Brain

Brain

Long Term Memory and Mind

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57b1c4cf839e628be56020b14e2b3728

Our text books teaches us that the brain is where memories are stored. Brain is where thoughts take birth. Brain is where decisions are taken. Reductionist science. Poor ignorance.

This experiment on Aplysia, a sea slugs shows something else. Brain plays a role of platform to execute the actions, memories, decisions and does not store in brain.

Researchers trained these creatures to respond to certain neurotransmitter signals. They then used chemicals to return the synapses to their pre-trained state, which basically eliminated the memorized reflexes. But even though the researchers had altered the neural connections, they found that the long-term memories for those reflexes still persisted covertly. According to the authors of the paper, “these results challenge the idea that stable synapses store long-term memories.”

This concurs the Ayurvedic idea of Panchkoshiya sharir where above physical body, Prana and Mind play essential role in forming memories and taking actions.


Research


Reinstatement of long-term memory following erasure of its behavioral and synaptic expression in Aplysia

Long-term memory (LTM) is believed to be stored in the brain as changes in synaptic connections. Here, we show that LTM storage and synaptic change can be dissociated. Cocultures of Aplysia sensory and motor neurons were trained with spaced pulses of serotonin, which induces long-term facilitation. Serotonin (5HT) triggered growth of new presynaptic varicosities, a synaptic mechanism of long-term sensitization. Following 5HT training, two antimnemonic treatments—reconsolidation blockade and inhibition of PKM—caused the number of presynaptic varicosities to revert to the original, pretraining value. Surprisingly, the final synaptic structure was not achieved by targeted retraction of the 5HT-induced varicosities but, rather, by an apparently arbitrary retraction of both 5HT-induced and original synapses. In addition, we find evidence that the LTM for sensitization persists covertly after its apparent elimination by the same antimnemonic treatments that erase learning-related synaptic growth. These results challenge the idea that stable synapses store long-term memories.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03896.001

High-Fat Junk diet, Kids and Brain development

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HIGH FAT DIET =>> REDUCED GLUCOSE for BRAIN ==> Slow Learning and impaired memory.

How high fat junk diet reduces potential of your brain to support mind? And in turn, shape you as future moron.

A high-fat diet of three days in mice leads to a reduction in the amount of glucose that reaches the brain.

High-fat-content foods throw our bodies out of kilter. Obesity and diseases such as type 2 diabetes can be the result. But what does a high-fat diet actually do to our brain? Scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Metabolism Research in Cologne have looked into the brains of mice to understand how obesity and diabetes develop.


Research


Myeloid-Cell-Derived VEGF Maintains Brain Glucose Uptake and Limits Cognitive Impairment in Obesity

http://www.cell.com/cell/abstract/S0092-8674(16)30331-2

“A high-fat diet reduces the uptake of blood glucose into the brain in as little as three days. So the brain is starving, even though the mice are consuming a lot of calories daily. Responsible for this is the protein GLUT-1, which is the most important glucose transporter at the blood-brain barrier,” explained Alexander Jais, author of the study. Possible triggers for the reduction of the GLUT-1 transporter are free saturated fatty acids that have a toxic effect on the cells of the blood-brain barrier. The brain lacks glucose in significant areas: the hypothalamus, which controls metabolism, and the cerebral cortex, responsible for learning and memory.

Highlights

  • Acute high-fat feeding suppresses GLUT1 expression at the blood-brain barrier (BBB)
  • Macrophages at the BBB increase VEGF expression upon prolonged HFD feeding
  • Inducible GLUT1 deletion in brain endothelial cells leads to increased VEGF secretion
  • Myeloid-cell-specific disruption of VEGF impairs cognitive function in obesity

