Child Development

Child Development

What is Sanskar?

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Sanskar
Sanskar
Img src: http://songsmp3.net/assets/images/1/65907-Sanskar%20(1950).jpg

 

Word ‘संस्कार’ is translated as ‘Ceremony’ and many vital phases of life are reduced to mere mechanical rituals and the want of a peculiar indefinable moral and vigorous excellence of a man for whom he/she underwent the process, is generally missing.

संस्कार : Purification of body, mind and intellect by liquidating impurities arose during journey of immortal soul from one body to another, one life to another. If performed with the intention mentioned, individual becomes fit to live co-operative life in family, community, society, Nation and world by performing his righteous duties and enjoying fruits of संस्कारs sown for pure and conditioned body,mind and intellect. And the process of nebulizing संस्कारs starts not when a child is born but when the very idea of conception is conceived by couple to resist impurities (of body,mind and intellect) and have healthy co-operative living.

Consequences of missing right Sanskar at right age : We witness all around. 🙁

Kids, Entertainment, Marketing and Exploitation

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childlabor

If child labor is illegal, then why employing children to sell useless products and mass-brainwashing children/society as slave is legal?

Observe. Majority ads now employ kids for one or another way.

In 2008, an estimated 17 million children watched the Superbowl with their families. Alongside the football, they also watched a number of highly creative and engaging ads for beer and alcohol.

In India, kids watch IPL and condom ads together. In one of the multiplex in city (Inox group), toilet is covered with condom ads. You cannot go with kids to restrooms.

The marketing of adult entertainment to children has been, and continues to be, an ongoing issue between government regulators and various media industries. In a report released in 2000, the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) took movie, music and video games industries to task for routinely marketing violent entertainment to young children. Subsequent reports since then have shown that although advances have been made – particularly within the video game industry – there are still many outstanding concerns relating to the frequency that adult-oriented entertainment is marketed to children and the ease with which many under-age youth are able to access adult-rated games, movies and music. [6] Specific areas where the FTC is calling on entertainment media to improve on include restricting the marketing of mature-rated products to children, clearly and prominently disclosing rating information and restricting children’s access to mature-rated products at retail. [7]

Kids represent an important demographic to marketers because in addition to their own purchasing power (which is considerable) they influence their parents’ buying decisions and are the adult consumers of the future.

According to the 2008 YTV Kids and Tweens Report, kids influence:

Breakfast choices (97% of the time) and lunch choices (95% of the time).
Where to go for casual family meals (98% of the time) (with 34% of kids always having a say on the choice of casual restaurant).
Clothing purchases (95% of the time).
Software purchases (76% of the time) and computer purchases (60% of the time).
Family entertainment choices (98% of the time) and family trips and excursions (94% of the time). [0]

Fact 1: The average child sees nearly 40,000 commercials a year, about 110 a day. [1]
Fast 2: Children under seven are especially vulnerable to marketing messages. Research shows that they are unable to distinguish commercial motives from benign or benevolent motives. [2]
Fact 3: More and more Ads now demo Children with VETO power (Parents? Who are they to take out decision attitude)

When you apply common sense to fact 1,2,3 and paint a picture – you derive a ugly picture of society. Keep your family out of this trend/mess.

[0] Poulton, Terry. “ ‘Kidfulence’ on family spending strong: YTV Report.” Media in Canada. February 22, 2008.

[1] Kunkel, D. 2002 “Children and Television Advertising,” Handbook of Children and the Media. Eds. Singer, D., and Singer, J. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
[2] http://jbd.sagepub.com/content/26/6/529.abstract
[6] Federal Trade Commission (2009). FTC Renews Call to Entertainment Industry to Curb Marketing of Violent Entertainment to Children. http://www.narm.com/PDF/FTCReport_1209.pdf
[7] Ibid.

Science of sUtikA gRRiha vs Modern Hospital, Gut Bacteria, Antibiotics

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Child birth
Child birth

For 1000s of years, we had practice of child birth at honme. सूतिका गृह  was prepared and managed for child birth. There were specifications for it. Panchgavya was part of the setup. (Cow dung, urine,milk, ghee,curd). Honey was part of the setup. Ghee lamp too. Everything to instill healthy Prana and yet keep the environment like womb.

