Brain

Brain

दूषित वात : Transfer of Gut Bacteria Affects Brain Function and Nerve Fiber Insulation

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Transfer of Gut Bacteria Affects Brain Function and Nerve Fiber Insulation
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GutBrain
 
वात is the root cause of many mental disorders. When someone talks about altering or experimenting Microbes, I consider them as वात-प्राण experiments.
 
In one such experiment, it was found that specific combinations of gut bacteria produce substances that affect myelin content and cause social avoidance behaviors in mice.
 
This gives many hints.
 
1) Why August agitations are common across the world (post summer heat monsoon vata prakopa? 🙂 It is easy to instigate mob during seasonal vata prakop. Be it India Against corruption or Egypt or 2011 England riots)
2) Why many teens on junk food are showing anti-social behavior
3) Why cases of sudden suicides are increasing
4) Autism cases
 
Short answer: Disturbed Prana lead to disturbed Vata ==> Mental disorders
 
May Shani Maharaj bless us all and keep us away from mental disorders.
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Research
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Transfer of Gut Bacteria Affects Brain Function and Nerve Fiber Insulation

 
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Abstract:
 
Gene-environment interactions impact the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, but the relative contributions are unclear. Here, we identify gut microbiota as sufficient to induce depressive-like behaviors in genetically distinct mouse strains. Daily gavage of saline in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice induced a social avoidance behavior that was not observed in C57BL/6 mice. This was not observed in NOD animals with depleted microbiota via oral administration of antibiotics. Transfer of intestinal microbiota, including members of the Clostridiales, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae, from vehicle-gavaged NOD donors to microbiota-depleted C57BL/6 recipients was sufficient to induce social avoidance and change gene expression and myelination in the prefrontal cortex. Metabolomic analysis identified increased cresol levels in these mice, and exposure of cultured oligodendrocytes to this metabolite prevented myelin gene expression and differentiation. Our results thus demonstrate that the gut microbiota modifies the synthesis of key metabolites affecting gene expression in the prefrontal cortex, thereby modulating social behavior.
 
http://www.mountsinai.org/about-us/newsroom/press-releases/transfer-of-gut-bacteria-affects-brain-function-and-nerve-fiber-insulation

Molecular hints of being तामसिक(Tamasic)

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Tamsik

In chapter 17 of Bhagwad Gita, Arjuna had a doubt: Those who, setting aside the ordinances of the scriptures, perform sacrifice with faith, what is their condition, O Krishna? Is is Sattva, Rajas or Tamas?

Bhagwan responded  him with a truth about human nature:

त्रिविधा भवति श्रद्धा देहिनां सा स्वभावजा।
सात्त्विकी राजसी चैव तामसी चेति तां श्रृणु।।17.2।।

सत्त्वानुरूपा सर्वस्य श्रद्धा भवति भारत।
श्रद्धामयोऽयं पुरुषो यो यच्छ्रद्धः स एव सः।।17.3।।

The Blessed Lord said Threefold is the faith of the embodied, which is inherent in their nature the Sattvic (pure), the Rajasic (passionate) and the Tamasic (dark). Do thou hear of it.

The faith of each is in accordance with his nature, O Arjuna. The man consists of his faith; as a man’s faith is, so is he.

And later, he explains how food selection to charity, all work based on innate prakriti.

Changing someone’s innate prakriti is not an easy job. It demands herculian efforts by pious heart, a change agent, blessed by divine powers to alter someone’s life. And the base of entire process is : Selfless love.

So, based on chapter 17 of Bhagwad Gita, it is clear that, it is not food that decides your nature but it is your nature that selects food and maintains your particular nature. If we want to change anyone’s nature, we will first have to work on their nature i.e. स्वभाव. No easy task to alter human nature. This process starts very early in life. Before birth. This is the reason I emphasis more often on two institution most 1) Marriage 2) Parenting – Child development. Future depends on these two social norms. We must protect them. When they are of sattvik nature, we can pray mother nature to gift Sattvik generations. It is difficult to mold, already molded clay pot (Tamasik nature of grown up adults). And if you try, very hard, you may break the equilibrium. If you really are interested in building healthy future, work on children. Prepare Sattvik nature in them. Nurture them accordingly.

Now, here is the interesting paper talking about molecular basis of prakriti.


