Dharma

Dharma

The eternal thread Sanatana Dharma : From Africa to Polynesia

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Recently, there was a news about Migrants from India settled in Australia 4,000 years ago before Captain Cook’s arrival

There are new evidences arriving on surface everyday, proving eternity of Sanatana Dharma (Eternal civilization, centered in Bharat).

I would like to add two more examples here from old notes.

African roots of Sanskrit
African roots of Sanskrit

One friend asked me, how old our civilization is.

I replied: नित्य. It is eternal. There is no beginning and no end. Dharma based civilization resurfaces, time to time at different places of our Earth, based on locals urge to live perfect life (विजिगीषु वृति).

For example, there are striking similarities observed in archeological surveys across world with common denominator as ‘Bharatiya Samskruti’. The similarity in the word usages & customs of distant regions and of remote ages amuse researchers at peak. Affinity of language among people geographically and chronologically remote from each other is vital indicator of नित्य धर्म संस्कृति (Eternal Dharma based civilization).

Let us explore Bharat-African affinity.

Naming of places is done based on common sense, signifying local importance. For example, प्रयाग i.e. Place of sacrifice. In interior of Africa, you find many towns, hills having Sanskrit names but having no significant meaning in local African language. In all parts of world, original names of the places reasonably carry significant meaning but with lapse of time, name and meaning get corrupted. Here is the case when names carry Sanskrit legacy with meanings derived based on Sanskrit roots.

Here are some names:

Jonkakonda
Tendiconda
Kootkunda
Tattikonda
Baraconda
Seesekund
Tambakunda
Mariancounda
Tandacunda
Fatteconda
Mauraconda
On this class of names, observe common suffix i.e Konda. Etymologically konda means hill and such terminations are common in Bharat and are always associated with Hill or immediate vicinity of the hill. Some popular names in Bharat are: Golakonda fort, Gurramkonda, Ganeshcund,Kailkunda,Miconda. In fact, there is one language called Konda-Dora spoken in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, Assam and Orissa by about 28,000 people [1].

Tambakunda is is the largest city in eastern Senegal, 250 miles (400 km) southeast of Dakar, and is the Regional capital of the province of the same name. Its estimated population in 2007 was 78,800. [2]. We have Tambacherry, Tamaracherry, Tambah names in Bharat. Tamba means copper as per my knowledge.

Some more names from African land:

Bishna (Vishnu?)
Kirisnani (Krishna?)
Soomma (Soma?)
Comba (Kumbh?)
Samegona (Sami – Parvati, Gonda – Hill)
Siwah (Shiva?)
Reference: The Asiatic Journal Vol 4 pg 325-327, it is analysis of Mungo Park’s Travels in the Interior of Africa book [3].

[1] http://www.omniglot.com/writing/konda.htm

[2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tambacounda

[3] http://books.google.co.in/books?id=57ezpMULMugC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false

polynesian body work
polynesian body work

Polynesia is a subregion of Oceania, made up of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. The indigenous people who inhabit the islands of Polynesia are termed Polynesians and they share many similar traits including language, culture and beliefs.Historically, they were experienced sailors and used stars to navigate during the night.

Late P. Mitra of Calcutta university’s research unravelled influence of Bharat on such a distant islands.

Facts:

[1] Physical appearance of Polynesians resemble more to Indians than that of the people neighbouring islands.
[2] Language has closer affinity to the language of Indian tribes like the Mundas and the Santhals.
[3] Hula dance of Hawaai and Shiva dance of Samoa are similar to folk dances of Bengal
[4] According to subject matter experts, some of the staple foods and animals have roots in India.
[5] Polynesians believe in Cosmic Egg and World as branches of a tree having roots in this cosmic Egg as described in Bhagwad Gita

 

Cow Milk and Prebiotic Medium

Everyone is talking about probiotic food nowadays. Sadly, this awareness is mostly limited to two jargon 1) Probiotic 2) Prebiotic

Let us try to understand, what they are!

Probiotics are live microorganisms that live in gastrointestinal (GI) tract and are beneficial for their hosts and prevent certain diseases.

Prebiotics are non‐digestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth and activity of probiotic bacteria in the colon. All dietary prebiotics and/or dietary fiber provide the physiological and beneficial effects and, therefore, are considered as essential nutrients.

