing link.

Points to note here:

1) Gut bacteria are related to your nature/Prakriti/Constitution
2) Gut bacteria changes with age and so your prakriti also change(Children – Kapha, Adult – Pitta, Old age – Vata)

Interesting time ahead


Research


 

[1] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3728647/

Enterotypes of the human gut microbiome

Abstract

Our knowledge on species and function composition of the human gut microbiome is rapidly increasing, but it is still based on very few cohorts and little is known about their variation across the world. Combining 22 newly sequenced fecal metagenomes of individuals from 4 countries with previously published datasets, we identified three robust clusters (enterotypes hereafter) that are not nation or continent-specific. We confirmed the enterotypes also in two published, larger cohorts suggesting that intestinal microbiota variation is generally stratified, not continuous. This further indicates the existence of a limited number of well-balanced host-microbial symbiotic states that might respond differently to diet and drug intake. The enterotypes are mostly driven by species composition, but abundant molecular functions are not necessarily provided by abundant species, highlighting the importance of a functional analysis for a community understanding. While individual host properties such as body mass index, age, or gender cannot explain the observed enterotypes, data-driven marker genes or functional modules can be identified for each of these host properties. For example, twelve genes significantly correlate with age and three functional modules with the body mass index, hinting at a diagnostic potential of microbial markers

Radiation, Microbes and tragic end of neurons

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GUTBRain

My prediction: Under the toxic influence of EMF radiation, now widespread due to 4G/LTE networks, will increases cases of multiple sclerosis. A neurological diseases for which no root-cause is identified.

And here again, the mighty प्राण-driven microbes plays vital role. Only Gau mata (her prasad as food) can help. Worship of Hanuman and Ganesh will help. Accept or not but this is what I predict for next 2-3 years.

Validate. Most of us around do experience following time to time. Esp. when you live near tower or work under continuous wifi.

People may experience:
Pain areas: in the back or eyes
Pain circumstances: can occur in the back due to head nod or with eye movement
Tremor: can occur during precise movements, in the hands, or limbs
Muscular: abnormality walking, cramping, difficulty walking, inability to rapidly change motions, involuntary movements, muscle paralysis, muscle rigidity, muscle weakness, poor coordination, problems with coordination, stiff muscles, clumsiness, muscle spasms, overactive reflexes, unsteady gait, or weak and stiff muscles
Whole body: balance disorder, dizziness, fatigue, feeling tired, heat intolerance, poor balance, tires easily, vertigo, or weakness
Urinary: excessive urination at night, leaking of urine, persistent urge to urinate, urge to urinate and leaking, or urinary retention
Sensory: abnormality of taste, pins and needles, reduced sensation of touch, or uncomfortable tingling and burning
Visual: blurred vision, double vision, partial loss of vision, or vision loss
Sexual: erectile dysfunction or sexual dysfunction
Mood: anxiety or mood swings
Speech: slurred speech or impaired voice
Also common: acute episodes, constipation, depression, difficulty swallowing, difficulty thinking and understanding, headache, heavy legs, incoordination, numbness, numbness of face, rapid involuntary eye movement, sleep deprivation, stiffness, tongue numbness, or difficulty raising the foot

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Spend maximum free time in nature. Away from cities and networks. Stop wifi @ home if not needed. Control your mobile internet usage. Take care.

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Gut-brain connection moves into MS territory

Gut-brain connection moves into MS territory

“For the first time, we’ve been able to identify that food has some sort of remote control over central nervous system inflammation,” said Francisco Quintana, an investigator in the Ann Romney Center for Neurologic Diseases at BWH and corresponding author on the study. “What we eat influences the ability of bacteria in our gut to produce small molecules, some of which are capable of traveling all the way to the brain. This opens up an area that’s largely been unknown until now: how the gut controls brain inflammation.”

Using pre-clinical models for multiple sclerosis (MS) and samples from MS patients, the team found evidence that changes in diet and gut flora may influence astrocytes in the brain, and, consequently, neurodegeneration, pointing to potential therapeutic targets. The results of their study will be published this week in Nature Medicine.

