Brain

Brain

Radiation, Microbes and tragic end of neurons

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GUTBRain

My prediction: Under the toxic influence of EMF radiation, now widespread due to 4G/LTE networks, will increases cases of multiple sclerosis. A neurological diseases for which no root-cause is identified.

And here again, the mighty प्राण-driven microbes plays vital role. Only Gau mata (her prasad as food) can help. Worship of Hanuman and Ganesh will help. Accept or not but this is what I predict for next 2-3 years.

Validate. Most of us around do experience following time to time. Esp. when you live near tower or work under continuous wifi.

People may experience:
Pain areas: in the back or eyes
Pain circumstances: can occur in the back due to head nod or with eye movement
Tremor: can occur during precise movements, in the hands, or limbs
Muscular: abnormality walking, cramping, difficulty walking, inability to rapidly change motions, involuntary movements, muscle paralysis, muscle rigidity, muscle weakness, poor coordination, problems with coordination, stiff muscles, clumsiness, muscle spasms, overactive reflexes, unsteady gait, or weak and stiff muscles
Whole body: balance disorder, dizziness, fatigue, feeling tired, heat intolerance, poor balance, tires easily, vertigo, or weakness
Urinary: excessive urination at night, leaking of urine, persistent urge to urinate, urge to urinate and leaking, or urinary retention
Sensory: abnormality of taste, pins and needles, reduced sensation of touch, or uncomfortable tingling and burning
Visual: blurred vision, double vision, partial loss of vision, or vision loss
Sexual: erectile dysfunction or sexual dysfunction
Mood: anxiety or mood swings
Speech: slurred speech or impaired voice
Also common: acute episodes, constipation, depression, difficulty swallowing, difficulty thinking and understanding, headache, heavy legs, incoordination, numbness, numbness of face, rapid involuntary eye movement, sleep deprivation, stiffness, tongue numbness, or difficulty raising the foot

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Spend maximum free time in nature. Away from cities and networks. Stop wifi @ home if not needed. Control your mobile internet usage. Take care.

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Gut-brain connection moves into MS territory

Gut-brain connection moves into MS territory

“For the first time, we’ve been able to identify that food has some sort of remote control over central nervous system inflammation,” said Francisco Quintana, an investigator in the Ann Romney Center for Neurologic Diseases at BWH and corresponding author on the study. “What we eat influences the ability of bacteria in our gut to produce small molecules, some of which are capable of traveling all the way to the brain. This opens up an area that’s largely been unknown until now: how the gut controls brain inflammation.”

Using pre-clinical models for multiple sclerosis (MS) and samples from MS patients, the team found evidence that changes in diet and gut flora may influence astrocytes in the brain, and, consequently, neurodegeneration, pointing to potential therapeutic targets. The results of their study will be published this week in Nature Medicine.

High-Fat Junk diet, Kids and Brain development

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HIGH FAT DIET =>> REDUCED GLUCOSE for BRAIN ==> Slow Learning and impaired memory.

How high fat junk diet reduces potential of your brain to support mind? And in turn, shape you as future moron.

A high-fat diet of three days in mice leads to a reduction in the amount of glucose that reaches the brain.

High-fat-content foods throw our bodies out of kilter. Obesity and diseases such as type 2 diabetes can be the result. But what does a high-fat diet actually do to our brain? Scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Metabolism Research in Cologne have looked into the brains of mice to understand how obesity and diabetes develop.


Research


Myeloid-Cell-Derived VEGF Maintains Brain Glucose Uptake and Limits Cognitive Impairment in Obesity

http://www.cell.com/cell/abstract/S0092-8674(16)30331-2

“A high-fat diet reduces the uptake of blood glucose into the brain in as little as three days. So the brain is starving, even though the mice are consuming a lot of calories daily. Responsible for this is the protein GLUT-1, which is the most important glucose transporter at the blood-brain barrier,” explained Alexander Jais, author of the study. Possible triggers for the reduction of the GLUT-1 transporter are free saturated fatty acids that have a toxic effect on the cells of the blood-brain barrier. The brain lacks glucose in significant areas: the hypothalamus, which controls metabolism, and the cerebral cortex, responsible for learning and memory.