In post antibiotic obsession era, everyone is now praising microbes. But no one is talking about microbes sustenance medium. Healthy bacteria survives when their environment is potent to provide them continuous nutrition.

Prebiotic – this is where desi zebu cattle milk plays wonder. It is potent prebiotic.

Probiotic benefits
Probiotic benefits

गौर्धयति मरुतां शरवस्युर्माता मघोनाम |
युक्ता वह्नी रथानाम || (ऋगवेद ८-९४-१)

गौ माता दूध पिलाती है, उस दूधसे संतृप्त हो मरुत वीर रथसंचालक (वेगवान) बनते है|

As you read translation, only desi Gau mata’s A2 milk is potent enough to provide them driving force ( रथसंचालक). If such potent medium is not provided (like many Vegan friends find alternative solution in Vegan Dahi made up using coconut or badam or any other nuts) to them, health bacteria may die soon, before reaching to their destination i.e. GUT. Dead probiotic means more danger for digestive track! More efforts to clean the track! Acidity! Ulcer!

Probiotics promote gut health through stimulation, rather than suppression, of the innate immune system. Our first lines of defense are digestive chemistry and innate immunity.

For a probiotic to work it must arrive alive in the colon. They arrive alive only when they have enough food while travelling and are acid proof (Protected from gastric acids). It has been recommended that food containing probiotic bacteria should contain at least 10^6 live micro organisms per g or mL at the time of consumption to have protective effects such as maintenance of normal intestinal micro flora, enhancement of the immune system, reduction of lactose intolerance and anti-cancer activity.
Along with that probiotics should resist the natural barrier of high acidity and bile content in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and show their survivability and activity in the colon.

Only Desi Gau milk based fermentation has both powers. (Do your experiments if you have doubts).

Which Desi Gau milk?

या शर्धाय मारुताय सवभानवे शरवो.अम्र्त्यु धुक्षत |
या मर्ळीके मरुतां तुराणां या सुम्नैरेवयावरी || Rugved – Book 6 – Hymn 48 – Verse 12

Translation
Gau who provides immortal nectar milk for powerful self-illuminating Marut(s); the one who provides happiness/comfort to swift-footed(quick runner) Marut(s), that divine Gau comes to your home only by glorious efforts and actions.

Gau mata can give such nectar milk only when she is worshiped by brave men doing selfless glorious acts for society. Gau seva for selfish motives is not desirable. So if you purchase milk from professional gau shala, you will still will not avail full benefits of nectar. You first need to worship Gau mata whose milk you want to avail. Without worship, you cannot connect with her. Without connecting with her, it is not possible to receive her blessings.

Krishna with Gaia
Krishna with Gaia

Krishna is Krishna due to Gau Mata Seva and Worship. Do we follow him? 🙂

Fundamental fallacy in dairy model is: disconnect between mata and son. Mother can foster best prasad (milk, urine, dung), only when she is taken care best! Factory model of dairy don’t yield benefits described here.

 

Cows are umbilical cord of life on EARTH

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गौ संसार की गर्भनाल है
Cows are umbilical cord of life on EARTH .
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cordj

Imagine this world, this universe as giant womb where you took birth and being groomed constantly by mother nature. Cow is the umbilical cord for us, leveraging life from the universe.

Being mother, such a sublime value she has in our life. What happens to unborn in the womb when the cord is obstructed/cut?

Death. We are almost living dead.

By Shri Subodh Kumar ji:

“5. आ नो यातं दिवो अच्छा पृथिव्या हिरण्ययेन सुवृता रथेन |
मा वाम अन्ये नि यमन्‌ देवयन्तः सं यद ददे नाभिः पूर्व्या वाम || RV4.44.5, AV20.143.5

गौ माता द्वारा भूमि सुन्दर, पर्यावर्ण अनुकूल , जीवन आवागमन के साधन रथादि से समृद्ध सब के लिए समान रूप से बिना भेद भाव के उपलब्ध नियमित बनता है ठीक उसी प्रकार जैसे सब माताएं जन्म से पूर्व अपने गर्भ में भ्रूण को नाभि से समान रूप से नियमित पोषण प्राप्त कराती हैं |

Cows provide total inputs to sustain life by providing excellent environments, soil , food and sources of energy to sustain the life on the universe made available to everyone equally without any discrimination just like a mother that provides complete feed for the fetus in her womb through navel by umbilical cord.”