Research


Not my future? Core values and the neural representation of future events

“Some people are worried about the consequences of climate change, while others consider them too remote to have an impact on their well-being. Researchers examined how these differences are reflected in our brains. With the help of neuro-imaging, the scientists found that people deemed ‘egotistical’ do not use the area of the brain that enables us to look into and imagine the distant future. In ‘altruistic’ individuals, the same area is alive with activity.”

Selfishness makes the brain lazy

The psychologists then focused on the activity in the ventromedial pre-frontal cortex (vmPFC), an area of the brain above the eyes that is used when thinking about the future and trying to visualize it. “We found that with altruistic people, this cerebral zone is activated more forcefully when the subject is confronted with the consequences of a distant future as compared to the near future. By contrast, in an egotistical person, there is no increase in activity between a consequence in the near future and one in the distant future,” says Brosch.

This particular region of the brain is mainly used for projecting oneself into the distant future. The absence of heightened activity in a self-centred person indicates the absence of projection and the fact that the individual does not feel concerned by what will happen after his or her death. Why, then, should such people adopt sustainable forms of behaviour?

Set your projection capabilities to work

These outcomes, which can be applied to areas other than climate change, demonstrate the importance of being able to think about the distant future in order to adapt one’s behaviour to the future constraints of the world. “We could imagine a psychological training that would work on this brain area using projection exercises,” suggests Brosch. “In particular, we could use virtual reality, which would make the tomorrow’s world visible to everyone, bringing human beings closer to the consequences of their actions.”

https://link.springer.com/article/10.3758%2Fs13415-018-0581-9

GUT, Second brain : Enabler of कवित्व

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Gut
I repeat certain facts more often. This hammering helps. At least, it helps me.
 
गणेश = आदि कवि
He lives in Muladhara
He is ईश for गण
मरुतगण
कवि needs developed intellect.
Developed intellect can articulate self using senses.
Senses communicates using neurotransmitters.
Mualadhara changes with organism. For us, it is GUT. For bees, stomach (honey 🙂 ). For trees, roots. So in reality, all with muladhara perfection, can become कवि.
 
GUT = Second brain = enabler of कवित्व
 
Now, read this research paper abstract.
 
Share it with those who ask “Why Ganesh Puja? Why Ganesh worship to start any important task of life?”
 
Even नास्तिक needs to focus on GUT if they want to use their senses, brain and intellect :). Any living state without Ganesh worship is mere gift and not your full potential!! 🙂
 
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The microbiome-gut-brain axis in health and disease

 
“Gut microbes are capable of producing most neurotransmitters found in the human brain. While these neurotransmitters primarily act locally in the gut, modulating the enteric nervous system, evidence is now accumulating to support the view that gut microbes through multiple mechanisms can influence central neurochemistry and behavior. This has been described as a fundamental paradigm shift in neuroscience. Bifidobacteria for example can produce and increase plasma levels of the serotonin precursor tryptophan, which is fundamental in regulating mood, appetite and gastrointestinal function. Certain Lactobacilli have been shown to produce gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and to alter brain GABA receptor expression and behavior. IBS is regarded as the prototypic disorder of the brain-gut-microbiota axis which can be responsive to probiotic therapy. Recently, the concept of a psychobiotic has been introduced in the literature. A psychobiotic is a bacteria which when ingested in adequate amounts can have a positive mental health benefit. Translational studies indicate that certain bacteria may impact upon stress responses and cognitive functioning. Manipulating the gut microbiota with psychobiotics, prebiotics or even antibiotics offers a novel approach to altering brain function and treating gut-brain axis disorders such as depression and autism.”
 
https://cora.ucc.ie/handle/10468/3544?show=full

Radiation, Microbes and tragic end of neurons

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GUTBRain

My prediction: Under the toxic influence of EMF radiation, now widespread due to 4G/LTE networks, will increases cases of multiple sclerosis. A neurological diseases for which no root-cause is identified.

And here again, the mighty प्राण-driven microbes plays vital role. Only Gau mata (her prasad as food) can help. Worship of Hanuman and Ganesh will help. Accept or not but this is what I predict for next 2-3 years.

Validate. Most of us around do experience following time to time. Esp. when you live near tower or work under continuous wifi.