Highlights

  • Acute high-fat feeding suppresses GLUT1 expression at the blood-brain barrier (BBB)
  • Macrophages at the BBB increase VEGF expression upon prolonged HFD feeding
  • Inducible GLUT1 deletion in brain endothelial cells leads to increased VEGF secretion
  • Myeloid-cell-specific disruption of VEGF impairs cognitive function in obesity

Summary

High-fat diet (HFD) feeding induces rapid reprogramming of systemic metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that HFD feeding of mice downregulates glucose transporter (GLUT)-1 expression in blood-brain barrier (BBB) vascular endothelial cells (BECs) and reduces brain glucose uptake. Upon prolonged HFD feeding, GLUT1 expression is restored, which is paralleled by increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in macrophages at the BBB. In turn, inducible reduction of GLUT1 expression specifically in BECs reduces brain glucose uptake and increases VEGF serum concentrations in lean mice. Conversely, myeloid-cell-specific deletion of VEGF in VEGFΔmyel mice impairs BBB-GLUT1 expression, brain glucose uptake, and memory formation in obese, but not in lean mice. Moreover, obese VEGFΔmyel mice exhibit exaggerated progression of cognitive decline and neuroinflammation on an Alzheimer’s disease background. These experiments reveal that transient, HFD-elicited reduction of brain glucose uptake initiates a compensatory increase of VEGF production and assign obesity-associated macrophage activation a homeostatic role to restore cerebral glucose metabolism, preserve cognitive function, and limit neurodegeneration in obesity.

Pain killer/Antibiotics promotes प्रज्ञा अपराध (Intellectual Errors)

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PainKillers

We noted in this note that प्रज्ञा अपराध – The crime of injecting intellectual errors in day to day decision making – Root cause of all ill-health issues.

Impaired Intellect + Impaired self-control + Impaired memory = High chances of प्रज्ञा अपराध (misuse or no use of human brain/mind)

प्रज्ञापराधो हि मूलं रोगाणाम् |

प्रज्ञापराध कुछ और नहीं, बल्कि प्रकृति के नियमों की अवहेलना है।व्यक्ति जब जीवन के समग्र रूप को भूल खुद को इससे अलग मानने लगता है, तब वह प्रज्ञापराध का दोषी हो जाता है।

अनेक ग्रंथों में कहा गया है कि शरीर की रोगों से रक्षा करना मनुष्य का प्रमुख कर्तव्य है। पर कई बार तमाम कोशिशों के बाद भी बीमारियां हमें अपना शिकार बना ही लेती हैं। आखिर क्यों होते हैं रोग? इस बारे में आयुर्वेद कहता है कि प्रज्ञापराध ही हर रोग की जड़ है। प्रज्ञापराध दो शब्दों से मिल कर बना है: प्रज्ञा और अपराध। प्रज्ञा का अर्थ है ज्ञान और अपराध का अर्थ है गलत कार्य। जानकारी होने के बावजूद गलत काम करना, उपेक्षा या अवहेलना करना ही प्रज्ञापराध है। आयुर्वेद में कहा गया है कि प्रज्ञापराध को महामारियों का प्रमुख कारण माना जा सकता है। जानकारी होने के बावजूद किए जाने वाले इस प्रकार के अपराधों को तीन श्रेणियों में बांटा जाता है। पहले प्रकार का अपराध है किसी नियम की उपेक्षा करना। दूसरे प्रकार के अपराध वे हैं, जिनके नुकसान हम जानते हैं, फिर भी हम वे काम करते हैं। जैसे कि सिगरेट पीना। कोई व्यक्ति कमजोर इच्छा शक्ति के कारण सिगरेट पीना नहीं छोड़ पाता है, तो वह अपने प्रति अपराध करता है। तीसरे प्रकार के अपराध वे हैं, जो हम ज्ञान अथवा स्मृति के अभाव में कर बैठते हैं।

http://hindi.speakingtree.in/article/content-247515

It is state of intellect that cannot decide what is favorable and what is not based on individual’s current state of mind and body.