Summary

High-fat diet (HFD) feeding induces rapid reprogramming of systemic metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that HFD feeding of mice downregulates glucose transporter (GLUT)-1 expression in blood-brain barrier (BBB) vascular endothelial cells (BECs) and reduces brain glucose uptake. Upon prolonged HFD feeding, GLUT1 expression is restored, which is paralleled by increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in macrophages at the BBB. In turn, inducible reduction of GLUT1 expression specifically in BECs reduces brain glucose uptake and increases VEGF serum concentrations in lean mice. Conversely, myeloid-cell-specific deletion of VEGF in VEGFΔmyel mice impairs BBB-GLUT1 expression, brain glucose uptake, and memory formation in obese, but not in lean mice. Moreover, obese VEGFΔmyel mice exhibit exaggerated progression of cognitive decline and neuroinflammation on an Alzheimer’s disease background. These experiments reveal that transient, HFD-elicited reduction of brain glucose uptake initiates a compensatory increase of VEGF production and assign obesity-associated macrophage activation a homeostatic role to restore cerebral glucose metabolism, preserve cognitive function, and limit neurodegeneration in obesity.

Pain killer/Antibiotics promotes प्रज्ञा अपराध (Intellectual Errors)

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PainKillers

We noted in this note that प्रज्ञा अपराध – The crime of injecting intellectual errors in day to day decision making – Root cause of all ill-health issues.

Impaired Intellect + Impaired self-control + Impaired memory = High chances of प्रज्ञा अपराध (misuse or no use of human brain/mind)

प्रज्ञापराधो हि मूलं रोगाणाम् |

प्रज्ञापराध कुछ और नहीं, बल्कि प्रकृति के नियमों की अवहेलना है।व्यक्ति जब जीवन के समग्र रूप को भूल खुद को इससे अलग मानने लगता है, तब वह प्रज्ञापराध का दोषी हो जाता है।

अनेक ग्रंथों में कहा गया है कि शरीर की रोगों से रक्षा करना मनुष्य का प्रमुख कर्तव्य है। पर कई बार तमाम कोशिशों के बाद भी बीमारियां हमें अपना शिकार बना ही लेती हैं। आखिर क्यों होते हैं रोग? इस बारे में आयुर्वेद कहता है कि प्रज्ञापराध ही हर रोग की जड़ है। प्रज्ञापराध दो शब्दों से मिल कर बना है: प्रज्ञा और अपराध। प्रज्ञा का अर्थ है ज्ञान और अपराध का अर्थ है गलत कार्य। जानकारी होने के बावजूद गलत काम करना, उपेक्षा या अवहेलना करना ही प्रज्ञापराध है। आयुर्वेद में कहा गया है कि प्रज्ञापराध को महामारियों का प्रमुख कारण माना जा सकता है। जानकारी होने के बावजूद किए जाने वाले इस प्रकार के अपराधों को तीन श्रेणियों में बांटा जाता है। पहले प्रकार का अपराध है किसी नियम की उपेक्षा करना। दूसरे प्रकार के अपराध वे हैं, जिनके नुकसान हम जानते हैं, फिर भी हम वे काम करते हैं। जैसे कि सिगरेट पीना। कोई व्यक्ति कमजोर इच्छा शक्ति के कारण सिगरेट पीना नहीं छोड़ पाता है, तो वह अपने प्रति अपराध करता है। तीसरे प्रकार के अपराध वे हैं, जो हम ज्ञान अथवा स्मृति के अभाव में कर बैठते हैं।

http://hindi.speakingtree.in/article/content-247515

It is state of intellect that cannot decide what is favorable and what is not based on individual’s current state of mind and body.

Our education system does not train us to avoid these crimes. Parenting? They don’t have time. Society? It is no more a live entity.

Only way to improve health of society is to train society to avoid प्रज्ञा अपराध.

On the other hand, modern medicines , with a motive to hide the real symptoms, give such medicines that promote intellectual errors!


Research


This popular painkiller may hamper your ability to notice errors, U of T researchers say

https://www.utoronto.ca/news/popular-painkiller-may-hamper-your-ability-notice-errors-u-t-researchers-say

Cognitive control is an important neurological function because people are constantly doing cognitive tasks that flow automatically like reading, walking or talking. These tasks require very little cognitive control because they are well mapped out neurological processes, notes Randles.