Indian Education Tragedy : Hijacked Philosophy

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Do you know why movie PK (and alike anti-dharma mockeries) is success?
Do you know why many Indians now laugh on concept of reincarnation, moksha, dharma, artha?

Once it is established in the minds of an oppressed people that they have no glorious history of their own apart from history gifted by oppressors, the history and philosophy written by oppressors becomes legitimized and sometimes even glorified by intellectual leaders of the land!

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Tragedy of Indian Education
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Do you know why many Indians now laugh on concept of reincarnation, moksha, dharma, artha?

Once it is established in the minds of an oppressed people that they have no glorious history of their own apart from history gifted by oppressors, the history and philosophy written by oppressors becomes legitimized and sometimes even glorified by intellectual leaders of the land!

If you want to do survey, do it but it is indeed tragedy that the Departments of philosophy at many Indian universities are based on Hegelian Ideas and their derivatives.

Skills can be global, Education can not be. True Education system is always a local phenomenon. It is important to unveil these pseudo and anti-Bharat philosophers and historians so that upcoming generations find directional change for their progress and feel pride in their roots. It is easy uproot civilization when the citizen don’t feel importance of local culture and values. I am not saying you don’t teach Hegel in college. Just don’t limit yourself to him. Don’t keep him in base of your thinking.

This is the problem with the world. People who think, hardly act. Those who act, hardly thinks. In Bharatiya history, we have ample role models who were Thinkers as well as diligent action-takers. And this list is topped by Krushn. We jailed him behind the bars of Temple, never allowed him in our life, demonstrating true values of leader. Hitlers and Napoleans and Maos, go on doing things, while so-called thinkers, hegel, Kant, Hume, go on thinking…never do anything.

Decide your role model in persisting manner.

Putna, Krishna and Gau

Krishna fighting against Putna src: Google search
Krishna fighting against Putna
src: Google search

Each story has hidden meaning if we learn to decipher. There is popular story known in our cutlure about Avtar Krishna and Demon Putna. And how baby Krishna kills the demon Putna.

The word “Pūtanā”, broken as “Pūt” (virtue) and “nā” (no) means “devoid of virtue”. Another explanation derives “Pūtanā” from “Pūta” (purifying), thus meaning “she who purifies”.Putana (Sanskrit: Pūtanā, lit. “putrefaction”) is a Matrika, who is killed by the infant-god Krishna.

In reality, Putna is a childhood sickness. Often due to post-delivery stress, mother’s milk become vitiated and imbalance of Dosha (Kapha, Pitta, Vayu balance) happens. More often in the case of first time mothers. If child’s mother cannot feed (in case of Krishna, mother was not able to feed), foster-mother feed. If this foster-mother’s intentions are not good, has no love for the child, milk becomes poison. And Putna arrives to kill or hamper the growth of the child.

Due to drinking such milk, infant’s body’s Vayu is aggravated and so infant suffers from Lack of sleep, diarrhea & constant thrist and constant crying. That is Putna.

If not taken care, infant dies. This is one of the primary cause of infant mortality.

Baby-Krishna could survive such vitiated milk. And that is how he killed the Putna!

How?

Solution: घृत ghee (COW GHEE)

” पिप्पली त्रिफला चूर्णं घृत क्षौद्र परिप्लुतम l
बालो रोदिति य: तस्मै: लेढुम दद्यात सुखावहम ll ” ( योग-रत्नाकर – द्वितीय खंड – बालरोग चिकित्सा )

Pippali and trifala churna with ghee and honey.

Needless to mention that Krishna was living with Nanda the Cow expert. So he must have got this treatment immediately. And since he took birth with perfect body, it was easy for him to fight against poisoned milk.

Things to take care:
1) Never give ghee and honey in same quantity i.e. 1 ml ghee + 1 ml honey = this is not preferable.
2) Purity of the sources. Ghee prepared from ethically procured milk and prepared by churning. Honey procured ethically without harming bees.

