Agriculture

Agriculture

Myth Breaker : Agriculture and Women in Ancient India

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Two myths

1) Females were never educated in ancient India
2) Best farming is natural farming – no ploughing, no soil preparation

There is often common rhetoric in armchair intellectuals that condition of females in ancient India were not good. There was male-dominated society. Bla bla bla….

Here is one example from Bengal to break the myth.

Khana (Bengali: খনা, pron. khawnaa) was an Indian poet and legendary astrologer, who composed in the medieval Bengali language between the ninth and 12th centuries AD. She is associated with the village Deuli, in Barasat district, West Bengal.
Her poetry, known as khanAr bachan (or vachan) (খনার বচন) (meaning “khana’s words”), among the earliest compositions in Bengali literature, is known for its agricultural themes.

One of her aphorism says:

” For the successful cultivation of cotton one has to plough the land 16 times, for radish 8 times, for paddy 4 times and for betel nil.”

Cotton plant has an elaborate root-system, radish is a herb, paddy is a surface feeder, and betel is a climber that produces numerous adventitious aerial roots.

So, a female agricultural scientist teaches many generations to come agriculture in effortless, shareable, copyright-free form of wisdom i.e. aphorisms and songs.

First myth is wrong.
Second is not agriculture but lethargy driven by deluded sentiments towards mother nature.

Uprooted Indian Agriculture Research : Govt funded Health Disaster

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IARI is a premiere agriculture research institute of India. They produce wonderful scientific toys to play with for seed companies. 😉 And so seed companies can make profit by selling toys to farmers by showing them high yield dreams. 😉
Research
 
Their recommended cultivation practices for wheat and barley prescribes farmers to use Imidacloprid or quinalphos [1], a systemic insecticide which acts as an insect neurotoxin and belongs to a class of chemicals called the neonicotinoids which act on the central nervous system of insects with much lower toxicity to mammals.
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Imidacloprid is highly toxic to four bird species: Japanese quail, house sparrow, canary, and pigeon. It triggers colony collapse disorder (CCD) in bees. It is neurotoxin for humans. [2]
 
Why esteemed scientists suggest such disastrous prescriptions? 🙂
 
[1] pg 16, http://iari.res.in/files/Atic/Tech_Options_English-15072014.pdf
[2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imidacloprid#Birds
http://www.boerenlandvogels.nl/sites/default/files/Tennekes_Presentation_Annual%20Meeting_Swiss%20Toxicology%20Society_%2022112012_1.pdf

Not genes, beyond genes

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Not genes, beyond genes.
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 NotGenes
 
Be it wheat or rice research – Companies are spending billions on ‘gene mining’, or seeking specific genes. Yet after 60 years they still do not have one which can withstand a drought or flooding or sea water. But all of these characteristics are available in the indigenous seeds.
 
What type of research these genetic engineering departments are doing?
 
In 2011, wheat variety HD2733 was recommended by Agri universities [1]
 
“HD 2733 VSM is a wheat variety suitable for timely sown and irrigated conditions. It gives an average yield of 46-50 qtls/ha. The variety normally takes early (126-134 days) to mature. On maturity the plants of the variety attains a height of 80-90 cms. The variety is resistant to stripe rust (yellow rust), stem rust (black rust), leaf rust (brown rust). The variety is very good for chapati making, bread making. Its protein contents is 12-13 percent. “
 
Please note: It is resistant to yellow rust.
 
———————
 
Sep 24, 2014,Ludhiana [2]
 
Experts of Punjab Agricultural University (PAU), Ludhiana have stated that yellow rust has become a major problem for wheat cultivation in the state. Cautioning farmers about yellow rust, PAU has issued an advisory through a press release stating that the disease can cause yield losses up to 70% depending on its severity and the resistance of the cultivar.
 
“It starts appearing in December and January on wheat crop sown in sub-mountain areas of Punjab. If fungicides are not sprayed well in time, there could be a heavy loss in yield. Therefore, farmers should cultivate wheat varieties which could resist the attack of yellow rust and there is no need to spray fungicides to manage it. It has been observed during previous years that there was a serious attack of yellow rust on PBW 343, DBW 17, HD 2733, HD 2932 and WH 711 varieties of wheat. Therefore, these varieties should not be grown, especially in sub-mountainous areas of Punjab,” PAU has stated in the advisory.
 