Our education system does not train us to avoid these crimes. Parenting? They don’t have time. Society? It is no more a live entity.

Only way to improve health of society is to train society to avoid प्रज्ञा अपराध.

On the other hand, modern medicines , with a motive to hide the real symptoms, give such medicines that promote intellectual errors!


Research


This popular painkiller may hamper your ability to notice errors, U of T researchers say

https://www.utoronto.ca/news/popular-painkiller-may-hamper-your-ability-notice-errors-u-t-researchers-say

Cognitive control is an important neurological function because people are constantly doing cognitive tasks that flow automatically like reading, walking or talking. These tasks require very little cognitive control because they are well mapped out neurological processes, notes Randles.

“Sometimes you need to interrupt your normal processes or they’ll lead to a mistake, like when you’re talking to a friend while crossing the street, you should still be ready to react to an erratic driver,” explains Randles.

“The task we designed is meant to capture that since most of the stimuli were Go, so you end up getting into a routine of automatically hitting the Go button. When you see a No Go, that requires cognitive control because you need to interrupt the process.”

The study was double blind, so neither the researcher running the study nor the participant knew whether they had been given a placebo or acetaminophen.

An unexpected and surprise finding that Randles plans to explore more closely is that those who received an acetaminophen dose appeared to miss more of the Go stimuli than they should have. He plans on expanding on the error detection aspect of the research to see whether acetaminophen is possibly causing people to “mind wander” and become distracted.

“An obvious question is if people aren’t detecting these errors, are they also making errors more often when taking acetaminophen? This is the first study to address this question, so we need more work and ideally with tasks more closely related to normal daily behaviour.”

Evidence Suggests Early Exposure to Antibiotics Might Lead to Long-Term Behavioural Changes

Low-dose penicillin in early life induces long-term changes in murine gut microbiota, brain cytokines and behavior

There is increasing concern about potential long-term effects of antibiotics on children’s health. Epidemiological studies have revealed that early-life antibiotic exposure can increase the risk of developing immune and metabolic diseases, and rodent studies have shown that administration of high doses of antibiotics has long-term effects on brain neurochemistry and behaviour. Here we investigate whether low-dose penicillin in late pregnancy and early postnatal life induces long-term effects in the offspring of mice. We find that penicillin has lasting effects in both sexes on gut microbiota, increases cytokine expression in frontal cortex, modifies blood–brain barrier integrity and alters behaviour. The antibiotic-treated mice exhibit impaired anxiety-like and social behaviours, and display aggression. Concurrent supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus JB-1 prevents some of these alterations. These results warrant further studies on the potential role of early-life antibiotic use in the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, and the possible attenuation of these by beneficial bacteria.

http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms15062

Coconut Oil and Brain Health

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Coconut

Oil play critical role in our diet. From lubrication to antioxidants, they provide important support to our body cell ecology.

Excess of oil in food is harmful and no oil in food is also harmful. Moderate usage can work as boon. Unrefined oil is must. Avoid packaged and processed oil – it is unhealthy. Avoid refined oil. If possible, find organically grown seeds(groundnuts for Gujarat).

Due to bombardment of all advertisements, consumers are always confused about best selection.

There is simple rule: Eat whatever mother nature can grow in abudance in your environment. As shown in map, if we divide Bharat in three parts and locate your residence, you will find best suitable oil for you. Throw all other brands in dustbin.

1) South Indian friends or friends from coastal area eat lot of coconut oil.
2) Coconut oil used to be primary source for hair massage
 
Coconut oil has lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs) fat. 4.6%. It is ample. [1]
 
As per this research paper, Lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs) is found to be essential for brain growth.
 
But what do we do now? We choose our oil based on TV advertisement and market enticement by ads! 😀 So we use useless oils. All refined.
 