People may experience:
Pain areas: in the back or eyes
Pain circumstances: can occur in the back due to head nod or with eye movement
Tremor: can occur during precise movements, in the hands, or limbs
Muscular: abnormality walking, cramping, difficulty walking, inability to rapidly change motions, involuntary movements, muscle paralysis, muscle rigidity, muscle weakness, poor coordination, problems with coordination, stiff muscles, clumsiness, muscle spasms, overactive reflexes, unsteady gait, or weak and stiff muscles
Whole body: balance disorder, dizziness, fatigue, feeling tired, heat intolerance, poor balance, tires easily, vertigo, or weakness
Urinary: excessive urination at night, leaking of urine, persistent urge to urinate, urge to urinate and leaking, or urinary retention
Sensory: abnormality of taste, pins and needles, reduced sensation of touch, or uncomfortable tingling and burning
Visual: blurred vision, double vision, partial loss of vision, or vision loss
Sexual: erectile dysfunction or sexual dysfunction
Mood: anxiety or mood swings
Speech: slurred speech or impaired voice
Also common: acute episodes, constipation, depression, difficulty swallowing, difficulty thinking and understanding, headache, heavy legs, incoordination, numbness, numbness of face, rapid involuntary eye movement, sleep deprivation, stiffness, tongue numbness, or difficulty raising the foot

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Spend maximum free time in nature. Away from cities and networks. Stop wifi @ home if not needed. Control your mobile internet usage. Take care.

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Gut-brain connection moves into MS territory

Gut-brain connection moves into MS territory

“For the first time, we’ve been able to identify that food has some sort of remote control over central nervous system inflammation,” said Francisco Quintana, an investigator in the Ann Romney Center for Neurologic Diseases at BWH and corresponding author on the study. “What we eat influences the ability of bacteria in our gut to produce small molecules, some of which are capable of traveling all the way to the brain. This opens up an area that’s largely been unknown until now: how the gut controls brain inflammation.”

Using pre-clinical models for multiple sclerosis (MS) and samples from MS patients, the team found evidence that changes in diet and gut flora may influence astrocytes in the brain, and, consequently, neurodegeneration, pointing to potential therapeutic targets. The results of their study will be published this week in Nature Medicine.

Rural serenity : Innate urge, hard-wired

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Reason why so many resorts, restaurants, spiritual shops with rustic look run the business with handsome profit. Of course by exploiting our hard wired instinct.

Eternal urge to live life with mother.

urban-vs-rural


Research


Human brain hard-wired for rural tranquillity

Humans may be hard-wired to feel at peace in the countryside and confused in cities – even if they were born and raised in an urban area.

“When looking at urban environments the brain is doing a lot of processing because it doesn’t know what this environment is,” he said. “The brain doesn’t have an immediate natural response to it, so it has to get busy. Part of the brain that deals with visual complexity lights up: ‘What is this that I’m looking at?’ Even if you have lived in a city all your life, it seems your brain doesn’t quite know what to do with this information and has to do visual processing,” he said.

Rural images produced a “much quieter” response in a “completely different part of the brain”, he added. “There’s much less activity. It seems to be in the limbic system, a much older, evolutionarily, part of the brain that we share with monkeys and primates.”

“I think we have neglected the relationship that human beings have with their environment and we are strongly connected to it,” he said. “If you don’t get the conditions right in zoos, the animals start behaving in a wacky way. There have been studies done with laboratory animals showing their feeding is abnormal. Sometimes they stop eating and sometimes they eat excessively. How far we can draw that parallel, I don’t know.”

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/human-brain-hard-wired-for-rural-tranquillity-8996368.html

A Link Between Gut Bacteria and Neurogenesis: Mouse Study

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neuron_spike_train_by_neutrix-d3lo9dl-900x450

I shared here many times that प्राण is cellular intelligence and memory. Mar the प्राण, do not retain प्राण and your body cells lose intelligence.

Lost cellular intelligence = Zombie cells = Prone to proliferation, inflammation, retard responses.

Here is the paper in support of this observation.

antibiotics = lack of prana = brain development hampered = memory function impaired.


Research


A Link Between Gut Bacteria and Neurogenesis: Mouse Study

Summary: According to a new mouse study, antibotics that are strong enough to kill gut bacteria can also halt the growth of hippocampal neurons.

Source: Cell Press.

http://neurosciencenews.com/neurogenesis-gut-bacteria-4253/

http://www.cell.com/cell-reports/pdf/S2211-1247(16)30518-6.pdf

Antibiotics strong enough to kill off gut bacteria can also stop the growth of new brain cells in the hippocampus, a section of the brain associated with memory, reports a study in mice published May 19 in Cell Reports. Researchers also uncovered a clue to why– a type of white blood cell seems to act as a communicator between the brain, the immune system, and the gut.

