GUT

GUT

Research : GUT Microbes controls circadian clocks

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GutMicrobesClocks

While selfish mankind is focusing more and investing more in understanding internal circadian rhythms, we are utter foolish in recording every day disturbed circadian rhythms in outer environment. If someone notices, they are called climate hoax creators, conspiracy theorists etc.

“5 elements outside. 5 elements inside. No difference. If the outside is disturbed, such disturbances can occur on the inside too. The reverse also becomes true if done so deeply that we’re all the zombies who destroy everything for no good reason (okay, our current “good reason” is to make money) and will ultimately turn into cannibal zombies to end the feeding frenzy.” – Suraj Kumar

It is vicious cycle. You eat junk, disturb GUT bacteria and your circadian rhythms are disturbed (body clocks).

On the other hand, disturb rhythms by shift jobs, late night movies, parties, irregular life routine – all results into disturbed GUT.


Research


http://harvardmagazine.com/2015/06/engineering-circadian-clock

Engineering an Internal Clock

Gut microbes affect circadian rhythms in mice, study says

http://www.anl.gov/articles/gut-microbes-affect-circadian-rhythms-mice-study-says

A study including researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago found evidence that gut microbes affect circadian rhythms and metabolism in mice.

We know from studies on jet lag and night shifts that metabolism—how bodies use energy from food—is linked to the body’s circadian rhythms. These rhythms, regular daily fluctuations in mental and bodily functions, are communicated and carried out via signals sent from the brain and liver. Light and dark signals guide circadian rhythms, but it appears that microbes have a role to play as well.

All humans have a set of bacteria, viruses and fungi living in our guts, called the gut microbiome, which helps us digest food—and also interacts with the body in a number of other ways: there is evidence they affect allergies, mental health, weight and other metabolic conditions.

Researchers found that mice with a normal set of gut microbes showed evidence of a regular daily microbial cycle, with different species flourishing in different parts of the day and producing different compounds as a result. These compounds appear to act on the liver—they affected how circadian clock genes were expressed in the liver.

A high-fat diet reduced the variation in the microbial cycle; the circadian clock genes were disrupted, and the mice gained weight.

Meanwhile, “germ-free” mice raised without a normal gut microbiome showed evidence of a disrupted circadian clock cycle, but did not gain weight even on a high-fat diet.

The researchers hypothesize that high-fat diets change the compounds that microbes produce, thus disrupting the liver’s circadian clock signaling.

“The earlier explanation for microbiome-related weight gain was that some bacteria make calories from food more available to your body, but this is a fundamental alternative explanation,” said Jack Gilbert, an Argonne microbial ecologist who co-authored the study.

GUT Microbes : Junk Food Isn’t Just Making Us Fat—It’s Making Us Stupid

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Junk food

Take that. And participate in making future generations stupid by offering them biscuits,chocolates and all range of fast food. When I request friends and families not to offer fast food to my son, they often make fun of me. Now, please don’t.

I almost worship bacteria as lower incarnation of the God (And so I worship Hanuman and Ganesh as they are representative of Gana or group of bacteria living in GUT). Read this. Fat, sugar cause bacterial changes that may relate to loss of cognitive function. Bacterial combination in GUT is very important for your thinking capacity. Don’t deliberately kill your child’s creativity.


Crossword, Sudoku, and Jeopardy! enthusiasts beware: Every french fry and candy bar you consume might be throwing off your game.

study conducted by researchers at Oregon State University and published in the journal Neuroscience suggests that high-fat, high-sugar diets have a detrimental effect on what they refer to as “cognitive flexibility,” or the power to adapt and adjust to changing situations.


http://oregonstate.edu/ua/ncs/archives/2015/jun/fat-sugar-cause-bacterial-changes-may-relate-loss-cognitive-function

Fat, sugar cause bacterial changes that may relate to loss of cognitive function

A study at Oregon State University indicates that both a high-fat and a high-sugar diet, compared to a normal diet, cause changes in gut bacteria that appear related to a significant loss of “cognitive flexibility,” or the power to adapt and adjust to changing situations.

This effect was most serious on the high-sugar diet, which also showed an impairment of early learning for both long-term and short-term memory.

The findings are consistent with some other studies about the impact of fat and sugar on cognitive function and behavior, and suggest that some of these problems may be linked to alteration of the microbiome – a complex mixture in the digestive system of about 100 trillion microorganisms.

The research was done with laboratory mice that consumed different diets and then faced a variety of tests, such as water maze testing, to monitor changes in their mental and physical function, and associated impacts on various types of bacteria. The findings were published in the journal Neuroscience, in work supported by the Microbiology Foundation and the National Science Foundation.