What does it says?
 
HD 2733 has yellow rust problems.
 
So for 3 years, they sold fake seeds? What type engineering it is?
 
And solution?
 
Use HD 3086 😀
 
Genetic engineering is not the answer. Environmental health is.
 
[1] http://www.iasri.res.in/expert/variety/variety_det01.asp?var_code=HD2733
[2] http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/chandigarh/Punjab-Agricultural-University-cautions-farmers-against-yellow-rust-in-wheat-crop-in-advance/articleshow/43278323.cms

प्राणवान वसुधा : प्राणवान जीवसृष्टि

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Avg mini tractor price = 6 lac + diesel + maintanance
Avg bull price = 1 lac

You get 6 bulls in one tractor price. By rotating them on the field, one can grow gold.

PraanvaanVasudha

The left side (First picture) voids toxic gases, makes land homogenous in nature and robs fertility of soil. Hence, invites more germs and insects. Gradually, converts fertile land into barren land that farmers/govt sell out to more polluting industries.

The right side (Second picture) is truly right. Ox or horse or your local helping hand, contributes by excreting urine and manure, which maintains soil fertility. Compare to left side machines, they go soft on soil and keeps it in natural form. Does not kill healthy microbes (मरुत) as it does not emit toxic gases. Overall प्राणवान वसुधा -> प्राणवान crop -> प्राणमय जीवसृष्टि.

Only those who has vested interests in keeping Indian villages in dire state, would suggest machine based agriculture.

वर्ण व्यवस्था in Forest : Danger of exotic monocropping

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The researchers found that while the effects of local tree species loss were highly variable, the effects of biotic homogenization were almost always detrimental for provisioning of multiple ecosystem services. This means that landscapes containing more dissimilar forests provide more ecosystem services than landscapes where all forest patches were dominated by the same tree species.

It is वर्ण व्यवस्था of trees. When it is maintained, they can sustain each other for eternity. We are no different from them. We used to live in dissimilar congregation. We call it -> “Village”.

For farmers planning for Agro-forestry, I suggest to take care of implementing idea of dissimilar forestry instead of mono-culture forestry of high yielding trees.


Research and News


Researchers find dissimilar forests are vital for delivery of ecosystem services

link: https://www.royalholloway.ac.uk/aboutus/newsandevents/news/newsarticles/researchers-find-dissimilar-forests-are-vital-for-delivery-of-ecosystem-services.aspx

A team of ecologists from Royal Holloway, University of London has taken part in a large collaborative EU project to find out what the effects of forest tree species diversity are on ecosystem services. These services, which include timber production, carbon storage, and forest resistance to pests and diseases, are crucial to human well-being.

One of the key novel findings of the project published yesterday (March 14) in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, is the consistently negative impact a similarity in tree species composition across the landscape (biotic homogenization) has on the ability of forests to deliver multiple ecosystem services.

Forests are becoming dominated by a small number of tree species as a result of species extinctions, tree species selection by forest managers, and invasions or planting of exotic species. This process of biotic homogenization is similar to cultural globalization with the global consumer market becoming dominated by the small number of chains (the so-called McDonald’s Effect).

Researchers from Royal Holloway’s School of Biological Sciences worked collaboratively with 29 other institutions and combined field data from 209 forest plots across six European countries (Germany, Finland, Poland, Romania, Italy and Spain) with computer simulations to study the consequences of both local tree species loss and biotic homogenization on 16 ecosystem functions, including timber production, carbon storage, bird diversity, forest regeneration and resistance to insect and mammalian pests.

The researchers found that while the effects of local tree species loss were highly variable, the effects of biotic homogenization were almost always detrimental for provisioning of multiple ecosystem services. This means that landscapes containing more dissimilar forests provide more ecosystem services than landscapes where all forest patches were dominated by the same tree species. This is because different tree species are needed to provide different services; for example, in Poland, the Norway spruce provides high quality timber whereas hornbeam forests are better at supporting the diversity of attractive plant species in the understorey that may appeal to tourists.