प्राण, microbes and obesity

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bac

This land is land of मरुत/मारुति/हनुमान/गणेश worshiper. If not 100%, 80% of Indians worship one of them (Hanuman and/or Ganesh).

We do this because, we know the value of मूलाधार (GUT in modern medical science terms). We also know impact of focused mind on the well-being of Body.

Microbes are nothing but loosely-coupled manifestation of प्राण (here प्राण@मूलाधार ) in contrast to body-cells who are tightly coupled as organs.

One more study praising importance of microbes (i.e. प्राण => हनुमान, गणेश, मारुति i.e. driving force behind microbes population protection and control )

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“Obesity is linked to changes in our gut microbes — the trillions of tiny organisms that inhabit our intestines.

“Taken together these experiments demonstrate a causal link between alterations in the gut microbiota in response to changes in the diet and increased acetate production,” said Shulman. The increased acetate in turn leads to increased food intake, setting off a positive feedback loop that drives obesity and insulin resistance, he explained.

The study authors suggest that this positive feedback loop may have served an important role in evolution, by prompting animals to fatten up when they stumbled across calorically dense food in times of food scarcity.


Research


Study reveals how altered gut microbes cause obesity

http://news.yale.edu/2016/06/08/study-reveals-how-altered-gut-microbes-cause-obesity

“Alterations in the gut microbiota are associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome in both humans and rodents,” Shulman noted. “In this study we provide a novel mechanism to explain this biological phenomenon in rodents, and we are now examining whether this mechanism translates to humans.”

दूषित वात : Transfer of Gut Bacteria Affects Brain Function and Nerve Fiber Insulation

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Transfer of Gut Bacteria Affects Brain Function and Nerve Fiber Insulation
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GutBrain
 
वात is the root cause of many mental disorders. When someone talks about altering or experimenting Microbes, I consider them as वात-प्राण experiments.
 
In one such experiment, it was found that specific combinations of gut bacteria produce substances that affect myelin content and cause social avoidance behaviors in mice.
 
This gives many hints.
 
1) Why August agitations are common across the world (post summer heat monsoon vata prakopa? 🙂 It is easy to instigate mob during seasonal vata prakop. Be it India Against corruption or Egypt or 2011 England riots)
2) Why many teens on junk food are showing anti-social behavior
3) Why cases of sudden suicides are increasing
4) Autism cases
 
Short answer: Disturbed Prana lead to disturbed Vata ==> Mental disorders
 
May Shani Maharaj bless us all and keep us away from mental disorders.
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Research
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Transfer of Gut Bacteria Affects Brain Function and Nerve Fiber Insulation

 
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Abstract:
 
Gene-environment interactions impact the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, but the relative contributions are unclear. Here, we identify gut microbiota as sufficient to induce depressive-like behaviors in genetically distinct mouse strains. Daily gavage of saline in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice induced a social avoidance behavior that was not observed in C57BL/6 mice. This was not observed in NOD animals with depleted microbiota via oral administration of antibiotics. Transfer of intestinal microbiota, including members of the Clostridiales, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae, from vehicle-gavaged NOD donors to microbiota-depleted C57BL/6 recipients was sufficient to induce social avoidance and change gene expression and myelination in the prefrontal cortex. Metabolomic analysis identified increased cresol levels in these mice, and exposure of cultured oligodendrocytes to this metabolite prevented myelin gene expression and differentiation. Our results thus demonstrate that the gut microbiota modifies the synthesis of key metabolites affecting gene expression in the prefrontal cortex, thereby modulating social behavior.
 
http://www.mountsinai.org/about-us/newsroom/press-releases/transfer-of-gut-bacteria-affects-brain-function-and-nerve-fiber-insulation

GUT = Ganesha = Beginning of life

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Various Ganesha forms - varies as per Muladhara

DigestiveFire

I personally do not see body with reductionist perception. However, if I really want to glorify each organ, I would never miss GUT.

The heart and the brain—are generally held in high regard. We see the heart as central to life since it pumps blood around the body. The brain is admired for its ability to create a dazzling array of new mental images and concepts every second. But the gut, in most people’s eyes, is good for little more than going to the toilet.

