Brain

Brain

Access to Mother Nature : Vital For Mental Health

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AccessToNature

Finest minds grow in forest. In ancient times, Guru would ask his disciple to go to jungle for cow grazing and sustenance everyday.

Finest minds cannot grow in cemented walls. If admission to cemented schools is your compulsion, make sure you provide your kid enough exposure to mother nature. Forest, Jungle, River, Mountain, Rivulet….


Research


Access to Nature May Be Vital For Mental Health, Study Finds

Just 90 minutes were shown to alter neural activity.

With more and more of us living in urban areas, researchers from Stanford University in the US wanted to investigate why urbanisation is associated with greater incidences of mental illness. In a controlled experiment, they looked at whether exposure to nature could influence depression levels and specifically ‘rumination’: repetitive thoughts focused on negative aspects of the self.

The researchers took two groups of participants and led them on 90-minute walks through two very different kinds of environments. One group walked across a grassland area populated with oak trees and shrubs, while the other group walked along the side of a heavily trafficked four-lane highway.

By performing brain scans on the walkers before and after the expedition, the team found that neural activity in the subgenual prefrontal cortex – the area of the brain that’s active during rumination – had decreased in the volunteers who explored the natural environment. Their experience was consistent with this finding, with the group reporting that they found themselves ruminating less during the walk.

Those who trekked along the side of the road, on the other hand, demonstrated no changes in their neural activity, or in their self-reporting on rumination, suggesting that nature experiences can have a discernable, positive impact on our brains’ emotional regulation.

“These results suggest that accessible natural areas may be vital for mental health in our rapidly urbanising world,” said Gretchen Daily, a co-author of the study, in a release. “Our findings can help inform the growing movement worldwide to make cities more liveable, and to make nature more accessible to all who live in them.”

http://www.sciencealert.com/access-to-nature-may-be-vital-for-mental-health-study-finds

दूषित वात : Transfer of Gut Bacteria Affects Brain Function and Nerve Fiber Insulation

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Transfer of Gut Bacteria Affects Brain Function and Nerve Fiber Insulation
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GutBrain
 
वात is the root cause of many mental disorders. When someone talks about altering or experimenting Microbes, I consider them as वात-प्राण experiments.
 
In one such experiment, it was found that specific combinations of gut bacteria produce substances that affect myelin content and cause social avoidance behaviors in mice.
 
This gives many hints.
 
1) Why August agitations are common across the world (post summer heat monsoon vata prakopa? 🙂 It is easy to instigate mob during seasonal vata prakop. Be it India Against corruption or Egypt or 2011 England riots)
2) Why many teens on junk food are showing anti-social behavior
3) Why cases of sudden suicides are increasing
4) Autism cases
 
Short answer: Disturbed Prana lead to disturbed Vata ==> Mental disorders
 
May Shani Maharaj bless us all and keep us away from mental disorders.
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Research
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Transfer of Gut Bacteria Affects Brain Function and Nerve Fiber Insulation

 
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Abstract:
 
Gene-environment interactions impact the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, but the relative contributions are unclear. Here, we identify gut microbiota as sufficient to induce depressive-like behaviors in genetically distinct mouse strains. Daily gavage of saline in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice induced a social avoidance behavior that was not observed in C57BL/6 mice. This was not observed in NOD animals with depleted microbiota via oral administration of antibiotics. Transfer of intestinal microbiota, including members of the Clostridiales, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae, from vehicle-gavaged NOD donors to microbiota-depleted C57BL/6 recipients was sufficient to induce social avoidance and change gene expression and myelination in the prefrontal cortex. Metabolomic analysis identified increased cresol levels in these mice, and exposure of cultured oligodendrocytes to this metabolite prevented myelin gene expression and differentiation. Our results thus demonstrate that the gut microbiota modifies the synthesis of key metabolites affecting gene expression in the prefrontal cortex, thereby modulating social behavior.
 
http://www.mountsinai.org/about-us/newsroom/press-releases/transfer-of-gut-bacteria-affects-brain-function-and-nerve-fiber-insulation

Radiation, Microbes and tragic end of neurons

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GUTBRain

My prediction: Under the toxic influence of EMF radiation, now widespread due to 4G/LTE networks, will increases cases of multiple sclerosis. A neurological diseases for which no root-cause is identified.