“It’s increasingly clear that our gut bacteria, or microbiota, can communicate with the human brain,” said Kathy Magnusson, a professor in the OSU College of Veterinary Medicine and principal investigator with the Linus Pauling Institute.

“Bacteria can release compounds that act as neurotransmitters, stimulate sensory nerves or the immune system, and affect a wide range of biological functions,” she said. “We’re not sure just what messages are being sent, but we are tracking down the pathways and the effects.”

Tridosha vs Enterotypes of the human gut microbiome

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Gut Microbes

An enterotype is a classification of living organisms based on its bacteriological ecosystem in the gut microbiome. So far, scientists identified three robust clusters (enterotypes hereafter) that are not nation or continent-specific (In 2011). They confirmed the enterotypes also in two published, larger cohorts suggesting that intestinal microbiota variation is generally stratified, not continuous. Bacteroides (enterotype 1), Prevotella (enterotype 2) and Ruminococcus (enterotype 3).[1]

In Ayurveda, our Prakriti is important for treatment. Each individual has different Prakriti. Kapha Prakriti, Pitta Prakriti, Vata Prakriti and mix.

3 clusters of microbiome. 3 Types of human nature (Physical Prakriti/Constitution/Mental Constitution)

No wonder, soon we will see missing link.

Points to note here:

1) Gut bacteria are related to your nature/Prakriti/Constitution
2) Gut bacteria changes with age and so your prakriti also change(Children – Kapha, Adult – Pitta, Old age – Vata)

Interesting time ahead


Research


 

[1] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3728647/

Enterotypes of the human gut microbiome

Abstract

Our knowledge on species and function composition of the human gut microbiome is rapidly increasing, but it is still based on very few cohorts and little is known about their variation across the world. Combining 22 newly sequenced fecal metagenomes of individuals from 4 countries with previously published datasets, we identified three robust clusters (enterotypes hereafter) that are not nation or continent-specific. We confirmed the enterotypes also in two published, larger cohorts suggesting that intestinal microbiota variation is generally stratified, not continuous. This further indicates the existence of a limited number of well-balanced host-microbial symbiotic states that might respond differently to diet and drug intake. The enterotypes are mostly driven by species composition, but abundant molecular functions are not necessarily provided by abundant species, highlighting the importance of a functional analysis for a community understanding. While individual host properties such as body mass index, age, or gender cannot explain the observed enterotypes, data-driven marker genes or functional modules can be identified for each of these host properties. For example, twelve genes significantly correlate with age and three functional modules with the body mass index, hinting at a diagnostic potential of microbial markers

Radiation, Microbes and tragic end of neurons

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GUTBRain

My prediction: Under the toxic influence of EMF radiation, now widespread due to 4G/LTE networks, will increases cases of multiple sclerosis. A neurological diseases for which no root-cause is identified.

And here again, the mighty प्राण-driven microbes plays vital role. Only Gau mata (her prasad as food) can help. Worship of Hanuman and Ganesh will help. Accept or not but this is what I predict for next 2-3 years.

Validate. Most of us around do experience following time to time. Esp. when you live near tower or work under continuous wifi.

People may experience:
Pain areas: in the back or eyes
Pain circumstances: can occur in the back due to head nod or with eye movement
Tremor: can occur during precise movements, in the hands, or limbs
Muscular: abnormality walking, cramping, difficulty walking, inability to rapidly change motions, involuntary movements, muscle paralysis, muscle rigidity, muscle weakness, poor coordination, problems with coordination, stiff muscles, clumsiness, muscle spasms, overactive reflexes, unsteady gait, or weak and stiff muscles
Whole body: balance disorder, dizziness, fatigue, feeling tired, heat intolerance, poor balance, tires easily, vertigo, or weakness
Urinary: excessive urination at night, leaking of urine, persistent urge to urinate, urge to urinate and leaking, or urinary retention
Sensory: abnormality of taste, pins and needles, reduced sensation of touch, or uncomfortable tingling and burning
Visual: blurred vision, double vision, partial loss of vision, or vision loss
Sexual: erectile dysfunction or sexual dysfunction
Mood: anxiety or mood swings
Speech: slurred speech or impaired voice
Also common: acute episodes, constipation, depression, difficulty swallowing, difficulty thinking and understanding, headache, heavy legs, incoordination, numbness, numbness of face, rapid involuntary eye movement, sleep deprivation, stiffness, tongue numbness, or difficulty raising the foot

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Spend maximum free time in nature. Away from cities and networks. Stop wifi @ home if not needed. Control your mobile internet usage. Take care.