We must break this world-view. Revering and respecting GUT is first step towards respecting our body and working religiously to serve billion+ body cells.

Educate your child about wonderful working of GUT. Before they are stereotyped to revere brain and heart.

GUT = Ganesha = Beginning of life.

A Link Between Gut Bacteria and Neurogenesis: Mouse Study

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neuron_spike_train_by_neutrix-d3lo9dl-900x450

I shared here many times that प्राण is cellular intelligence and memory. Mar the प्राण, do not retain प्राण and your body cells lose intelligence.

Lost cellular intelligence = Zombie cells = Prone to proliferation, inflammation, retard responses.

Here is the paper in support of this observation.

antibiotics = lack of prana = brain development hampered = memory function impaired.


Research


A Link Between Gut Bacteria and Neurogenesis: Mouse Study

Summary: According to a new mouse study, antibotics that are strong enough to kill gut bacteria can also halt the growth of hippocampal neurons.

Source: Cell Press.

http://neurosciencenews.com/neurogenesis-gut-bacteria-4253/

http://www.cell.com/cell-reports/pdf/S2211-1247(16)30518-6.pdf

Antibiotics strong enough to kill off gut bacteria can also stop the growth of new brain cells in the hippocampus, a section of the brain associated with memory, reports a study in mice published May 19 in Cell Reports. Researchers also uncovered a clue to why– a type of white blood cell seems to act as a communicator between the brain, the immune system, and the gut.

“We found prolonged antibiotic treatment might impact brain function,” says senior author Susanne Asu Wolf of the Max-Delbrueck-Center for Molecular Medicine in Berlin, Germany. “But probiotics and exercise can balance brain plasticity and should be considered as a real treatment option.”

Wolf first saw clues that the immune system could influence the health and growth of brain cells through research into T cells nearly 10 years ago. But there were few studies that found a link from the brain to the immune system and back to the gut.

In the new study, the researchers gave a group of mice enough antibiotics for them to become nearly free of intestinal microbes. Compared to untreated mice, the mice who lost their healthy gut bacteria performed worse in memory tests and showed a loss of neurogenesis (new brain cells) in a section of their hippocampus that typically produces new brain cells throughout an individual’s lifetime. At the same time that the mice experienced memory and neurogenesis loss, the research team detected a lower level of white blood cells (specifically monocytes) marked with Ly6Chi in the brain, blood, and bone marrow. So researchers tested whether it was indeed the Ly6Chi monocytes behind the changes in neurogenesis and memory.

In another experiment, the research team compared untreated mice to mice that had healthy gut bacteria levels but low levels of Ly6Chi either due to genetics or due to treatment with antibodies that target Ly6Chi cells. In both cases, mice with low Ly6Chi levels showed the same memory and neurogenesis deficits as mice in the other experiment who had lost gut bacteria. Furthermore, if the researchers replaced the Ly6Chi levels in mice treated with antibiotics, then memory and neurogenesis improved.

“For us it was impressive to find these Ly6Chi cells that travel from the periphery to the brain, and if there’s something wrong in the microbiome, Ly6Chi acts as a communicating cell,” says Wolf.

Researchers connect brain blood vessel lesions to intestinal bacteria

https://www.ninds.nih.gov/News-Events/News-and-Press-Releases/Press-Releases/Researchers-connect-brain-blood-vessel-lesions

A study in mice and humans suggests that bacteria in the gut can influence the structure of the brain’s blood vessels, and may be responsible for producing malformations that can lead to stroke or epilepsy. The research, published in Nature, adds to an emerging picture that connects intestinal microbes and disorders of the nervous system. The study was funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), a part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are clusters of dilated, thin-walled blood vessels that can lead to seizures or stroke when blood leaks into the surrounding brain tissue. A team of scientists at the University of Pennsylvania investigated the mechanisms that cause CCM lesions to form in genetically engineered mice and discovered an unexpected link to bacteria in the gut. When bacteria were eliminated the number of lesions was greatly diminished.

“This study is exciting because it shows that changes within the body can affect the progression of a disorder caused by a genetic mutation,” said Jim I. Koenig, Ph.D., program director at NINDS.

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