Even coconut oil that comes in the market is refined.
 
Refined = Useless. There are no fats in refined oils.
 
What a collapse of societal intellect! 🙁
 
And we expect responsible wise responses from our generation 😀 😀 .
 
[1] Page 12, http://fos.ubd.edu.bn/sites/default/files/2000-Paper2.pdf
 
http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-05/dgms-sfp052215.php

Access to Mother Nature : Vital For Mental Health

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AccessToNature

Finest minds grow in forest. In ancient times, Guru would ask his disciple to go to jungle for cow grazing and sustenance everyday.

Finest minds cannot grow in cemented walls. If admission to cemented schools is your compulsion, make sure you provide your kid enough exposure to mother nature. Forest, Jungle, River, Mountain, Rivulet….


Research


Access to Nature May Be Vital For Mental Health, Study Finds

Just 90 minutes were shown to alter neural activity.

With more and more of us living in urban areas, researchers from Stanford University in the US wanted to investigate why urbanisation is associated with greater incidences of mental illness. In a controlled experiment, they looked at whether exposure to nature could influence depression levels and specifically ‘rumination’: repetitive thoughts focused on negative aspects of the self.

The researchers took two groups of participants and led them on 90-minute walks through two very different kinds of environments. One group walked across a grassland area populated with oak trees and shrubs, while the other group walked along the side of a heavily trafficked four-lane highway.

By performing brain scans on the walkers before and after the expedition, the team found that neural activity in the subgenual prefrontal cortex – the area of the brain that’s active during rumination – had decreased in the volunteers who explored the natural environment. Their experience was consistent with this finding, with the group reporting that they found themselves ruminating less during the walk.

Those who trekked along the side of the road, on the other hand, demonstrated no changes in their neural activity, or in their self-reporting on rumination, suggesting that nature experiences can have a discernable, positive impact on our brains’ emotional regulation.

“These results suggest that accessible natural areas may be vital for mental health in our rapidly urbanising world,” said Gretchen Daily, a co-author of the study, in a release. “Our findings can help inform the growing movement worldwide to make cities more liveable, and to make nature more accessible to all who live in them.”

http://www.sciencealert.com/access-to-nature-may-be-vital-for-mental-health-study-finds

Molecular hints of being तामसिक(Tamasic)

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Tamsik

In chapter 17 of Bhagwad Gita, Arjuna had a doubt: Those who, setting aside the ordinances of the scriptures, perform sacrifice with faith, what is their condition, O Krishna? Is is Sattva, Rajas or Tamas?

Bhagwan responded  him with a truth about human nature:

त्रिविधा भवति श्रद्धा देहिनां सा स्वभावजा।
सात्त्विकी राजसी चैव तामसी चेति तां श्रृणु।।17.2।।

सत्त्वानुरूपा सर्वस्य श्रद्धा भवति भारत।
श्रद्धामयोऽयं पुरुषो यो यच्छ्रद्धः स एव सः।।17.3।।

The Blessed Lord said Threefold is the faith of the embodied, which is inherent in their nature the Sattvic (pure), the Rajasic (passionate) and the Tamasic (dark). Do thou hear of it.

The faith of each is in accordance with his nature, O Arjuna. The man consists of his faith; as a man’s faith is, so is he.

And later, he explains how food selection to charity, all work based on innate prakriti.

Changing someone’s innate prakriti is not an easy job. It demands herculian efforts by pious heart, a change agent, blessed by divine powers to alter someone’s life. And the base of entire process is : Selfless love.

So, based on chapter 17 of Bhagwad Gita, it is clear that, it is not food that decides your nature but it is your nature that selects food and maintains your particular nature. If we want to change anyone’s nature, we will first have to work on their nature i.e. स्वभाव. No easy task to alter human nature. This process starts very early in life. Before birth. This is the reason I emphasis more often on two institution most 1) Marriage 2) Parenting – Child development. Future depends on these two social norms. We must protect them. When they are of sattvik nature, we can pray mother nature to gift Sattvik generations. It is difficult to mold, already molded clay pot (Tamasik nature of grown up adults). And if you try, very hard, you may break the equilibrium. If you really are interested in building healthy future, work on children. Prepare Sattvik nature in them. Nurture them accordingly.

