Childhood

Childhood

Child deprived of Sleep and playtime : Mental disorders

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SleepPlay

Two activities are predominant in childhood. 1) Sleep 2) Play

->Early admission to school (Systemic methodical learning) compromises both.
->Early exposure to TV/Mobile/Screen entertainment compromises both.
->Nuclear family setup (living alone,away from larger family) compromises second.
->Early exposure to talent race (Acting competition, Dancing competition, Memory competition etc) compromises second.

Sleeping and Playing both activates same area of brain. This area is responsible for dynamically stabilizing body and social development. Neurons associated with each other in more complex manner if children spend their time in Sleep and Play more than any other activity. More complex neurons, better ground for adult skills like decision power, creativity, risk taking ability etc.

Take care.

Btw, majority adults behave childishly because they too are deprived of sleep and play 😉

Age 21 is the pinnacle age as far as our physiological development is concerned. From 21, biological downfall starts, slowly, unnoticed. (Ayurveda prescribed that children should not get involved in heavy endurance exercises. Let them play. There is a correlation. Just a hint. Separate topic) Downfall becomes rapid when you cross 30. More rapid when you cross 40. By the time you reach 50, you start feeling the ‘retiring’ feeling.

21 – This is the time when one should start paying attention to maintain equilibrium of the body balanced food, sleep and exercise. If you are in 30s, still there is a chance, start exercise! Running, swimming, real sports (Not cricket but basketball, football, hockey for 30 minutes at least), hiking, climbing, digging!

Exercise, plays vital role. Especially endurance exercise. Exercise, especially endurance exercise, is known to have beneficial effects on brain health and cognitive function. This improvement in cognitive function with exercise has been most prominently observed in the aging population. Exercise has also been reported to ameliorate outcomes in neurological diseases like depression, epilepsy, stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease.

As per this research [1] , endurance exercise induces FNDC5, a muscle protein. This induced protein helps inducing Bdnf (Brain-derived neurotrophic factor), a secreted protein, a growth factor. BDNF activity is correlated with increased long term potentiation and neurogenesis, which can be induced by physical activity. Long term potentiation is shown to improve learning and memory by strengthening the communication between specific neurons.

If you do not want your brain cells (neurons) to die prematurely, If you have started feeling midlife crisis, started forgetting things; Exercise is your ultimate solution.


Research


Animals that play a lot quickly learn how to navigate the world and adapt it. In short, they are smarter.

Jaak Panksepp (June 5, 1943 – April 18, 2017) was an Estonian-American neuroscientist and psychobiologist who coined the term “affective neuroscience”, the name for the field that studies the neural mechanisms of emotion.

His research suggests that active play selectively stimulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor (which stimulates nerve growth) in the amygdala (where emotions get processed) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (where executive decisions are processed).

Teens are under depression and committing suicide not because of some game but due to lack of social interaction and play time. And even if teens are engaged in play, they deprive sleep due to excessive screen addiction. Effect of play is nullified due to lack of sleep. If you play, you need sleep (or rather rest). Ever exciting nervous system surrenders and body succumb to unforeseen mental disorders.

Can PLAY Diminish ADHD and Facilitate the Construction of the Social Brain?

Refhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2242642/

The diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) has been increasing at an alarming rate, paralleled by the prescription of highly effective psychostimulants whose developmental effects on growing brains remain inadequately characterized. One reason for the increasing incidence of ADHD may be the diminishing availability of opportunities for pre-school children to engage in natural self-generated social play. Pre-clinical work indicates that play can facilitate behavioral inhibition in growing animals, while psychostimulants reduce playfulness. The idea that intensive social play interventions, throughout early childhood, may alleviate ADHD symptoms remains to be evaluated. As an alternative to the use of play-reducing psychostimulants, society could establish play “sanctuaries” for at-risk children in order to facilitate frontal lobe maturation and the healthy development of pro-social minds.