 

Water management by temples vs Failed bureaucratic green revolution

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Post world war-2, western elites created new issue i.e. world hunger. And to solve the problem, they came up with ‘Green Revolution’.
 
First, the illusory problem and then delusional solution. Hunger was never an issue in localized societies. But without creating this problem, how can you sell the mechanized techniques? 😀
 
I often discuss case studies of Punjab and MP, traditional wheat lands, to understand disaster we invited in name of green revolution.
 
Today, I studied Bali.
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Decentralized Water management by temples vs Failed disconnected bureaucratic green revolution
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In the mid-1970s, a young anthropologist, Steve Lansing, arrived in Indonesia to study the ancient rituals of the water temples on the volcanic slopes of Bali.
 
John Steven Lansing is one of the only anthropologists to study agricultural practices in Bali. Through extensive research into Balinese culture, he discovered the cosmology behind much of daily life, including the organization of water irrigation systems.
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For thousands of years, generations of Balinese farmers have transformed their landscape to enable the growth of irrigated rice. Parallel to the physical system of rice terraces and irrigation, intricate networks of shrines and temples are dedicated to agricultural deities.
 
Balinese water temples are instrumental, both as religions markers and as aids to agricultural productivity. Traditional Balinese agricultural practices were based on rituals for the Goddess of the Lake, Dewi Danu, one of the two supreme deities of Bali. The top of Mount Batur has a vast freshwater crater lake that is considered a sacred cosmic map, or mandala, of waters.
Water temples organize community groups and maintain ecological productivity. It will take a book long note to describe this fascinating irrigation practice. Do read at sources [1] [2] [3]
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The green revolution mania uprooted 1000+ years old efficient system. The Green Revolution was an approach to agriculture that involved the use of science and large-scale government to control productivity via the use of new forms of crops. It had a profound effect on the practical use of water temples in Bali, disrupting the balanced cycles of cultivation.
 
Temples were brushed off as religious institutions with no constructive role in boosting rice production. This resulted in an ecological crisis. The Green Revolution in Bali began in 1962, when the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) developed a new high-yielding variety of rice called IR-8. They encouraged its use throughout Asia. The Indonesian government was enthusiastic because it was expected to increase rice production and was responsive to chemical fertilizers (Lansing, 1995).
Countless centuries of clearly thought out irrigation schedules, intrinsically bound with Balinese religious cosmology, had coordinated a magnificent balance between water sharing and pest control. This system was undermined and infiltrated by naïve capitalistic policies in a matter of a decade.
 
The bureaucratic irrigation complex failed because it contradicted the native decentralized system of temple ritual and agriculture in Balinese society. A decentralized planning strategy is beneficial since it tends to favor indirect, non-central government control while empowering local people by giving them command over their project (Ralston, Anderson, and Colson 113). The water temples create a decentralized system in which priests and farmers control the land under a religious hierarchy rather than the central government. Scientists and economic policy makers who designed the Green Revolution did not consider the viewpoint of farmers, the very individuals who were the project’s main beneficiaries.
Along with our own several disasters, it is lesson to learn for Indian agriculture.
 
[1] https://www.hamilton.edu/documents//levitt-center/Melowsky_article.pdf
[2] http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/Anthro129/balinesewatertemplesJonathanSepe.htm
[3] http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/2/83df61cc-caf2-11e1-8872-00144feabdc0.html#axzz3UJiP0H2z

Artificial Fertilizers, Nutrient Pollution and Ecological Collapse

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Eliminating use of animals from farm land and use of artificial fertilizer in farms – these two steps are enough to recognize current western civilization as most barbaric and idiotic society.

India – this land and her culture, instead of leading the world for sustainable future, is under same trap. Thanks to her idiot and selfish children. The Political terrorists.

Nutrients

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Everyone should read this paper. Realize the unity in diversity. Sanatana principle of give and take. Mutual existence. Synergy.

Nature has its own economy, with trading as dynamic as that of any stock exchange. To cope with nutrient deficiencies in their respective habitats, certain plants, animals and fungi have evolved partnerships by which they can swap resources.