Now, here is the interesting paper talking about molecular basis of prakriti.


Research


Not my future? Core values and the neural representation of future events

“Some people are worried about the consequences of climate change, while others consider them too remote to have an impact on their well-being. Researchers examined how these differences are reflected in our brains. With the help of neuro-imaging, the scientists found that people deemed ‘egotistical’ do not use the area of the brain that enables us to look into and imagine the distant future. In ‘altruistic’ individuals, the same area is alive with activity.”

Selfishness makes the brain lazy

The psychologists then focused on the activity in the ventromedial pre-frontal cortex (vmPFC), an area of the brain above the eyes that is used when thinking about the future and trying to visualize it. “We found that with altruistic people, this cerebral zone is activated more forcefully when the subject is confronted with the consequences of a distant future as compared to the near future. By contrast, in an egotistical person, there is no increase in activity between a consequence in the near future and one in the distant future,” says Brosch.

This particular region of the brain is mainly used for projecting oneself into the distant future. The absence of heightened activity in a self-centred person indicates the absence of projection and the fact that the individual does not feel concerned by what will happen after his or her death. Why, then, should such people adopt sustainable forms of behaviour?

Set your projection capabilities to work

These outcomes, which can be applied to areas other than climate change, demonstrate the importance of being able to think about the distant future in order to adapt one’s behaviour to the future constraints of the world. “We could imagine a psychological training that would work on this brain area using projection exercises,” suggests Brosch. “In particular, we could use virtual reality, which would make the tomorrow’s world visible to everyone, bringing human beings closer to the consequences of their actions.”

https://link.springer.com/article/10.3758%2Fs13415-018-0581-9

दूषित वात : Transfer of Gut Bacteria Affects Brain Function and Nerve Fiber Insulation

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Transfer of Gut Bacteria Affects Brain Function and Nerve Fiber Insulation
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GutBrain
 
वात is the root cause of many mental disorders. When someone talks about altering or experimenting Microbes, I consider them as वात-प्राण experiments.
 
In one such experiment, it was found that specific combinations of gut bacteria produce substances that affect myelin content and cause social avoidance behaviors in mice.
 
This gives many hints.
 
1) Why August agitations are common across the world (post summer heat monsoon vata prakopa? 🙂 It is easy to instigate mob during seasonal vata prakop. Be it India Against corruption or Egypt or 2011 England riots)
2) Why many teens on junk food are showing anti-social behavior
3) Why cases of sudden suicides are increasing
4) Autism cases
 
Short answer: Disturbed Prana lead to disturbed Vata ==> Mental disorders
 
May Shani Maharaj bless us all and keep us away from mental disorders.
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Research
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Transfer of Gut Bacteria Affects Brain Function and Nerve Fiber Insulation

 
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Abstract:
 
Gene-environment interactions impact the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, but the relative contributions are unclear. Here, we identify gut microbiota as sufficient to induce depressive-like behaviors in genetically distinct mouse strains. Daily gavage of saline in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice induced a social avoidance behavior that was not observed in C57BL/6 mice. This was not observed in NOD animals with depleted microbiota via oral administration of antibiotics. Transfer of intestinal microbiota, including members of the Clostridiales, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae, from vehicle-gavaged NOD donors to microbiota-depleted C57BL/6 recipients was sufficient to induce social avoidance and change gene expression and myelination in the prefrontal cortex. Metabolomic analysis identified increased cresol levels in these mice, and exposure of cultured oligodendrocytes to this metabolite prevented myelin gene expression and differentiation. Our results thus demonstrate that the gut microbiota modifies the synthesis of key metabolites affecting gene expression in the prefrontal cortex, thereby modulating social behavior.
 
http://www.mountsinai.org/about-us/newsroom/press-releases/transfer-of-gut-bacteria-affects-brain-function-and-nerve-fiber-insulation

A Link Between Gut Bacteria and Neurogenesis: Mouse Study

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neuron_spike_train_by_neutrix-d3lo9dl-900x450

I shared here many times that प्राण is cellular intelligence and memory. Mar the प्राण, do not retain प्राण and your body cells lose intelligence.