The antibiotics given to many killed mother’s bacteria, and bacteria in NICU took over

This is very simple. Common sense. When child comes out from the sterile protected womb ( actually it is not sterile but modern medicine’s dogmas say so), it will be nurtured by the Prana of the mother and the local environment where it is born.

In our local villages practices, there is no mass-assembly like place for newborns and infants. Instead, they (mother, infant and caretaker – just three) live in highly customized सूतिका गृह for 1 to 3 to 6 months. No issue like what is mentioned in this article.

There are specifications mentioned in Ayurvedic Samhitas about architecture and facilities for सूतिका गृह. It demands research efforts from us. गौ-गोबर,घी,दही,मूत्र,दूध – without them, it is difficult to build healthy and life-enriching सूतिका गृह (As I read so far – this is my conclusion)

Till 80s, children used to take birth at home and the doctor / helper visit individual home for delivery.

We have now forced the alteration in this common sense practice.
Now, child is delivered in hospitals. So sterile Prana of newborn is out of control from birth. We really don’t have any control!

“Babies typically get their gut bacteria from their mothers during childbirth. Premature infants, however, receive antibiotics during their first week of life to prevent infections, and these antibiotics eliminate many of the microbes the infants receive from their mothers.

As a result, microbes from the NICU colonize the digestive tracts of premature infants, the University of California, Berkeley, researchers found.”

My suggestions (Even my son did not receive this better treatment 🙁 due to lack of common sense then 🙁

1) Prefer home-based delivery ( This is impossible in current scenario as doctor won’t agree with it and there is hardly art of traditional care exist in society)

2) Prefer small clinics with no general purpose rooms. (Rooms exclusively used for newborn and mothers). Smaller the facility (small does not mean lack of coziness but low no of beds), lower the chances of unpredicted microbes occupying newborn GUT.


Research


Gut Bacteria in Preemies Altered by Hospital Stay, Study Finds

https://consumer.healthday.com/caregiving-information-6/hospital-news-393/gut-bacteria-in-preemies-altered-by-hospital-stay-study-finds-684245.html

The antibiotics given to many killed mother’s bacteria, and bacteria in NICU took over

Gut bacteria in premature infants don’t come from their mothers, but from microbes in the neonatal intensive-care unit (NICU), a new study finds.

Babies typically get their gut bacteria from their mothers during childbirth. Premature infants, however, receive antibiotics during their first week of life to prevent infections, and these antibiotics eliminate many of the microbes the infants receive from their mothers.

As a result, microbes from the NICU colonize the digestive tracts of premature infants, the University of California, Berkeley, researchers found.

The researchers swabbed the most-touched surfaces in an NICU and collected fecal samples from two premature infants in the unit. The surfaces checked for microbes included the sink; feeding and breathing tubes; the hands of health workers and parents; incubator access knobs; and keyboards, cell phones and other electronic equipment at the nurses’ station.

The researchers found that the gut bacteria in the two infants were similar to those found on the surfaces in the intensive-care unit. The most abundant types of gut bacteria in the infants were similar to those found on feeding and breathing tubes.

The study was published recently in the journal Microbiome.

“The most common species found in our study — Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis — all have been associated with disease in preterm infants, but can also be commonly isolated from healthy infants and adults,” study author Brandon Brooks said in a journal news release.

“The strains found here are largely opportunistic, lacking many of the really nasty genes found in ‘outbreak’ versions of their respective strains,” Brooks said. “The bacteria would need to be further tested to fully understand [any potential threat].”

Teeth Cleaning, Mental Development And Autism

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Datun

कदम्बे तु धृतिर्मेधा चम्पके च दृढा मतिः |
अपामार्गे धृतिर्मेधा प्रज्ञाशक्तिस्तथाऽसने ||
– भावप्रकाश संहिता
कदम्बकी दातौनसे धृति एवं मेधा , चंपासे वाणी सुननेकी शक्ति ,अपामार्गसे धैर्य और बुद्धि और विजयसारसे बुद्धि शक्ति बढ़ती है ।

CAN your modern toothpaste provide you these benefits? This verse can work very well with children suffering from Autism type disorders. Harmless and effective.

In form of modern day toothpaste, we actually take first dose of daily poison. 🙂 In the long run, randomly, it is toxic disaster for many.