“Sometimes you need to interrupt your normal processes or they’ll lead to a mistake, like when you’re talking to a friend while crossing the street, you should still be ready to react to an erratic driver,” explains Randles.

“The task we designed is meant to capture that since most of the stimuli were Go, so you end up getting into a routine of automatically hitting the Go button. When you see a No Go, that requires cognitive control because you need to interrupt the process.”

The study was double blind, so neither the researcher running the study nor the participant knew whether they had been given a placebo or acetaminophen.

An unexpected and surprise finding that Randles plans to explore more closely is that those who received an acetaminophen dose appeared to miss more of the Go stimuli than they should have. He plans on expanding on the error detection aspect of the research to see whether acetaminophen is possibly causing people to “mind wander” and become distracted.

“An obvious question is if people aren’t detecting these errors, are they also making errors more often when taking acetaminophen? This is the first study to address this question, so we need more work and ideally with tasks more closely related to normal daily behaviour.”

Evidence Suggests Early Exposure to Antibiotics Might Lead to Long-Term Behavioural Changes

Low-dose penicillin in early life induces long-term changes in murine gut microbiota, brain cytokines and behavior

There is increasing concern about potential long-term effects of antibiotics on children’s health. Epidemiological studies have revealed that early-life antibiotic exposure can increase the risk of developing immune and metabolic diseases, and rodent studies have shown that administration of high doses of antibiotics has long-term effects on brain neurochemistry and behaviour. Here we investigate whether low-dose penicillin in late pregnancy and early postnatal life induces long-term effects in the offspring of mice. We find that penicillin has lasting effects in both sexes on gut microbiota, increases cytokine expression in frontal cortex, modifies blood–brain barrier integrity and alters behaviour. The antibiotic-treated mice exhibit impaired anxiety-like and social behaviours, and display aggression. Concurrent supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus JB-1 prevents some of these alterations. These results warrant further studies on the potential role of early-life antibiotic use in the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, and the possible attenuation of these by beneficial bacteria.

http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms15062

Coconut Oil and Brain Health

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Coconut

Oil play critical role in our diet. From lubrication to antioxidants, they provide important support to our body cell ecology.

Excess of oil in food is harmful and no oil in food is also harmful. Moderate usage can work as boon. Unrefined oil is must. Avoid packaged and processed oil – it is unhealthy. Avoid refined oil. If possible, find organically grown seeds(groundnuts for Gujarat).

Due to bombardment of all advertisements, consumers are always confused about best selection.

There is simple rule: Eat whatever mother nature can grow in abudance in your environment. As shown in map, if we divide Bharat in three parts and locate your residence, you will find best suitable oil for you. Throw all other brands in dustbin.

1) South Indian friends or friends from coastal area eat lot of coconut oil.
2) Coconut oil used to be primary source for hair massage
 
Coconut oil has lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs) fat. 4.6%. It is ample. [1]
 
As per this research paper, Lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs) is found to be essential for brain growth.
 
But what do we do now? We choose our oil based on TV advertisement and market enticement by ads! 😀 So we use useless oils. All refined.
 
Even coconut oil that comes in the market is refined.
 
Refined = Useless. There are no fats in refined oils.
 
What a collapse of societal intellect! 🙁
 
And we expect responsible wise responses from our generation 😀 😀 .
 
[1] Page 12, http://fos.ubd.edu.bn/sites/default/files/2000-Paper2.pdf
 
http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-05/dgms-sfp052215.php

Mind is not an outcome

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mind-control

Modern medical science does not believe in mind. For them , mind is an imaginary phenomenon, a resultant of brain activity.

Our medical science (Ayurveda) approves existence of mind as separate layer of organism. You have mind, I have mind, ameba too has mind. Your so much appearing dead furniture too has mind.