And here again, the mighty प्राण-driven microbes plays vital role. Only Gau mata (her prasad as food) can help. Worship of Hanuman and Ganesh will help. Accept or not but this is what I predict for next 2-3 years.

Validate. Most of us around do experience following time to time. Esp. when you live near tower or work under continuous wifi.

People may experience:
Pain areas: in the back or eyes
Pain circumstances: can occur in the back due to head nod or with eye movement
Tremor: can occur during precise movements, in the hands, or limbs
Muscular: abnormality walking, cramping, difficulty walking, inability to rapidly change motions, involuntary movements, muscle paralysis, muscle rigidity, muscle weakness, poor coordination, problems with coordination, stiff muscles, clumsiness, muscle spasms, overactive reflexes, unsteady gait, or weak and stiff muscles
Whole body: balance disorder, dizziness, fatigue, feeling tired, heat intolerance, poor balance, tires easily, vertigo, or weakness
Urinary: excessive urination at night, leaking of urine, persistent urge to urinate, urge to urinate and leaking, or urinary retention
Sensory: abnormality of taste, pins and needles, reduced sensation of touch, or uncomfortable tingling and burning
Visual: blurred vision, double vision, partial loss of vision, or vision loss
Sexual: erectile dysfunction or sexual dysfunction
Mood: anxiety or mood swings
Speech: slurred speech or impaired voice
Also common: acute episodes, constipation, depression, difficulty swallowing, difficulty thinking and understanding, headache, heavy legs, incoordination, numbness, numbness of face, rapid involuntary eye movement, sleep deprivation, stiffness, tongue numbness, or difficulty raising the foot

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Spend maximum free time in nature. Away from cities and networks. Stop wifi @ home if not needed. Control your mobile internet usage. Take care.

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Gut-brain connection moves into MS territory

Gut-brain connection moves into MS territory

“For the first time, we’ve been able to identify that food has some sort of remote control over central nervous system inflammation,” said Francisco Quintana, an investigator in the Ann Romney Center for Neurologic Diseases at BWH and corresponding author on the study. “What we eat influences the ability of bacteria in our gut to produce small molecules, some of which are capable of traveling all the way to the brain. This opens up an area that’s largely been unknown until now: how the gut controls brain inflammation.”

Using pre-clinical models for multiple sclerosis (MS) and samples from MS patients, the team found evidence that changes in diet and gut flora may influence astrocytes in the brain, and, consequently, neurodegeneration, pointing to potential therapeutic targets. The results of their study will be published this week in Nature Medicine.

Long Term Memory and Mind

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57b1c4cf839e628be56020b14e2b3728

Our text books teaches us that the brain is where memories are stored. Brain is where thoughts take birth. Brain is where decisions are taken. Reductionist science. Poor ignorance.

This experiment on Aplysia, a sea slugs shows something else. Brain plays a role of platform to execute the actions, memories, decisions and does not store in brain.

Researchers trained these creatures to respond to certain neurotransmitter signals. They then used chemicals to return the synapses to their pre-trained state, which basically eliminated the memorized reflexes. But even though the researchers had altered the neural connections, they found that the long-term memories for those reflexes still persisted covertly. According to the authors of the paper, “these results challenge the idea that stable synapses store long-term memories.”

This concurs the Ayurvedic idea of Panchkoshiya sharir where above physical body, Prana and Mind play essential role in forming memories and taking actions.