But the economic tradeoffs in the natural marketplace are becoming unbalanced by nutrient pollution, most of which can be traced back to nitrogen fertilizers and fossil-fuel consumption. The partners have evolved a reciprocal exchange whereby the heterotroph provides metabolic waste — nitrogen and phosphorus — to the phototroph, which requires these key nutrients to survive. In return, the phototroph supplies its partner with photosynthetically fixed carbon as sugar that the heterotroph uses for energy.

“When you start to add more and more of the nutrients that the animal would normally be providing, the plant is no longer as dependent on that animal for those nutrients and so it starts to return less of the sugars back to the animal,” explained lead author Shantz, a doctoral candidate in the Burkepile Community Ecology Laboratory.


Research


Nutrient loading alters the performance of key nutrient exchange mutualisms

Abstract

Nutrient exchange mutualisms between phototrophs and heterotrophs, such as plants and mycorrhizal fungi or symbiotic algae and corals, underpin the functioning of many ecosystems. These relationships structure communities, promote biodiversity and help maintain food security. Nutrient loading may destabilise these mutualisms by altering the costs and benefits each partner incurs from interacting. Using meta-analyses, we show a near ubiquitous decoupling in mutualism performance across terrestrial and marine environments in which phototrophs benefit from enrichment at the expense of their heterotrophic partners. Importantly, heterotroph identity, their dependence on phototroph-derived C and the type of nutrient enrichment (e.g. nitrogen vs. phosphorus) mediated the responses of different mutualisms to enrichment. Nutrient-driven changes in mutualism performance may alter community organisation and ecosystem processes and increase costs of food production. Consequently, the decoupling of nutrient exchange mutualisms via alterations of the world’s nitrogen and phosphorus cycles may represent an emerging threat of global change.

Give and Take

Researchers analyze how nutrient pollution can negatively impact important ecological relationships

Nature has its own economy, with trading as dynamic as that of any stock exchange. To cope with nutrient deficiencies in their respective habitats, certain plants, animals and fungi have evolved partnerships by which they can swap resources.

However, according to a new study by UC Santa Barbara researchers Deron Burkepile and Andrew Shantz, excess nutrient input — or nutrient pollution —creates an imbalance in the interactions between partner — also known as mutualistic — species across a variety of ecosystems. The culprit: nitrogen fertilizers and fossil-fuel combustion. Their findings appear in the journal Ecology Letters.

In a very short period of time, Burkepile noted, humans have short-circuited the tight recycling of nutrients between mutualistic species, and this in turn has changed the balance of how such partners interact.

“That’s especially important because lots of these organisms are the foundation species of ecosystems without which the ecosystem would cease to exist,” said Burkepile, an associate professor in UCSB’s Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology.

Take, for example, reef-building coral, which contain tiny algae that allow for rapid growth even when nutrient stores are low. “The presence of coral is what makes a coral reef,” Burkepile continued. “Without the association between coral and its symbiotic algae, you wouldn’t have coral reefs. Rainforest trees are what make those systems rainforests, and interactions with microbes are what drive the success of those plants.

“This research,” he added, “really focused on big important organisms within many different ecosystems, so the problem is a worldwide phenomenon.”

These give-and-take scenarios — as with corals and algae — occur between a phototroph, an organism that makes its own food through the process of photosynthesis, and a heterotroph, which must look to its environment for food.

But the economic tradeoffs in the natural marketplace are becoming unbalanced by nutrient pollution, most of which can be traced back to nitrogen fertilizers and fossil-fuel consumption. The partners have evolved a reciprocal exchange whereby the heterotroph provides metabolic waste — nitrogen and phosphorus — to the phototroph, which requires these key nutrients to survive. In return, the phototroph supplies its partner with photosynthetically fixed carbon as sugar that the heterotroph uses for energy.

“When you start to add more and more of the nutrients that the animal would normally be providing, the plant is no longer as dependent on that animal for those nutrients and so it starts to return less of the sugars back to the animal,” explained lead author Shantz, a doctoral candidate in the Burkepile Community Ecology Laboratory.

Synthetic Fertilizer : Opium that kills ecology

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Nehru govt was the most retarded govt in our history who introduced artificial fertilizer units across country and destroyed fertility of the land.

All because of fanatic obsession with western masters life.

One more aspect that green revolution apologists must read. This ostrich vision is right now guiding prime minister of India so we must act, educate farmers and raise their voice.