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Gut-brain connection moves into MS territory

Gut-brain connection moves into MS territory

“For the first time, we’ve been able to identify that food has some sort of remote control over central nervous system inflammation,” said Francisco Quintana, an investigator in the Ann Romney Center for Neurologic Diseases at BWH and corresponding author on the study. “What we eat influences the ability of bacteria in our gut to produce small molecules, some of which are capable of traveling all the way to the brain. This opens up an area that’s largely been unknown until now: how the gut controls brain inflammation.”

Using pre-clinical models for multiple sclerosis (MS) and samples from MS patients, the team found evidence that changes in diet and gut flora may influence astrocytes in the brain, and, consequently, neurodegeneration, pointing to potential therapeutic targets. The results of their study will be published this week in Nature Medicine.

प्राण, microbes and obesity

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bac

This land is land of मरुत/मारुति/हनुमान/गणेश worshiper. If not 100%, 80% of Indians worship one of them (Hanuman and/or Ganesh).

We do this because, we know the value of मूलाधार (GUT in modern medical science terms). We also know impact of focused mind on the well-being of Body.

Microbes are nothing but loosely-coupled manifestation of प्राण (here प्राण@मूलाधार ) in contrast to body-cells who are tightly coupled as organs.

One more study praising importance of microbes (i.e. प्राण => हनुमान, गणेश, मारुति i.e. driving force behind microbes population protection and control )

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“Obesity is linked to changes in our gut microbes — the trillions of tiny organisms that inhabit our intestines.

“Taken together these experiments demonstrate a causal link between alterations in the gut microbiota in response to changes in the diet and increased acetate production,” said Shulman. The increased acetate in turn leads to increased food intake, setting off a positive feedback loop that drives obesity and insulin resistance, he explained.

The study authors suggest that this positive feedback loop may have served an important role in evolution, by prompting animals to fatten up when they stumbled across calorically dense food in times of food scarcity.


Research


Study reveals how altered gut microbes cause obesity

http://news.yale.edu/2016/06/08/study-reveals-how-altered-gut-microbes-cause-obesity

“Alterations in the gut microbiota are associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome in both humans and rodents,” Shulman noted. “In this study we provide a novel mechanism to explain this biological phenomenon in rodents, and we are now examining whether this mechanism translates to humans.”

दूषित वात : Transfer of Gut Bacteria Affects Brain Function and Nerve Fiber Insulation

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Transfer of Gut Bacteria Affects Brain Function and Nerve Fiber Insulation
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GutBrain
 
वात is the root cause of many mental disorders. When someone talks about altering or experimenting Microbes, I consider them as वात-प्राण experiments.
 
In one such experiment, it was found that specific combinations of gut bacteria produce substances that affect myelin content and cause social avoidance behaviors in mice.
 
This gives many hints.
 
1) Why August agitations are common across the world (post summer heat monsoon vata prakopa? 🙂 It is easy to instigate mob during seasonal vata prakop. Be it India Against corruption or Egypt or 2011 England riots)
2) Why many teens on junk food are showing anti-social behavior
3) Why cases of sudden suicides are increasing
4) Autism cases
 
Short answer: Disturbed Prana lead to disturbed Vata ==> Mental disorders
 
May Shani Maharaj bless us all and keep us away from mental disorders.
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Research
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Transfer of Gut Bacteria Affects Brain Function and Nerve Fiber Insulation

 
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Abstract:
 
Gene-environment interactions impact the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, but the relative contributions are unclear. Here, we identify gut microbiota as sufficient to induce depressive-like behaviors in genetically distinct mouse strains. Daily gavage of saline in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice induced a social avoidance behavior that was not observed in C57BL/6 mice. This was not observed in NOD animals with depleted microbiota via oral administration of antibiotics. Transfer of intestinal microbiota, including members of the Clostridiales, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae, from vehicle-gavaged NOD donors to microbiota-depleted C57BL/6 recipients was sufficient to induce social avoidance and change gene expression and myelination in the prefrontal cortex. Metabolomic analysis identified increased cresol levels in these mice, and exposure of cultured oligodendrocytes to this metabolite prevented myelin gene expression and differentiation. Our results thus demonstrate that the gut microbiota modifies the synthesis of key metabolites affecting gene expression in the prefrontal cortex, thereby modulating social behavior.
 
http://www.mountsinai.org/about-us/newsroom/press-releases/transfer-of-gut-bacteria-affects-brain-function-and-nerve-fiber-insulation

GUT = Ganesha = Beginning of life

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Various Ganesha forms - varies as per Muladhara

DigestiveFire

I personally do not see body with reductionist perception. However, if I really want to glorify each organ, I would never miss GUT.