Research


Reinstatement of long-term memory following erasure of its behavioral and synaptic expression in Aplysia

Long-term memory (LTM) is believed to be stored in the brain as changes in synaptic connections. Here, we show that LTM storage and synaptic change can be dissociated. Cocultures of Aplysia sensory and motor neurons were trained with spaced pulses of serotonin, which induces long-term facilitation. Serotonin (5HT) triggered growth of new presynaptic varicosities, a synaptic mechanism of long-term sensitization. Following 5HT training, two antimnemonic treatments—reconsolidation blockade and inhibition of PKM—caused the number of presynaptic varicosities to revert to the original, pretraining value. Surprisingly, the final synaptic structure was not achieved by targeted retraction of the 5HT-induced varicosities but, rather, by an apparently arbitrary retraction of both 5HT-induced and original synapses. In addition, we find evidence that the LTM for sensitization persists covertly after its apparent elimination by the same antimnemonic treatments that erase learning-related synaptic growth. These results challenge the idea that stable synapses store long-term memories.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03896.001

Rural serenity : Innate urge, hard-wired

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Reason why so many resorts, restaurants, spiritual shops with rustic look run the business with handsome profit. Of course by exploiting our hard wired instinct.

Eternal urge to live life with mother.

urban-vs-rural


Research


Human brain hard-wired for rural tranquillity

Humans may be hard-wired to feel at peace in the countryside and confused in cities – even if they were born and raised in an urban area.

“When looking at urban environments the brain is doing a lot of processing because it doesn’t know what this environment is,” he said. “The brain doesn’t have an immediate natural response to it, so it has to get busy. Part of the brain that deals with visual complexity lights up: ‘What is this that I’m looking at?’ Even if you have lived in a city all your life, it seems your brain doesn’t quite know what to do with this information and has to do visual processing,” he said.

Rural images produced a “much quieter” response in a “completely different part of the brain”, he added. “There’s much less activity. It seems to be in the limbic system, a much older, evolutionarily, part of the brain that we share with monkeys and primates.”

“I think we have neglected the relationship that human beings have with their environment and we are strongly connected to it,” he said. “If you don’t get the conditions right in zoos, the animals start behaving in a wacky way. There have been studies done with laboratory animals showing their feeding is abnormal. Sometimes they stop eating and sometimes they eat excessively. How far we can draw that parallel, I don’t know.”

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/human-brain-hard-wired-for-rural-tranquillity-8996368.html

Mind is not an outcome

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mind-control

Modern medical science does not believe in mind. For them , mind is an imaginary phenomenon, a resultant of brain activity.

Our medical science (Ayurveda) approves existence of mind as separate layer of organism. You have mind, I have mind, ameba too has mind. Your so much appearing dead furniture too has mind.

This mind decides circuitry of brain. When your mind changes, your brain changes, too. When neurons fire together, they wire together—mental activity actually creates new neural structures (Hebb 1949; LeDoux 2003)

As a result, even fleeting thoughts and feelings can leave lasting marks on your brain, much like a spring shower can leave little trails on a hillside.

So, it is important maintain healthy mental state. That is where we Indians can lead the world in upcoming turmoil times. We have rich heritage of mind experiments. Treasure for anyone whose mind is not confined in prejudices against own local culture.

Key of healthy body is : Healthy mind. What flows through your mind sculpts your brain. Thus, you can use your mind to change your brain for the better—which will benefit your whole being, and every other person whose life you touch.

Smile. Love. Learn. Laugh. Nurture. Revere. Take care 🙂. Damn, no diseases will dare to trespass, unless it is really a outcome of past life’s bad karma 🙂

High-Fat Junk diet, Kids and Brain development

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HIGH FAT DIET =>> REDUCED GLUCOSE for BRAIN ==> Slow Learning and impaired memory.

How high fat junk diet reduces potential of your brain to support mind? And in turn, shape you as future moron.

A high-fat diet of three days in mice leads to a reduction in the amount of glucose that reaches the brain.