This is the reason, feeding mother should never take stress of any kind. She should be always cheerful and stress-free. Her food should be rich and wholesome prepared by someone who has highest love for both newly became mother and infant. And so post-delivery, new mother prefers to live with her mother. 🙂

वसुदेवसुतं देवं कंसचाणूरमर्दनम् देवकीपरमानन्दं कृष्णं वंदे जगद्गुरुम्|

Daughter: Vedic Ritual Perspective

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The Daughter is affection incarnate and it is as such that Vedic Literature depicts her. She has never been denied the rights her brother enjoys. A critical analysis will reveal that in the Vedic Ritual, the Daughter is just as important as the son, if not more; as a matter of fact, in many places it would appear as though in ancient India the Daughter was more important for the parents than the son.

If you are indeed following vedic way of living, you will pray for daughter birth. The daughter is for the parents the sum-total of purity, tenderness, affection, devotion and bliss. It is utter ignorance or devilish motive to term Vedic rituals/samskaras exclusively for Male population.

Take for example Pumsavanan Samskara. It has become popular belief by those who follow modern dictionaries written by British indologists that it is Samskara to beget male child and has nothing to do with female child. Utterly nonsensical! If the meaning of the word ‘Pums’ be limited to males only and the Pumsavana be a rite that must be performed, there remains no rite to be performed for the birth of a daughter. But the fact is that the birth of a daughter is most welcome. In Sanskrit literature the word ‘Pums’ does not exclusively mean males alone but is also found used in the sense of human beings in general. Thus, when Varaharnihira says the earth has veins just as the bodies of Pums’ have, the word Pums’ conveys necessarily the sense of human beings, as women too have veins in their bodies. Hemacandra in his Abhidhana-cintamani gives “martya: one who is mortal,” Bhu-sprs:”one who touches (is born on) the earth,” etc. as the synonyms of ‘Pums’. All these necessarily include the sense of women as well. In commenting upon a couplet quoted in the Bhamati which includes the word ‘Pums’ in the genitive plural, Bhatta Gopinatha in his treatise Upodghata says the word Pums means males as well as females. The Asvalayana Srautasutra too uses Pums in the same sense.

Thus, while describing rituals, sutra-kara(s) use masculine noun to represent पुरुषत्व. पुरुषत्व is gender-free quality, like प्रकृति is. In fact, there are places when special feminine mention is required, it is mentioned with specific noun. In fact, analysis of punsavan samskara shows that Girl child is that, sutra-kara(s) raise no objection to the birth of others of her sex, nay, more-they introduce a girl in particular, not a boy!

Here are some popular examples of rituals performed for longing daughter as child and nurturing her with highest divinity:

(1) Parents perform Kaamya-sraddhas on the second day of the moon in the hope of having a daughter.
(2) Desirous of having a daughter, the husband touches all the fingers of the wife except the thumb during the marriage ceremony.
(3) Longing for a daughter the bridegroom shows the bride after she has reached her new horme the Dhruva and other constellations.
(4) The parents deem it a favour of god if they can have sons as well as daughters by their side during the performance of sacrifices.
(5) The Rigveda praises the father of many daughters.
(6) The daughter claims her support from parents not for nothing, but for her devotion to them. They care for her as much as they do for their son; or it may be said-even more, as the father is found to worship the daughter (kumari) as an emblem of Virginity, as an emblem of Purity, of Tenderness. Devotion, and what not.

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Conclusion:
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Just as the Matrika-puja is to take place at the beginning of all Vedic rituals, the Kumari-puja is recommended to be performed at the end of all; and this latter worship, the Daughter-Worship, is impossible in the absence of a daughter as she is to be bodily present. The father wraps her up with new garments, entertains her with delicious dishes and walks round her. From her first year onwards she is worshipped as different deities; if she is one year old, as Sandhya: if two, Sarasvati: and so on. Thus as she grows, the parents find in her different manifestations of the Supreme Soul,-blessing them in every possible way. The daughter is indeed the embodiment of all blessings for the parents and the family.

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Actions to be taken:
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Inspire more and more healthy, sacred, responsible parents who can imbibe best of the best samskara to children, to beget daughter more than son. Daughters can create more and more dharmik families. Creating dharmik families is indeed need of the hour.

Mighty Guru and Mother : Need of the hour

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GuruMother

Where are Ramdas the mighty Guru and Jijabai the mighty maa! We need you back! We pray that you mold one more Shivaji for this land!

Ramdas the mighty Guru and Jijabai the mighty maa are hidden in you and me! We must become one! Shivaji is not ordinary soul! You must toil hard to invite him and take birth again! Toil! Work hard! Become!