“We found prolonged antibiotic treatment might impact brain function,” says senior author Susanne Asu Wolf of the Max-Delbrueck-Center for Molecular Medicine in Berlin, Germany. “But probiotics and exercise can balance brain plasticity and should be considered as a real treatment option.”

Wolf first saw clues that the immune system could influence the health and growth of brain cells through research into T cells nearly 10 years ago. But there were few studies that found a link from the brain to the immune system and back to the gut.

In the new study, the researchers gave a group of mice enough antibiotics for them to become nearly free of intestinal microbes. Compared to untreated mice, the mice who lost their healthy gut bacteria performed worse in memory tests and showed a loss of neurogenesis (new brain cells) in a section of their hippocampus that typically produces new brain cells throughout an individual’s lifetime. At the same time that the mice experienced memory and neurogenesis loss, the research team detected a lower level of white blood cells (specifically monocytes) marked with Ly6Chi in the brain, blood, and bone marrow. So researchers tested whether it was indeed the Ly6Chi monocytes behind the changes in neurogenesis and memory.

In another experiment, the research team compared untreated mice to mice that had healthy gut bacteria levels but low levels of Ly6Chi either due to genetics or due to treatment with antibodies that target Ly6Chi cells. In both cases, mice with low Ly6Chi levels showed the same memory and neurogenesis deficits as mice in the other experiment who had lost gut bacteria. Furthermore, if the researchers replaced the Ly6Chi levels in mice treated with antibiotics, then memory and neurogenesis improved.

“For us it was impressive to find these Ly6Chi cells that travel from the periphery to the brain, and if there’s something wrong in the microbiome, Ly6Chi acts as a communicating cell,” says Wolf.

Researchers connect brain blood vessel lesions to intestinal bacteria

https://www.ninds.nih.gov/News-Events/News-and-Press-Releases/Press-Releases/Researchers-connect-brain-blood-vessel-lesions

A study in mice and humans suggests that bacteria in the gut can influence the structure of the brain’s blood vessels, and may be responsible for producing malformations that can lead to stroke or epilepsy. The research, published in Nature, adds to an emerging picture that connects intestinal microbes and disorders of the nervous system. The study was funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), a part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are clusters of dilated, thin-walled blood vessels that can lead to seizures or stroke when blood leaks into the surrounding brain tissue. A team of scientists at the University of Pennsylvania investigated the mechanisms that cause CCM lesions to form in genetically engineered mice and discovered an unexpected link to bacteria in the gut. When bacteria were eliminated the number of lesions was greatly diminished.

“This study is exciting because it shows that changes within the body can affect the progression of a disorder caused by a genetic mutation,” said Jim I. Koenig, Ph.D., program director at NINDS.

Pain killer/Antibiotics promotes प्रज्ञा अपराध (Intellectual Errors)

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PainKillers

We noted in this note that प्रज्ञा अपराध – The crime of injecting intellectual errors in day to day decision making – Root cause of all ill-health issues.

Impaired Intellect + Impaired self-control + Impaired memory = High chances of प्रज्ञा अपराध (misuse or no use of human brain/mind)

प्रज्ञापराधो हि मूलं रोगाणाम् |

प्रज्ञापराध कुछ और नहीं, बल्कि प्रकृति के नियमों की अवहेलना है।व्यक्ति जब जीवन के समग्र रूप को भूल खुद को इससे अलग मानने लगता है, तब वह प्रज्ञापराध का दोषी हो जाता है।

अनेक ग्रंथों में कहा गया है कि शरीर की रोगों से रक्षा करना मनुष्य का प्रमुख कर्तव्य है। पर कई बार तमाम कोशिशों के बाद भी बीमारियां हमें अपना शिकार बना ही लेती हैं। आखिर क्यों होते हैं रोग? इस बारे में आयुर्वेद कहता है कि प्रज्ञापराध ही हर रोग की जड़ है। प्रज्ञापराध दो शब्दों से मिल कर बना है: प्रज्ञा और अपराध। प्रज्ञा का अर्थ है ज्ञान और अपराध का अर्थ है गलत कार्य। जानकारी होने के बावजूद गलत काम करना, उपेक्षा या अवहेलना करना ही प्रज्ञापराध है। आयुर्वेद में कहा गया है कि प्रज्ञापराध को महामारियों का प्रमुख कारण माना जा सकता है। जानकारी होने के बावजूद किए जाने वाले इस प्रकार के अपराधों को तीन श्रेणियों में बांटा जाता है। पहले प्रकार का अपराध है किसी नियम की उपेक्षा करना। दूसरे प्रकार के अपराध वे हैं, जिनके नुकसान हम जानते हैं, फिर भी हम वे काम करते हैं। जैसे कि सिगरेट पीना। कोई व्यक्ति कमजोर इच्छा शक्ति के कारण सिगरेट पीना नहीं छोड़ पाता है, तो वह अपने प्रति अपराध करता है। तीसरे प्रकार के अपराध वे हैं, जो हम ज्ञान अथवा स्मृति के अभाव में कर बैठते हैं।

http://hindi.speakingtree.in/article/content-247515

It is state of intellect that cannot decide what is favorable and what is not based on individual’s current state of mind and body.