The heart and the brain—are generally held in high regard. We see the heart as central to life since it pumps blood around the body. The brain is admired for its ability to create a dazzling array of new mental images and concepts every second. But the gut, in most people’s eyes, is good for little more than going to the toilet.

We must break this world-view. Revering and respecting GUT is first step towards respecting our body and working religiously to serve billion+ body cells.

Educate your child about wonderful working of GUT. Before they are stereotyped to revere brain and heart.

GUT = Ganesha = Beginning of life.

A Link Between Gut Bacteria and Neurogenesis: Mouse Study

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neuron_spike_train_by_neutrix-d3lo9dl-900x450

I shared here many times that प्राण is cellular intelligence and memory. Mar the प्राण, do not retain प्राण and your body cells lose intelligence.

Lost cellular intelligence = Zombie cells = Prone to proliferation, inflammation, retard responses.

Here is the paper in support of this observation.

antibiotics = lack of prana = brain development hampered = memory function impaired.


Research


A Link Between Gut Bacteria and Neurogenesis: Mouse Study

Summary: According to a new mouse study, antibotics that are strong enough to kill gut bacteria can also halt the growth of hippocampal neurons.

Source: Cell Press.

http://neurosciencenews.com/neurogenesis-gut-bacteria-4253/

http://www.cell.com/cell-reports/pdf/S2211-1247(16)30518-6.pdf

Antibiotics strong enough to kill off gut bacteria can also stop the growth of new brain cells in the hippocampus, a section of the brain associated with memory, reports a study in mice published May 19 in Cell Reports. Researchers also uncovered a clue to why– a type of white blood cell seems to act as a communicator between the brain, the immune system, and the gut.

“We found prolonged antibiotic treatment might impact brain function,” says senior author Susanne Asu Wolf of the Max-Delbrueck-Center for Molecular Medicine in Berlin, Germany. “But probiotics and exercise can balance brain plasticity and should be considered as a real treatment option.”

Wolf first saw clues that the immune system could influence the health and growth of brain cells through research into T cells nearly 10 years ago. But there were few studies that found a link from the brain to the immune system and back to the gut.

In the new study, the researchers gave a group of mice enough antibiotics for them to become nearly free of intestinal microbes. Compared to untreated mice, the mice who lost their healthy gut bacteria performed worse in memory tests and showed a loss of neurogenesis (new brain cells) in a section of their hippocampus that typically produces new brain cells throughout an individual’s lifetime. At the same time that the mice experienced memory and neurogenesis loss, the research team detected a lower level of white blood cells (specifically monocytes) marked with Ly6Chi in the brain, blood, and bone marrow. So researchers tested whether it was indeed the Ly6Chi monocytes behind the changes in neurogenesis and memory.

In another experiment, the research team compared untreated mice to mice that had healthy gut bacteria levels but low levels of Ly6Chi either due to genetics or due to treatment with antibodies that target Ly6Chi cells. In both cases, mice with low Ly6Chi levels showed the same memory and neurogenesis deficits as mice in the other experiment who had lost gut bacteria. Furthermore, if the researchers replaced the Ly6Chi levels in mice treated with antibiotics, then memory and neurogenesis improved.

“For us it was impressive to find these Ly6Chi cells that travel from the periphery to the brain, and if there’s something wrong in the microbiome, Ly6Chi acts as a communicating cell,” says Wolf.

Researchers connect brain blood vessel lesions to intestinal bacteria

https://www.ninds.nih.gov/News-Events/News-and-Press-Releases/Press-Releases/Researchers-connect-brain-blood-vessel-lesions

A study in mice and humans suggests that bacteria in the gut can influence the structure of the brain’s blood vessels, and may be responsible for producing malformations that can lead to stroke or epilepsy. The research, published in Nature, adds to an emerging picture that connects intestinal microbes and disorders of the nervous system. The study was funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), a part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are clusters of dilated, thin-walled blood vessels that can lead to seizures or stroke when blood leaks into the surrounding brain tissue. A team of scientists at the University of Pennsylvania investigated the mechanisms that cause CCM lesions to form in genetically engineered mice and discovered an unexpected link to bacteria in the gut. When bacteria were eliminated the number of lesions was greatly diminished.

“This study is exciting because it shows that changes within the body can affect the progression of a disorder caused by a genetic mutation,” said Jim I. Koenig, Ph.D., program director at NINDS.