Socially-induced brain ‘fertilization’: play promotes brain derived neurotrophic factor transcription in the amygdala and dorsolateral frontal cortex in juvenile rats.

Ref: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12676333

Rough and tumble (R&T) play is assumed to have beneficial effects in developing organisms. To evaluate this idea, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression was evaluated in 32-day-old juvenile rats that were allowed to play for 30 min prior to sacrifice. In situ hybridization for BDNF mRNA revealed that the amygdala and dorsolateral frontal cortex had significantly elevated BDNF mRNA expression as a result of play. These effects suggest that play may help program higher brain regions involved in emotional behaviors.

 

Exercise Induces Hippocampal BDNF through a PGC-1α/FNDC5 Pathway

[1] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S155041311300377X

Exercise can improve cognitive function and has been linked to the increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms driving the elevation of this neurotrophin remain unknown. Here we show that FNDC5, a previously identified muscle protein that is induced in exercise and is cleaved and secreted as irisin, is also elevated by endurance exercise in the hippocampus of mice. Neuronal Fndc5 gene expression is regulated by PGC-1α, and Pgc1a−/− mice show reduced Fndc5expression in the brain. Forced expression of FNDC5 in primary cortical neurons increases Bdnf expression, whereas RNAi-mediated knockdown of FNDC5 reduces Bdnf. Importantly, peripheral delivery of FNDC5 to the liver via adenoviral vectors, resulting in elevated blood irisin, induces expression of Bdnf and other neuroprotective genes in the hippocampus. Taken together, our findings link endurance exercise and the important metabolic mediators, PGC-1α and FNDC5, with BDNF expression in the brain.

Digitized Childhood, Dumb Adulthood

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For any artificial virtual perceptions, kids are too Young. Children who started watching television before their first birthday, and who watched more than two hours per day, were six times more likely to have language delays than children in a control group.[1]
There are many other detrimental effects on their mental and physical growth.

When your kid is glued to any of the mentioned screen(Mobile/TV/Tablet), he or she is disconnected from you and environment. Virtual mediums are one way mediums. There is no two way-communication. If a Kid touches a tree, there is a sensible response. If a kid does eye contact with any adult, there is a response. Screens don’t respond mentally/emotionally. This lead to potential disconnect. It delays brain development. You may think your kid is smart to learn operating of gadget but that is natural since their mind is by default operative and tend to learn operations quickly. What they lack is emotions as response. So only operating skills improve and overall development gets hampered.

They learn best when there is live human response. Toys help developing operative skills. If you replace humans with screens, they don’t get exposure to humans and so delay in development.

Wise parents keep kids away from screen as much as possible. Wise friends and relatives don’t give their mobiles to kids as a gesture of play.


Side note


Some fellow parents complain about chronic cough and constant whooping by their kids. Re-check – do you expose more to screens? It may be the reason!

” in the first two years of life, the brain triples in size. Connections that form in the brain, or synapses, are based on early life experiences. Prolonged exposure to rapid image changes during these first years of critical brain development preconditions the mind to expect high levels of stimulation. This, in turn, leads to inattention in later years. Studies on the impact of media have shown that the more kids watch TV before the age of three, the more likely they are to have attention problems in school. ”

Compare generation of 80s, 90s, 2000s and now. Day by day, they are becoming hyper but silly.

What I observe is, when parents are not able to respond Kid’s cry, they give mobile phone to keep them at peace. What a miserable parenting!


Research


Television viewing associates with delayed language development.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18460044

RESULTS:

Forty-six boys and 10 girls; mean [+/-SD] age, 2.11+/-0.47 years of the case group and 59 boys and 51 girls; mean [+/-SD] age, 2.23+/-0.80 years of the control group were enrolled. Children who had language delay usually started watching television earlier at age 7.22+/-5.52 months vs. 11.92+/-5.86 months, p-value<0.001 and also spent more time watching television than normal children (3.05+/-1.90 h/day vs. 1.85+/-1.18 h/day; p-value<0.001). Children who started watching television at<12 months of age and watched television>2 h/day were approximately six times more likely to have language delays.