Nation and society where mothers are blind like Gandhari and Gurus are helpless like Drona,are destined for annihilation.

जिस देशमें माँ गांधारीकी तरह अंध हो और गुरु द्रोणकी तरह मजबूर हो उस देश और समाजका पतन निश्चित है.

कहाँ है २१वी सदीके जीजाबाई और समर्थ रामदास? Clarion call for you!

Sacred Grove : Lost tradition, lost microbial diversity, lost Prana

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Distribution of Sacred Grove
Distribution of Sacred Grove

Every community of pre-British India had social responsibility to grow and protect groves. They were called sacred groves. There used to be rules defined for accessing these forest wealth. Not everyone can go and chop tree. Not in all seasons. Not all trees. All based on mutually agreed intuitive pro-synergy rules. These rules are sacred rules, considering groves alive and part of respected extended family for all.

What happened then?

We were brainwashed by education and having commune with Nature was taught as primitive and idiotic. Disconnected! There is no one to protect the groves. Now the same movement of brainwashing going in deep forests.

‘Sacred groves’ represents a traditional effort to conserve biodiversity. They are rich patches of undisturbed forests and serve as a natural habitat for many endemic, rare, primitive and economically valuable organisms representing a micro-level biodiversity hotspots.

Bacteria native to the pristine niche of sacred groves showed better plant growth promoting activities as compared to isolates from disturbed forest as well as type strains implicating the importance of sacred groves and their potential role in microbial diversity conservation.

Groves are प्राणवर्धक. Growing food without groves? It is nothing but highly unscientific way of greed-based industry. It cannot be called Agriculture (कृषि). Soil cannot grow प्राणवर्धक food without groves, without biodiversity. Without biodiversity, food lacks प्राण. Without प्राण, who can survive? Of course, we can survive. But like a dead body with little प्राण and anything worth to contribute in universal यज्ञ.

Read this paper to know more:


https://www.researchgate.net/publication/280737139_%27Traditional_Sacred_Groves%27_an_ethnic_strategy_for_conservation_of_microbial_diversity

‘Traditional Sacred Groves’, an ethnic strategy for conservation of microbial diversity


‘Sacred groves’ represents a traditional effort to conserve biodiversity. They are rich patches of undisturbed forests and serve as a natural habitat for many endemic, rare, primitive and economically valuable organisms representing a micro-level biodiversity hotspots. In this study, Bacillus spp. and related genera characterized from native soils of the pristine sacred groves of Meghalaya, India revealed dominance of Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Lysinibacillus and Viridibacillus. All the isolates exhibited good plant growth promoting traits when screened for traits like phosphate solubilization, 1-aminocyclopropane-1- carboxylate deaminase and catalase activity, production of auxin, siderophores, hydrogen cyanide and ammonia. Bacteria native to the pristine niche of sacred groves showed better plant growth promoting activities as compared to isolates from disturbed forest as well as type strains implicating the importance of sacred groves and their potential role in microbial diversity conservation.

Conclusion

Sacred groves are of great research value in in situ
conservation of biodiversity. Understanding the
potential roles played by sacred groves in in situ
biodiversity conservation, it would have greater
appeal if efforts are diverted to inventorize the
existing biodiversity, especially the species that
might be of economic importance or facing
extinction. The present study is the first report on
the indigenous aerobic endospore-forming Bacillus
and related genera from the pristine and undisturbed
sacred groves prevalent in the tropical belt of
Meghalaya, India. The observations lead to the
conclusion that Bacillus and related genera isolates
obtained from the sacred groves exhibits stronger
activity and more PGP traits than the disturbed forest
isolates indicating their strong potential as candidates
for promoting plant growth in agriculture and also the
important contribution of sacred groves as a rich
source of economically valuable microbes hence
signifies the relevance of ethnic strategy and efforts
for conservation of these pristine forests

 

 

Sangathan Sukta : Seeds of Democracy

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http://www.static.sanjeevnitoday.com/resources/uploads/ALL%20NEWS/29012016/The-trade-union-will-strike-on-March-10.jpg
http://www.static.sanjeevnitoday.com/resources/uploads/ALL%20NEWS/29012016/The-trade-union-will-strike-on-March-10.jpg