Gut is not Gutter : Your gut bacteria don’t like junk food – even if you do

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58f7a913-a4a6-47d1-9f38-cf3599f8b2eb

Do you like to visit dirty and untidy homes? Do you give the same treatment to your relatives and friends when they visit your home? Do we scold them for coming at wrong time?

GUT is home for billions of bacteria. They stay their to do numerous biological tasks for our well-being. In fact, their population variety decides, what nutrients we can digest and what not. Their population really drives our emotional responses. Richness in their variety is essential.

We rely on our bacteria to produce much of our essential nutrients and vitamins while they rely on us eating plants and fruits to provide them with energy and to produce healthy chemicals which keep our immune system working normally.

We are unlikely to stop people eating fast food, but the devastating effects on our microbes and our long term health could possibly be mitigated if we also eat foods which our microbes love like probiotics (yogurts), root vegetables, nuts, olives and high-fibre foods. What they seem to crave, above all else, is food diversity and a slice of gherkin in the burger just isn’t enough.

When we keep eating junk food, we kill them. We show them the door.

Tim Spector, Professor of Genetic Epidemiology at King’s College London, did an experiment with his own son.

Read to know how junk food destroys GUT population.


Research


Your gut bacteria don’t like junk food – even if you do

https://theconversation.com/your-gut-bacteria-dont-like-junk-food-even-if-you-do-41564

“Tom’s gut had seen massive shifts in his common microbe groups for reasons that are still unclear. Firmicutes were replaced with Bacteroidetes as the dominant type, while friendly bifidobacteria that suppress inflammation halved. However the clearest marker of an unhealthy gut is losing species diversity and after just a few days Tom had lost an estimated 1,400 species – nearly 40% of his total. The changes persisted and even two weeks after the diet his microbes had not recovered. Loss of diversity is a universal signal of ill health in the guts of obese and diabetic people and triggers a range of immunity problems in lab mice.”

Do you take care of Second Brain?

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155_Muladhar
The part of the alimentary canal between the stomach and the anus is known as GUT. This is reservoir of microbes. Critical digestive processes happen here.
 
In Ayurveda, this place is considered as मूलाधार चक्र.गणपति resides here. Ayurveda considers body beyond physical body and energy layer is one of such layer, प्राणमय कोष. Energy @ मूलाधार चक्र is responsible for person’s intelligence, valor and many other traits. And Ganapati resides here. He controls all activities.
155_SecondBRain2 155_SecondBRain
 
Now, modern science says, GUT is our second brain. 🙂 🙂 We use this second brain as gutter. We eat anything and everything. Creating highly polluted environment. So second brain hardly works. 🙂 🙂 😉 😛
 
Moral of the post: Do not make fun of your rituals under the influence of media, TV, Bollywood and some so called rational authors. If you do not understand a bit, still follow your culture. There are ample hidden benefits.
 
When you meditate on मूलाधार by chanting ganapati atharvashirsha, unique mental and physical state emerge. In modern science language, you actually help your second brain to work well.
 
Antibiotics disturbs this area most. This is the reason I advocate alternative use of controlling bacterial infection and not antibiotics. As it directly affect our emotions and thinking capacity.
 
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Read More
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Think Twice: How the Gut’s “Second Brain” Influences Mood and Well-Being

The emerging and surprising view of how the enteric nervous system in our bellies goes far beyond just processing the food we eat

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/gut-second-brain/

Thus equipped with its own reflexes and senses, the second brain can control gut behavior independently of the brain, Gershon says. We likely evolved this intricate web of nerves to perform digestion and excretion “on site,” rather than remotely from our brains through the middleman of the spinal cord. “The brain in the head doesn’t need to get its hands dirty with the messy business of digestion, which is delegated to the brain in the gut,” Gershon says. He and other researchers explain, however, that the second brain’s complexity likely cannot be interpreted through this process alone.

“The system is way too complicated to have evolved only to make sure things move out of your colon,” says Emeran Mayer, professor of physiology, psychiatry and biobehavioral sciences at the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles (U.C.L.A.). For example, scientists were shocked to learn that about 90 percent of the fibers in the primary visceral nerve, the vagus, carry information from the gut to the brain and not the other way around. “Some of that info is decidedly unpleasant,” Gershon says.

The second brain informs our state of mind in other more obscure ways, as well. “A big part of our emotions are probably influenced by the nerves in our gut,” Mayer says. Butterflies in the stomach—signaling in the gut as part of our physiological stress response, Gershon says—is but one example. Although gastrointestinal (GI) turmoil can sour one’s moods, everyday emotional well-being may rely on messages from the brain below to the brain above. For example, electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve—a useful treatment for depression—may mimic these signals, Gershon says.

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