Year-End Sales: Save your kids from marketing perverts

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There is marketing lesson taught in many MBA schools. ==> “Pick them early. As early as you can. By hook or crook. By toys, cartoons and movies.”

This is not festival celebration. This is process of making consumers out of innocent kids. Future customer base creation.

We also played with गुड्डा/गुडिया but not under such intense marketing gimmicks.

In name of toys, little girls are brainwashed to make up like imaginary character. Behave like adults. Talk and walk like adults.

—————————–
Child body is not Adult body
Child mind is not adult mind
Do we realize the havoc when we force kids to imitate adults?
Do we realize the impact of media, entertainment and so called liberal product marketing impact?
—————————–

Even though, they share same human body, Children are not “Little Adults”. 🙂 Their state of living is radically different from adult needs.
Our highly mechanized and materialistic living ignore this.

The radical difference is not just growing body vs aging body but the re-sketching (because I believe in re-birth) of mind from the scratch. And we treat them with same sick adult food and entertainment. 🙂

Can you imagine the impact? You and me won’t realize the pain of early puberty (as we had relatively better mind-space in absence of Television and mobile) but our kids will. Grown up adult body with same growing mind/psyche. 🙁 Thanks to food for body and mind we can best offer to them in present urban environment.

No wonder why we had Gurukul, away from Grihasthi life, in jungles, protecting childhood innocence and nurturing it by mother nature’s magic wands.


🙁
They are shown dreams to buy merchandise associated with doll. From make up to bed to fans to TV to what not! Consumer more! And live in imaginary world!

Things don’t stop here. When kids grow up, they become faithful customers of the system.

Being part of the same system, I see my son slowly getting consumed 🙁 Feeling helpless?

Take radical steps. Alone, you cannot. Form a tribe of like-minded parents. Spend spare time together, away from toxic influence of entertainment and market.

 

Vata Prakop : Cracked heels

PS: Young married couple: If you see any of Vata symptom in each other, treat it before you plan for progeny. This is to unnecessary avoid Vata as birth Prakruti.

Vayu Prakop - Normal in middle age
Vayu Prakop – Normal in middle age

Cracked heels (Benign Vipadika) is a symptom of Vata Prakop. Vipadika is a common disorder of skin which affects the people irrespective of age and sex. It is not limited to any particular class in the society. Its signs and symptoms according to charaka are pani pada sphutana and teevra vedana.

This used to be middle age symptom indicating gradual increase of Vata with aging. But now a days, I see college going youth suffering from this – Clear indication of untimely and early onset of aggravated Vata.

When it becomes prolonged or spread in entire body, we call it कुष्ठ / Leprosy.

Solution:

1) Apply warm sesame oil or ghee cooked with turmeric and hareettaki.
2) Soak the feet in warm salt water daily for 5-10 mins
3) Apply mixture of castor oil and turmeric on cracks
4) Apply mixture of castor oil and turmeric + Triphala on cracks

Putna, Krishna and Gau

Krishna fighting against Putna src: Google search
Krishna fighting against Putna
src: Google search

Each story has hidden meaning if we learn to decipher. There is popular story known in our cutlure about Avtar Krishna and Demon Putna. And how baby Krishna kills the demon Putna.

The word “Pūtanā”, broken as “Pūt” (virtue) and “nā” (no) means “devoid of virtue”. Another explanation derives “Pūtanā” from “Pūta” (purifying), thus meaning “she who purifies”.Putana (Sanskrit: Pūtanā, lit. “putrefaction”) is a Matrika, who is killed by the infant-god Krishna.

In reality, Putna is a childhood sickness. Often due to post-delivery stress, mother’s milk become vitiated and imbalance of Dosha (Kapha, Pitta, Vayu balance) happens. More often in the case of first time mothers. If child’s mother cannot feed (in case of Krishna, mother was not able to feed), foster-mother feed. If this foster-mother’s intentions are not good, has no love for the child, milk becomes poison. And Putna arrives to kill or hamper the growth of the child.

Due to drinking such milk, infant’s body’s Vayu is aggravated and so infant suffers from Lack of sleep, diarrhea & constant thrist and constant crying. That is Putna.

If not taken care, infant dies. This is one of the primary cause of infant mortality.

Baby-Krishna could survive such vitiated milk. And that is how he killed the Putna!

How?