No agriculture university in India is doing such independent researchers. Forget about them educating farmers.

Prime Minister, in his recent speech did mention over-use of NPK formula but on the other hand he also promoted Genetically modified bananas! So I consider his stand deceptive as far as agriculture matters.

As per this research, when exposed to nitrogen fertilizer over a period of years, nitrogen-fixing bacteria called rhizobia evolve to become less beneficial to legumes — the plants they normally serve, researchers report in a new study.

Researchers call it -> “far-reaching ecological and environmental consequences,”

Havoc is already been implemented on India soil

Not that long ago, before the advent of industrial fertilizers and the widespread use of fossil fuels, soil nitrogen was a scarce commodity. Some plants, the legumes, found a way to procure the precious nitrogen they needed — from rhizobia.

“The rhizobia fix nitrogen — from atmospheric nitrogen that we’re breathing in and out all the time — to plant-available forms,” Heath said. “Plants can’t just take it up from the atmosphere; they have to get it in the form of nitrate or ammonium.”

Nitrogen

In return, legumes shelter the rhizobia in their roots and supply them with carbon. This partnership benefits the bacteria and gives legumes an advantage in nitrogen-poor soils. Previous studies have shown that nitrogen fertilizers can affect the diversity of species that grow in natural areas, Heath said. In areas polluted with fertilizer runoff, for example, legumes decline while other plants become more common.

What exactly is happening?
We are changing the प्राणिक footprints of the local environment. And this is no way helping crops. We are killing natural mutualisms. This is not science but moronic pseudo-science.


Research


Long-term nitrogen fertilizer use disrupts plant-microbe mutualisms

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN

When exposed to nitrogen fertilizer over a period of years, nitrogen-fixing bacteria called rhizobia evolve to become less beneficial to legumes – the plants they normally serve, researchers report in a new study.

These findings, reported in the journal Evolution, may be of little interest to farmers, who generally grow only one type of plant and can always add more fertilizer to boost plant growth. But in natural areas adjacent to farmland, where fertilizer runoff occurs, or in areas where nitrogen oxides from the burning of fossil fuels settle, a change in the quality of soil rhizobia could have “far-reaching ecological and environmental consequences,” the researchers wrote.

“The nitrogen that we apply to agricultural fields doesn’t stay on those fields, and atmospheric nitrogen deposition doesn’t stay by the power plant that generates it,” said University of Illinois plant biology professor Katy Heath , who led the study with Jennifer Lau , of Michigan State University. “So this work is not just about a fertilized soybean field. Worldwide, the nitrogen cycle is off. We’ve changed it fundamentally.”

Not that long ago, before the advent of industrial fertilizers and the widespread use of fossil fuels, soil nitrogen was a scarce commodity. Some plants, the legumes, found a way to procure the precious nitrogen they needed – from rhizobia.

“The rhizobia fix nitrogen – from atmospheric nitrogen that we’re breathing in and out all the time – to plant-available forms,” Heath said. “Plants can’t just take it up from the atmosphere; they have to get it in the form of nitrate or ammonium.”

In return, legumes shelter the rhizobia in their roots and supply them with carbon. This partnership benefits the bacteria and gives legumes an advantage in nitrogen-poor soils. Previous studies have shown that nitrogen fertilizers can affect the diversity of species that grow in natural areas, Heath said. In areas polluted with fertilizer runoff, for example, legumes decline while other plants become more common.

In the new analysis, Heath and her colleagues looked at six long-term ecological research fields at Michigan State University’s Kellogg Biological Station. Two experimental plots were located in each of six different fields. One plot in each field had been fertilized with nitrogen for more than two decades; the other, a control plot, had never been fertilized.

The researchers isolated rhizobia from the nodules of legumes in fertilized and unfertilized plots. In a greenhouse experiment, they tested how these bacteria influenced legume growth and health. The researchers found that the plants grown with the nitrogen-exposed rhizobia produced 17 to 30 percent less biomass and significantly less chlorophyll than plants grown with rhizobia from the unfertilized plots.

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-02/uoia-lnf022315.php

Prana : Dung manure Vs chemical fertilizer

Fertilizer

Difference between manure and chemical fertilizer is as simple as you eat raw grains and cooked rice-dal.