Our education system does not train us to avoid these crimes. Parenting? They don’t have time. Society? It is no more a live entity.

Only way to improve health of society is to train society to avoid प्रज्ञा अपराध.

On the other hand, modern medicines , with a motive to hide the real symptoms, give such medicines that promote intellectual errors!


Research


This popular painkiller may hamper your ability to notice errors, U of T researchers say

https://www.utoronto.ca/news/popular-painkiller-may-hamper-your-ability-notice-errors-u-t-researchers-say

Cognitive control is an important neurological function because people are constantly doing cognitive tasks that flow automatically like reading, walking or talking. These tasks require very little cognitive control because they are well mapped out neurological processes, notes Randles.

“Sometimes you need to interrupt your normal processes or they’ll lead to a mistake, like when you’re talking to a friend while crossing the street, you should still be ready to react to an erratic driver,” explains Randles.

“The task we designed is meant to capture that since most of the stimuli were Go, so you end up getting into a routine of automatically hitting the Go button. When you see a No Go, that requires cognitive control because you need to interrupt the process.”

The study was double blind, so neither the researcher running the study nor the participant knew whether they had been given a placebo or acetaminophen.

An unexpected and surprise finding that Randles plans to explore more closely is that those who received an acetaminophen dose appeared to miss more of the Go stimuli than they should have. He plans on expanding on the error detection aspect of the research to see whether acetaminophen is possibly causing people to “mind wander” and become distracted.

“An obvious question is if people aren’t detecting these errors, are they also making errors more often when taking acetaminophen? This is the first study to address this question, so we need more work and ideally with tasks more closely related to normal daily behaviour.”

Evidence Suggests Early Exposure to Antibiotics Might Lead to Long-Term Behavioural Changes

Low-dose penicillin in early life induces long-term changes in murine gut microbiota, brain cytokines and behavior

There is increasing concern about potential long-term effects of antibiotics on children’s health. Epidemiological studies have revealed that early-life antibiotic exposure can increase the risk of developing immune and metabolic diseases, and rodent studies have shown that administration of high doses of antibiotics has long-term effects on brain neurochemistry and behaviour. Here we investigate whether low-dose penicillin in late pregnancy and early postnatal life induces long-term effects in the offspring of mice. We find that penicillin has lasting effects in both sexes on gut microbiota, increases cytokine expression in frontal cortex, modifies blood–brain barrier integrity and alters behaviour. The antibiotic-treated mice exhibit impaired anxiety-like and social behaviours, and display aggression. Concurrent supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus JB-1 prevents some of these alterations. These results warrant further studies on the potential role of early-life antibiotic use in the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, and the possible attenuation of these by beneficial bacteria.

http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms15062

Mind is not an outcome

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mind-control

Modern medical science does not believe in mind. For them , mind is an imaginary phenomenon, a resultant of brain activity.

Our medical science (Ayurveda) approves existence of mind as separate layer of organism. You have mind, I have mind, ameba too has mind. Your so much appearing dead furniture too has mind.

This mind decides circuitry of brain. When your mind changes, your brain changes, too. When neurons fire together, they wire together—mental activity actually creates new neural structures (Hebb 1949; LeDoux 2003)

As a result, even fleeting thoughts and feelings can leave lasting marks on your brain, much like a spring shower can leave little trails on a hillside.

So, it is important maintain healthy mental state. That is where we Indians can lead the world in upcoming turmoil times. We have rich heritage of mind experiments. Treasure for anyone whose mind is not confined in prejudices against own local culture.

Key of healthy body is : Healthy mind. What flows through your mind sculpts your brain. Thus, you can use your mind to change your brain for the better—which will benefit your whole being, and every other person whose life you touch.

Smile. Love. Learn. Laugh. Nurture. Revere. Take care 🙂. Damn, no diseases will dare to trespass, unless it is really a outcome of past life’s bad karma 🙂

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