Solution: घृत ghee (COW GHEE)

” पिप्पली त्रिफला चूर्णं घृत क्षौद्र परिप्लुतम l
बालो रोदिति य: तस्मै: लेढुम दद्यात सुखावहम ll ” ( योग-रत्नाकर – द्वितीय खंड – बालरोग चिकित्सा )

Pippali and trifala churna with ghee and honey.

Needless to mention that Krishna was living with Nanda the Cow expert. So he must have got this treatment immediately. And since he took birth with perfect body, it was easy for him to fight against poisoned milk.

Things to take care:
1) Never give ghee and honey in same quantity i.e. 1 ml ghee + 1 ml honey = this is not preferable.
2) Purity of the sources. Ghee prepared from ethically procured milk and prepared by churning. Honey procured ethically without harming bees.

This is the reason, feeding mother should never take stress of any kind. She should be always cheerful and stress-free. Her food should be rich and wholesome prepared by someone who has highest love for both newly became mother and infant. And so post-delivery, new mother prefers to live with her mother. 🙂

वसुदेवसुतं देवं कंसचाणूरमर्दनम् देवकीपरमानन्दं कृष्णं वंदे जगद्गुरुम्|

Newborns and step-by-step Sensorial Inputs

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Sensosial Overload
Sensosial Overload

 

Imagine, someone start DJ loud speakers at midnight when you are deep sleep? What will be your reaction?

Do we like erratic perceptions? So often we oppose noise pollution. Chaotic visuals make us nervous. Information overload makes us stressful. Even with matured and developed senses.

Newborn Universe
Newborn Universe

When a child comes out of water-melon sized uterus at birth, its universe expands suddenly! We must not add chaos in new life! Let there be expansion of the universe step by step. For this, we have different Sanskars. Learn 16 Sanskar rituals. Only after 4 months, child is introduced to real universe. Till then, mother remains as universe and the Sutika Gruh as expanded womb.

Imagine torture we gift to newborns in society. Just after delivery, huge crowd of friends and relatives bombard high dosage of erratic and chaotic input signals to underdeveloped senses of newborn. Not only humans, but their pet-gadgets too, throwing powerful flash lights.

Things don’t stop on birth day. This is just a beginning. When infant moves to home, new pet-gadgets and their unnecessary input signals become overburden for developing senses.

In our culture, there is a custom to introduce infant to different level of sensory input signals step by step. First, let there be womb like environment. Infant, mother and their caretaker (mostly mother’s mother) for first 3 months. Only father and blood relatives are allowed glimpses. 4th month onwards, introduce Nature and other distant relatives. Step by step, in humble interest of wellbeing of all future citizens.

Stop exploiting kids. Avoid your gadget freakiness in front of them. Let them remain close to mother and nature for few years.

Action items:
• Avoid flash light camera exposure for first 6 months.
• Avoid crowd in first 3 months.
• Avoid travelling for first year.
• Avoid noisy environment (marriages, functions, fire-crackers, DJ systems)
• Introduce family step by step
• Handle developing sense as if you are handling fragile utensils.
• Avoid TV, mobile, laptop exposure for first 3 years.

Use common sense. Mother nature is kind enough to guide.

Sound of Mother’s voice : Aid for Fetal Brain growth

Ramayana

Tragedy of our times is that while mother should engage in life-enriching conversations with the womb, she has to attend conference calls, meetings, mobile games, whatsapp and all.

Imagine the frustration of the child in the womb for beginning life with such non-responsive parents?

I know few couples, who stopped using TV, mobile and all as soon as they realized to have a baby. Worth. Take care. Try it.


Even after birth, for first 2 years, dedicate your maximum time to child.

In India, grand mother prescribes pregnant females at home to read Ramayana and Mahabharata aloud. Instead, most of them now watch TV all the time :).
 
They suggest to sing Halarda to kids during sleeping time, but instead moms start mp3 on mobile :D.
 
Do you know why? Here is the hint:
 
“”Babies begin to hear at 25 weeks’ gestation, and they’re exposed to the mother’s voice and heartbeat,” Lahav said. “If you put them inside the incubator for five to six weeks, you’re actually depriving them of these maternal exposures to the mother’s voice. The incubator is seemingly a wonderful piece of equipment. But at the same time, it’s like a social cage.””
 