This mind decides circuitry of brain. When your mind changes, your brain changes, too. When neurons fire together, they wire together—mental activity actually creates new neural structures (Hebb 1949; LeDoux 2003)

As a result, even fleeting thoughts and feelings can leave lasting marks on your brain, much like a spring shower can leave little trails on a hillside.

So, it is important maintain healthy mental state. That is where we Indians can lead the world in upcoming turmoil times. We have rich heritage of mind experiments. Treasure for anyone whose mind is not confined in prejudices against own local culture.

Key of healthy body is : Healthy mind. What flows through your mind sculpts your brain. Thus, you can use your mind to change your brain for the better—which will benefit your whole being, and every other person whose life you touch.

Smile. Love. Learn. Laugh. Nurture. Revere. Take care 🙂. Damn, no diseases will dare to trespass, unless it is really a outcome of past life’s bad karma 🙂

Access to Mother Nature : Vital For Mental Health

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AccessToNature

Finest minds grow in forest. In ancient times, Guru would ask his disciple to go to jungle for cow grazing and sustenance everyday.

Finest minds cannot grow in cemented walls. If admission to cemented schools is your compulsion, make sure you provide your kid enough exposure to mother nature. Forest, Jungle, River, Mountain, Rivulet….


Research


Access to Nature May Be Vital For Mental Health, Study Finds

Just 90 minutes were shown to alter neural activity.

With more and more of us living in urban areas, researchers from Stanford University in the US wanted to investigate why urbanisation is associated with greater incidences of mental illness. In a controlled experiment, they looked at whether exposure to nature could influence depression levels and specifically ‘rumination’: repetitive thoughts focused on negative aspects of the self.

The researchers took two groups of participants and led them on 90-minute walks through two very different kinds of environments. One group walked across a grassland area populated with oak trees and shrubs, while the other group walked along the side of a heavily trafficked four-lane highway.

By performing brain scans on the walkers before and after the expedition, the team found that neural activity in the subgenual prefrontal cortex – the area of the brain that’s active during rumination – had decreased in the volunteers who explored the natural environment. Their experience was consistent with this finding, with the group reporting that they found themselves ruminating less during the walk.

Those who trekked along the side of the road, on the other hand, demonstrated no changes in their neural activity, or in their self-reporting on rumination, suggesting that nature experiences can have a discernable, positive impact on our brains’ emotional regulation.

“These results suggest that accessible natural areas may be vital for mental health in our rapidly urbanising world,” said Gretchen Daily, a co-author of the study, in a release. “Our findings can help inform the growing movement worldwide to make cities more liveable, and to make nature more accessible to all who live in them.”

http://www.sciencealert.com/access-to-nature-may-be-vital-for-mental-health-study-finds

GUT, Second brain : Enabler of कवित्व

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Gut
I repeat certain facts more often. This hammering helps. At least, it helps me.
 
गणेश = आदि कवि
He lives in Muladhara
He is ईश for गण
मरुतगण
कवि needs developed intellect.
Developed intellect can articulate self using senses.
Senses communicates using neurotransmitters.
Mualadhara changes with organism. For us, it is GUT. For bees, stomach (honey 🙂 ). For trees, roots. So in reality, all with muladhara perfection, can become कवि.
 
GUT = Second brain = enabler of कवित्व
 
Now, read this research paper abstract.
 
Share it with those who ask “Why Ganesh Puja? Why Ganesh worship to start any important task of life?”
 
Even नास्तिक needs to focus on GUT if they want to use their senses, brain and intellect :). Any living state without Ganesh worship is mere gift and not your full potential!! 🙂
 