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Seeds of democracy
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ओम् सं समिद्युवसे वृषन्नग्ने विश्वान्यर्य आ।
इलस्पदे समिध्यसे स नो वसून्या भर ||

सग्ङ्च्छध्वं सं वदध्वं सं वो मनांसि जानताम् ।
देव भागं यथा पूर्वे सं जानाना उपासते ||

समानो मन्त्रः समितिः समानी मनः सह चित्तेषाम्।
समानं मन्त्रभिमन्त्रये वः समानेन वा हविषा जुहोमि ||

समानी व आकूतिः समाना हृदयानि वः ।
समानमस्तु वो मनो यथा वः सुसहासति ||

हे प्रभो! तुम शक्तिशाली हो बनाते सृष्टि को । वेद सब गाते तुम्हें हैं कीजिये धन वृष्टि को ||
प्रेम से मिलकर चलो बोलो सभी ज्ञानी बनो। पूर्वजों की भांति तुम कर्तव्य के मानी बनो ||
हों विचार समान सब के चित्त मन सब एक हों । ज्ञान देता हूँ बराबर भोग्य पा सब नेक हों ||
हों सभी के दिल तथा संकल्प अवरोधी सदा ।मन भरे हों प्रेम से जिस से बढ़े सुख सम्पदा ||

What is your nature like? Swine or Swan?

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What is your nature(स्वभाव)? Swine like or Swan like?
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Swan_Swine
Some people have swine tendency of interacting with environment. Like swine, they cannot distinguish between mud and matter of concern and intake everything. They read everything. They watch everything. They talk on everything. Good, bad, grotesque – don’t matter to them. Perceptions created by muddy inputs – don’t matter to them. They love to remain chaos and diseased state. Mutations are normal conditions for them.

Strikingly different, unlike swine, some have Swan tendency. They are skilled in identifying pollutants and stay away from pollutants. They remain in company of good. They ignore bad. They have discrimination power.

**How do you eat? Like swine (Fast food, trite food) or swan (Satvik ,pure, fresh and nutritive food, irrespective of tastes)?

**How do you breathe? Like swine (irregular, unscientific) or like Swan (Rhythmic, scientific, accordance with nature of respiratory system)

**What do read? Like swine (anything, junk newspapers, gossip crap on page 3) or like swan (editorials, research papers)?

**What do you watch? Like swine (anything and everything that comes on channels, Cricket (or Football) or like Swan (Selective, helpful, light entertainment which cannot carry your mind out after watching)?

Intake determines perceptions. Enquire before intake. Like swan, unlike swine.
An endless science, as we know, is grammar.
And life is short; the hindrances are many.
Essentials keep, leaving the non-essential,
As swans drink up the milk, but leave the water
-पंचतंत्र

” By him who is free from passion what is to be left [i. e. Nature] is left, and what is to be taken [i. e. Soul] is taken; as in the case of the swan and the milk.”‘
– Samkhya aphorism

“Others see not the difference when water is mixed with milk, but the
swan at once separates the milk and the water; so too when the
souls are absorbed in the supreme Brahman, the Lord,-the faithful,
who have received the Guru’s words, can at once draw a difference between them.”
-Tattva Muktavali

श्रेयश्च प्रेयश्च मनुष्यमेत: तौ सम्परीत्य विविनक्ति धीर: |
श्रेयो हि धीरोभिप्रेयसो वॄणीते प्रेयो मन्दो षोगक्षेमाद् वॄणीते ||
-कठ उपनिषद्

Both the good (Shreyas) and the pleasant (Preyas) approch the man. The wise man pondering over them, makes his choice. The wise(Swan) chooses the good (Shreyas) in preference to the pleasant (Preyas). The fool (simple-minded swine) for the sake of worldly-being prefers the pleasant (preyas)
-Katha Upanishad

This is the reason; iconography of Maa Saraswati – goddess of knowledge – is not completed without swan – the discriminative ability described by Bhagwad Gita.

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The aquatic bird swan lives on lakes that abound in lotuses, and subsists in a measure upon the underground stalk of the lotus plant (such a stalk is called bisa), whose joint (granthi), when crushed (bhagna), exudes a juice designated by the word ksira, which is also a common name for milk. Thus the bird, as it floats on the lake, may be said to drink ksira or milk out of water.

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