Even after birth, babies seek continuous hearing from mother. Her presence and voice help baby a lot in ongoing physical and mental development.
 
If I become Health Minister or can influence present minister, I will give full 2 years paid leaves to working mothers. 🙂
——————-
Research
——————

Sound of Mother’s Voice in Womb May Aid Fetal Brain Growth

Study of preemies who heard recordings from mom showed larger auditory cortex

Babies may get a brain boost in the womb when they hear the voices and heartbeats of their mothers, a new study suggests.

Researchers studying premature babies in the hospital found that the sound centers in the babies’ brains grew more quickly when they heard recordings of their mothers rather than the normal clamor of intensive care units. The recordings were manipulated to simulate sounds heard in a womb.

It’s not clear what this means in the long run, “but it shows how important it is for mothers to interact with their premature babies when they visit,” said study co-author Amir Lahav, an assistant professor of pediatrics at Harvard Medical School in Boston.

Babies born prematurely often suffer from hearing and language problems, Lahav explained, and the researchers wanted to know more about how they’re affected by the weeks they spend in an incubator instead of in their mother’s womb.

“Babies begin to hear at 25 weeks’ gestation, and they’re exposed to the mother’s voice and heartbeat,” Lahav said. “If you put them inside the incubator for five to six weeks, you’re actually depriving them of these maternal exposures to the mother’s voice. The incubator is seemingly a wonderful piece of equipment. But at the same time, it’s like a social cage.”

The study findings probably apply to all babies, one expert noted.

Previous research has shown that fetuses respond to the sound of the mother’s voice. At birth, babies take notice “and say, ‘Hey, that’s what I was waiting for,’ ” said Janet Werker, a psychology professor at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver.

“There’s very strong evidence that at birth, full-term babies show strong preference for the language they heard in utero and the voice of their mother over other women,” she said.

But it’s not clear if the mother’s voice is the only important one, since exposure to other voices could be just as critical, Werker added.

For this latest study, the researchers chose a group of premature babies who were born at 25 to 32 weeks. Nineteen were randomly assigned to hear the normal noises of the hospital, while 21 heard recordings of the voices and heartbeats of their mothers. The second group listened to the recordings for three hours a day.

http://consumer.healthday.com/cognitive-health-information-26/brain-health-news-80/mother-s-voice-may-help-hearing-centers-in-babies-brains-grow-696746.html

Cow and Bee: Diet for Pregnancy and Childhood : Blood-Brain barrier and Gut

Cow and Bee to Save Our Sanity
Cow and Bee to Save Our Sanity

=================
Part 1 Diet regime for children and pregnancy
=================

Some facts from cultural practices related to pregnancy and childhood care.

1) There is an Ayurvedic sutra which prescribes 4 types of rice preparation for pregnant women. Out of which, curd-rice is considered the best. It is said that, if Garbhini eats curd-rice daily, the child will develop unimagined Medha buddhi (intellect) which is enough to understand and realize all 4 Veda(s) (Mind you: To realize even 1 hymn of Veda is super hard work for ordinary minds like us).
2) In last three months of pregnancy, Ayurveda prescribes increased amount of ghee. This is the same time when neural development, neuron network development happens in brain at highly rapid speed.
3) For child below age7, ghee and honey are most important food items. Needless to maintain chaas (butter milk) and Curd (dahi). This is the also highly active brain development period.
Dahi, butter milk, Ghee, Honey – They all are carrier of healthy bacteria. They all are in fact full of healthy bacteria. They are full of prana Shakti which can help healthy bacteria to establish in Gut.
Now, let us understand latest research findings.

=================
Part 2 Blood–brain barrier & GUT
=================

Gut and Brain barrier
Gut and Brain barrier

The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective permeability barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain extracellular fluid (BECF) in the central nervous system (CNS).

The findings suggest that a woman’s diet or exposure to antibiotics during pregnancy may influence the development of this barrier.

The blood–brain barrier may prevent the entry of lipophilic, potential neurotoxins by way of an active transport mechanism mediated by P-glycoprotein and allows only water, some gases, and lipid soluble molecules by passive diffusion, as well as the selective transport of molecules such as glucose and amino acids that are crucial to neural function.