———————-

The microbiome-gut-brain axis in health and disease

 
“Gut microbes are capable of producing most neurotransmitters found in the human brain. While these neurotransmitters primarily act locally in the gut, modulating the enteric nervous system, evidence is now accumulating to support the view that gut microbes through multiple mechanisms can influence central neurochemistry and behavior. This has been described as a fundamental paradigm shift in neuroscience. Bifidobacteria for example can produce and increase plasma levels of the serotonin precursor tryptophan, which is fundamental in regulating mood, appetite and gastrointestinal function. Certain Lactobacilli have been shown to produce gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and to alter brain GABA receptor expression and behavior. IBS is regarded as the prototypic disorder of the brain-gut-microbiota axis which can be responsive to probiotic therapy. Recently, the concept of a psychobiotic has been introduced in the literature. A psychobiotic is a bacteria which when ingested in adequate amounts can have a positive mental health benefit. Translational studies indicate that certain bacteria may impact upon stress responses and cognitive functioning. Manipulating the gut microbiota with psychobiotics, prebiotics or even antibiotics offers a novel approach to altering brain function and treating gut-brain axis disorders such as depression and autism.”
 
https://cora.ucc.ie/handle/10468/3544?show=full

Never marry your food to plastic, results in societal psychosis

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Plastic

In marriage, one becomes पति. पति in Sanskrit means protector. The one who protects. We marry our food to plastic containers. Since plastic can remain stable and in form at normal room temperature, we think it will protect our food. So we blindly surrender our food to plastic.

Never do that again! Plastic is pervasive. It can’t protect, it destroys! It acts like how termite acts for wood.

Food when stored or served hot in plastic, will come with micro plastic residue. This will be havoc for brain development in future kids.

The increasing mental disorders and crimes against women – one critical but silent factor is pervasive plastic in our life!


Research


Plastic chemical linked to smaller prefrontal cortex, reduced cognitive ability in rats

Findings demonstrate long-term influence of endocrine-disrupting compounds on brain development

Phthalates — chemicals used in plastics belonging to the same class as Bisphenol A (BPA) — can potentially interfere with hormones important for the developing brain.

Although previous studies have identified associations between phthalate exposure and developmental disturbances, little is known about the neurobiology underlying these relationships.

Janice Juraska and colleagues fed pregnant rats a daily cookie laced with human level doses of a chemical mixture based on data obtained from pregnant women. The researchers found both male and female adult offspring of these rats had fewer neurons and synapses in their mPFC and a specific deficit in cognitive flexibility.

As the mPFC is crucial for high level cognitive functions and reduced cognitive flexibility is observed in developmental disorders such as autism, the research shows how early life phthalate exposure can affect the brain and behavior.

The growth and organization of the developing brain is known to be influenced by hormones, but little is known about whether disruption of hormones affects cortical regions, like the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). This region is particularly important given its involvement in executive functions and implication in the pathology of many neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we examine the long-term effects of perinatal exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds, the phthalates, on the mPFC and associated behavior. This investigation is pertinent as humans are ubiquitously exposed to phthalates through a variety of consumer products and phthalates can readily cross the placenta and be delivered to offspring via lactation. Pregnant dams orally consumed an environmentally relevant mixture of phthalates at 0, 200, or 1000 μg/kg/day through pregnancy and for 10 days while lactating. As adults, offspring were tested in an attentional set-shifting task, which assesses cognitive flexibility. Brains were also examined in adulthood for stereological quantification of the number of neurons, glia, and synapses within the mPFC. We found that, independent of sex, perinatal phthalate exposure at either dose resulted in a reduction in neuron number, synapse number, and size of the mPFC and a deficit in cognitive flexibility. Interestingly, the number of synapses was correlated with cognitive flexibility, such that rats with fewer synapses were less cognitively flexible than those with more synapses. These results demonstrate that perinatal phthalate exposure can have long-term effects on the cortex and behavior of both male and female rats.

SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT

Humans globally are exposed on a daily basis to a variety of phthalates, which are endocrine-disrupting chemicals. The effects of phthalate exposure on the developing brain, especially on cognitively relevant regions like the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), is not known. Here, we use a rat model of human prenatal exposure to an environmentally relevant mixture of phthalates and find there is an appreciable reduction in neuron number, synapse number, and size of the mPFC and a deficit in cognitive flexibility. These results may have serious implications for humans given the mPFC is involved in executive functions and is implicated in the pathology of many neuropsychiatric disorders.

 

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/07/180716130738.htm

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