Lost cellular intelligence = Zombie cells = Prone to proliferation, inflammation, retard responses.

Here is the paper in support of this observation.

antibiotics = lack of prana = brain development hampered = memory function impaired.


Research


A Link Between Gut Bacteria and Neurogenesis: Mouse Study

Summary: According to a new mouse study, antibotics that are strong enough to kill gut bacteria can also halt the growth of hippocampal neurons.

Source: Cell Press.

http://neurosciencenews.com/neurogenesis-gut-bacteria-4253/

http://www.cell.com/cell-reports/pdf/S2211-1247(16)30518-6.pdf

Antibiotics strong enough to kill off gut bacteria can also stop the growth of new brain cells in the hippocampus, a section of the brain associated with memory, reports a study in mice published May 19 in Cell Reports. Researchers also uncovered a clue to why– a type of white blood cell seems to act as a communicator between the brain, the immune system, and the gut.

“We found prolonged antibiotic treatment might impact brain function,” says senior author Susanne Asu Wolf of the Max-Delbrueck-Center for Molecular Medicine in Berlin, Germany. “But probiotics and exercise can balance brain plasticity and should be considered as a real treatment option.”

Wolf first saw clues that the immune system could influence the health and growth of brain cells through research into T cells nearly 10 years ago. But there were few studies that found a link from the brain to the immune system and back to the gut.

In the new study, the researchers gave a group of mice enough antibiotics for them to become nearly free of intestinal microbes. Compared to untreated mice, the mice who lost their healthy gut bacteria performed worse in memory tests and showed a loss of neurogenesis (new brain cells) in a section of their hippocampus that typically produces new brain cells throughout an individual’s lifetime. At the same time that the mice experienced memory and neurogenesis loss, the research team detected a lower level of white blood cells (specifically monocytes) marked with Ly6Chi in the brain, blood, and bone marrow. So researchers tested whether it was indeed the Ly6Chi monocytes behind the changes in neurogenesis and memory.

In another experiment, the research team compared untreated mice to mice that had healthy gut bacteria levels but low levels of Ly6Chi either due to genetics or due to treatment with antibodies that target Ly6Chi cells. In both cases, mice with low Ly6Chi levels showed the same memory and neurogenesis deficits as mice in the other experiment who had lost gut bacteria. Furthermore, if the researchers replaced the Ly6Chi levels in mice treated with antibiotics, then memory and neurogenesis improved.

“For us it was impressive to find these Ly6Chi cells that travel from the periphery to the brain, and if there’s something wrong in the microbiome, Ly6Chi acts as a communicating cell,” says Wolf.

Researchers connect brain blood vessel lesions to intestinal bacteria

https://www.ninds.nih.gov/News-Events/News-and-Press-Releases/Press-Releases/Researchers-connect-brain-blood-vessel-lesions

A study in mice and humans suggests that bacteria in the gut can influence the structure of the brain’s blood vessels, and may be responsible for producing malformations that can lead to stroke or epilepsy. The research, published in Nature, adds to an emerging picture that connects intestinal microbes and disorders of the nervous system. The study was funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), a part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are clusters of dilated, thin-walled blood vessels that can lead to seizures or stroke when blood leaks into the surrounding brain tissue. A team of scientists at the University of Pennsylvania investigated the mechanisms that cause CCM lesions to form in genetically engineered mice and discovered an unexpected link to bacteria in the gut. When bacteria were eliminated the number of lesions was greatly diminished.

“This study is exciting because it shows that changes within the body can affect the progression of a disorder caused by a genetic mutation,” said Jim I. Koenig, Ph.D., program director at NINDS.

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