Germ-free mice even have leaky blood-brain barriers as adults. But those leaks closed after the researchers gave the animals the microbes from normal mice for 2 weeks, Pettersson says.

In short, it is most critical filter designed by Mother Nature. Better the barrier, less chances of impaired brain development.

Leaky BBB allows toxins, pathogens and other non-useful molecules to pass the barrier and cause damage to brain. Damage to brain means inability to serve the mind. This may lead to following diseases.
• Meningitis
• Brain abscess
• Epilepsy
• Multiple sclerosis
• Neuromyelitis optica
• Late-stage neurological trypanosomiasis (Sleeping sickness)
• Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)
• De Vivo disease
• Alzheimer’s disease
• Cerebral edema

As per latest research [1], healthy gut bacteria repairs leaks in BBB and protects brain from all outside toxins.

Now re-read part 1 and draw your conclusion.

Ghee, Dahi, Milk, Chass, Honey in diet of pregnant mother, lactating mother and child -> Healthy GUT -> Better BBB -> Healthy brain development for a child.
Conclusion: Without Gau mata, it is impossible to imagine citizens of future with adequate abilities to live self-reliant life.

Concluding thoughts and hints for future research:

• For the future of our children, find Gau shala nearby and start worshipping gau mata (Take care of her. Do her seva)
• Use only her Prasad (Milk, ghee, Dahi, gobar, mutra) in diet. This exclude dairy products. Dairy is a greatest sin of our society.
• Provide pure Ghee, Dahi, Milk, Chass, Honey to all pregnant mothers in our society. There is no great charity than this in my humble opinion.
• Just for your reference, I have witnessed my friend curing several brain disorders (Headache, migraine, Epilepsy) cases by Gau ghee based medicines. Doctors should use this treatment to cure Epilepsy & Meningitis which are now common among children age below 5.
• Avoid Antibiotics. If not avoidable in extreme situation, take jaggery water / dahi / ghee in diet during antibiotic course.


Supporting Research


Body’s bacteria may keep our brains healthy

http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2014/11/bodys-bacteria-may-keep-our-brains-healthy

The microbes that live in your body outnumber your cells 10 to one. Recent studies suggest these tiny organisms help us digest food and maintain our immune system. Now, researchers have discovered yet another way microbes keep us healthy: They are needed for closing the blood-brain barrier, a molecular fence that shuts out pathogens and molecules that could harm the brain.

The studies showed that the blood-brain barrier typically forms a tight seal a little more than 17 days into development. Antibodies infiltrated the brains of all the embryos younger than 17 days, but they continued to enter the brains of embryos of germ-free mothers well beyond day 17, the team reports online today in Science Translational Medicine. Embryos from germ-free mothers also had fewer intact gap junction proteins, and gap junction protein genes in their brains were less active, which may explain the persistent leakiness. (The researchers didn’t look at the mice’s guts.)

Germ-free mice even have leaky blood-brain barriers as adults. But those leaks closed after the researchers gave the animals the microbes from normal mice for 2 weeks, Pettersson says.

But how? In the gut, bacteria may influence the gut wall’s integrity through one of their byproducts, energy-laden molecules called short-chain fatty acids. So Pettersson and his colleagues infected germ-free mice with either bacteria that made these fatty acids or ones that did not. The blood-brain barrier improved only when the bacteria made these fatty acids, Pettersson says. He thinks that these molecules may get into the blood and stimulate gene activity that leads to the closure of the barrier.

The gut microbiota influences blood-brain barrier permeability in mice

http://stm.sciencemag.org/content/6/263/263ra158

Pivotal to brain development and function is an intact blood-brain barrier (BBB), which acts as a gatekeeper to control the passage and exchange of molecules and nutrients between the circulatory system and the brain parenchyma. The BBB also ensures homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS). We report that germ-free mice, beginning with intrauterine life, displayed increased BBB permeability compared to pathogen-free mice with a normal gut flora. The increased BBB permeability was maintained in germ-free mice after birth and during adulthood and was associated with reduced expression of the tight junction proteins occludin and claudin-5, which are known to regulate barrier function in endothelial tissues. Exposure of germ-free adult mice to a pathogen-free gut microbiota decreased BBB permeability and up-regulated the expression of tight junction proteins. Our results suggest that gut microbiota–BBB communication is initiated during gestation and propagated throughout life.

 

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