High-fat-content foods throw our bodies out of kilter. Obesity and diseases such as type 2 diabetes can be the result. But what does a high-fat diet actually do to our brain? Scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Metabolism Research in Cologne have looked into the brains of mice to understand how obesity and diabetes develop.


Research


Myeloid-Cell-Derived VEGF Maintains Brain Glucose Uptake and Limits Cognitive Impairment in Obesity

http://www.cell.com/cell/abstract/S0092-8674(16)30331-2

“A high-fat diet reduces the uptake of blood glucose into the brain in as little as three days. So the brain is starving, even though the mice are consuming a lot of calories daily. Responsible for this is the protein GLUT-1, which is the most important glucose transporter at the blood-brain barrier,” explained Alexander Jais, author of the study. Possible triggers for the reduction of the GLUT-1 transporter are free saturated fatty acids that have a toxic effect on the cells of the blood-brain barrier. The brain lacks glucose in significant areas: the hypothalamus, which controls metabolism, and the cerebral cortex, responsible for learning and memory.

Highlights

  • Acute high-fat feeding suppresses GLUT1 expression at the blood-brain barrier (BBB)
  • Macrophages at the BBB increase VEGF expression upon prolonged HFD feeding
  • Inducible GLUT1 deletion in brain endothelial cells leads to increased VEGF secretion
  • Myeloid-cell-specific disruption of VEGF impairs cognitive function in obesity

Summary

High-fat diet (HFD) feeding induces rapid reprogramming of systemic metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that HFD feeding of mice downregulates glucose transporter (GLUT)-1 expression in blood-brain barrier (BBB) vascular endothelial cells (BECs) and reduces brain glucose uptake. Upon prolonged HFD feeding, GLUT1 expression is restored, which is paralleled by increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in macrophages at the BBB. In turn, inducible reduction of GLUT1 expression specifically in BECs reduces brain glucose uptake and increases VEGF serum concentrations in lean mice. Conversely, myeloid-cell-specific deletion of VEGF in VEGFΔmyel mice impairs BBB-GLUT1 expression, brain glucose uptake, and memory formation in obese, but not in lean mice. Moreover, obese VEGFΔmyel mice exhibit exaggerated progression of cognitive decline and neuroinflammation on an Alzheimer’s disease background. These experiments reveal that transient, HFD-elicited reduction of brain glucose uptake initiates a compensatory increase of VEGF production and assign obesity-associated macrophage activation a homeostatic role to restore cerebral glucose metabolism, preserve cognitive function, and limit neurodegeneration in obesity.

Coconut Oil and Brain Health

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Coconut

Oil play critical role in our diet. From lubrication to antioxidants, they provide important support to our body cell ecology.

Excess of oil in food is harmful and no oil in food is also harmful. Moderate usage can work as boon. Unrefined oil is must. Avoid packaged and processed oil – it is unhealthy. Avoid refined oil. If possible, find organically grown seeds(groundnuts for Gujarat).

Due to bombardment of all advertisements, consumers are always confused about best selection.

There is simple rule: Eat whatever mother nature can grow in abudance in your environment. As shown in map, if we divide Bharat in three parts and locate your residence, you will find best suitable oil for you. Throw all other brands in dustbin.

1) South Indian friends or friends from coastal area eat lot of coconut oil.
2) Coconut oil used to be primary source for hair massage
 
Coconut oil has lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs) fat. 4.6%. It is ample. [1]
 
As per this research paper, Lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs) is found to be essential for brain growth.
 
But what do we do now? We choose our oil based on TV advertisement and market enticement by ads! 😀 So we use useless oils. All refined.
 
Even coconut oil that comes in the market is refined.
 
Refined = Useless. There are no fats in refined oils.
 
What a collapse of societal intellect! 🙁
 
And we expect responsible wise responses from our generation 😀 😀 .
 
[1] Page 12, http://fos.ubd.edu.bn/sites/default/files/2000-Paper2.pdf
 
http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-05/dgms-sfp052215.php

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