CONCLUSIONS:

There is a relationship between early onset and high frequency of TV viewing and language delay.

Children, Modern Toys, Household plastic and Chemical Cocktail

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For a growing child, every moment is learning. Learn, forget, re-learn and master the life. To do this, they seek help from toys. Toys provide them artificial simulation opportunities.

Over the past century, toys have become the focus of a massive industry, the opening wedge for the commoditization of childhood, icons of cultural controversy, subjects of serious (and not-so-serious) scholarship, and sometimes even tools for psychological research.

To avoid anti-growth effects of toys, it is important to keep them simple. Since this is not the topic for this note, we will park it aside.

Most toys in India are dumped by China, made up of toxic plastic. Even branded toys. Here are some researches related to plastic toys.


Research


Endocrine disrupting chemicals in baby teethers

http://www.goethe-university-frankfurt.de/55655899/041

In laboratory tests, two out of ten teethers, plastic toys used to sooth babies’ teething ache, release endocrine disrupting chemicals. One product contains parabens, which are normally used as preservatives in cosmetics, while the second contains six so-far unidentified endocrine disruptors.

“Our study shows that plastic toys are a source of undesirable chemicals. Manufacturers, regulatory agencies and scientists should investigate the chemical exposure from plastic toys more thoroughly”, Wagner concludes from the study. The additives have only limited benefits for the quality of the product, but can represent a potential health issue. This is especially true for babies and infants, whose development is orchestrated by a delicately balanced hormonal control and who are more susceptible to chemicals exposures than adults.

Household Chemicals May Impair Thyroid in Young Girls

EXPOSURE TO PHTHALATES IS LINKED TO DEPRESSED FUNCTION IN THE “MASTER CONTROLLER” OF BRAIN DEVELOPMENT, POTENTIALLY EXPLAINING KNOWN PHTHALATE-RELATED COGNITIVE PROBLEMS

Early childhood exposures to specific phthalates were associated with depressed thyroid function in girls at age 3, according to scientists at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health. Phthalates, a class of chemicals thought to disrupt the endocrine system, are widely used in consumer products from plastic toys to household building materials to shampoos.

https://www.mailman.columbia.edu/public-health-now/news/household-chemicals-may-impair-thyroid-young-girls

Is there something up with stinky inflatable pool toys?

http://www.springer.com/gp/about-springer/media/research-news/all-english-research-news/is-there-something-up-with-stinky-inflatable-pool-toys-/12218368

Inflatable toys and swimming aids, like bathing rings and arm bands, often have a distinctive smell which could indicate that they contain a range of potentially hazardous substances. Some of these compounds, which include carbonyl compounds, cyclohexanone, phenol and isophorone, might be critical when present in higher concentrations in children’s toys, say Christoph Wiedmer and Andrea Buettner, who are authors of a study in the journal Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry (ABC), which is published by Springer.

Lead author Wiedmer (Fraunhofer Institute for Process Engineering and Packaging IVV in Germany) and his team conducted tests using an inflatable beach ball, a pair of swimming armbands and two bathing rings they bought off the shelf from local stores and online suppliers in Germany. A small piece of material from each sample was analysed using a variety of material analysis techniques, including one that takes infrared measurements, and it was concluded that the inflatable objects were all made from polyvinyl chloride (PVC).

The researchers then investigated the molecular make-up of the distinctive smells arising from the pool toys. They extracted detectable odours from each sample using solvent extraction and high vacuum distillation methods, and then identified the main odorants using a combination of sensory and common analytical approaches.

Between 32 and 46 odours were detected in each sample, of which up to thirteen were quite intense. The majority of these odorants were identified and among these were several fatty smelling mono- or di-unsaturated carbonyl compounds and their epoxidised derivatives, but also odouractive organic solvents such as cyclohexanone, isophorone, and phenol.

 

 

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