Try eating raw rice dal for some time and observe struggle of your stomach. Do one thing: First eat 10 gm of weekly salt. Then eat 10 gm of each spices. And then some raw vegetables for next day. And third day, uncooked rice. And so on…good meals, right? Try it and see how much stress your digestive track gets.

Same goes with plants when they are treated with raw chemicals as nutrients. This negatively impact their health by two ways

1) Lack of nutrition , Lack of prana, bad health, rapid ageing. By the time they come to your plate, they are dead food. Difficult to digest with no benefits.
2) Lack of prana triggers decay event so mother nature will manage cleaning staff i.e. bacteria. Attack of micro-lives who gather to eat dead chemicals. So pesticides as response and vicious circle goes on.

On the other hand, manure as a fertilizer and cow-urine, cow-butter milk as a pest control, are outcomes from natural/manual churning process. Full of prana. Digestible food. Friendly food. Cooked food. Food that soil loves. Food that bacteria loves.

Digestible (Churned at least once in animal’s digestive system) vs difficult to digest (Raw material)

Full of prana (Treated by animals and humans – high at prana shakti) vs lack of prana (Treated by machines i.e. entities low at prana shakti)

Selection of manure depends upon what plants love to eat. Most plants love Cow-manure in daily food. Do we provide? Well, we are living in critical manure-famine era. There are not enough mother cows to provide enough manure for all plants across all farms of the Nation.

Unless we stop vacuous slaughter of mother, this problem will remain unsolved.

Agriculture In Water Stressed Terrain

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WaterStressedCow

All Utopians criticizing beef ban, remember one thing : Without her, situation will be worse than predicted.

And all who are rejoicing for MH-Law, don’t stop here! Come out from your homes, do Gupt daan to farmers and inspire them to do Gau-based farming!

At least, spend 10% of your earning in Cow-protection. Both your time and money. Must!

All your idealistic human rights ideas will become dust when tap at home won’t give water!

Read this:

गोबर की खाद जब हम खेत मे डालते है तो होता क्या है ?? दरअसल गोबर जो है वो बहुत तरह के जीव जन्तुओ का भोजन है और यूरिया भोजन नहीं जहर है आपके खेत मे एक जीव होता है जिसे केंचुआ कहते हैं केंचुआ को कभी पकड़ना और उसके ऊपर थोड़ा यूरिया डाल देना आप देखोगे केंचुआ तरफना शुरू हो जाएगा और तुरंत मर जाएगा ! जब हम टनों टन यूरिया खेत मे डालते है करोड़ो केंचुए मार डाले हमने यूरिया डाल डाल के !!
केंचुआ करता क्या है ?? केंचुए मिट्टी को नरम बनाते है पोला बनाते है उपजाऊ बनाते हैं केंचुए का कम क्या है ?? ऊपर से नीचे जाना ,नीचे से ऊपर आना पूरे दिन मे तीन चार चक्कर वो ऊपर से नीचे ,नीचे से ऊपर लगा देता है ! अब जब केंचुआ नीचे जाता तो एक रास्ता बनाते हुए जाता है और जब फिर ऊपर आता है तो फिर एक रास्ता बनाते हुए ऊपर आता है ! तो इसका परिणाम ये होता है की ये छोटे छोटे छिद्र जब केंचुआ तैयार कर देता है तो बारिश का पानी एक एक बूंद इन छिद्रो से होते हुए तल मे जमा हो जाता है !
मतलब water recharging का काम पूरी दुनिया मे कोई करता है तो वो केंचुआ है जो यूरिया के कारण मर जाता है इसलिए यूरिया डालना मतलब किसान के लिए आत्मह्त्या करने के बराबर है ! जिस किसान के खेत मे यूरिया डालेगा तो केंचुआ मर जाएगा केंचुआ मर गया तो मिट्टी मे ऊपर नीचे कोई जाएगा नहीं तो मिट्टी कठोर होती जाएगी कड़क होती जाएगी मिट्टी और रोटी के बारे एक बात कही जाती है की इन्हे फेरते रहो नहीं तो खत्म हो जाती है रोटी को फेरना बंद किया तो जल जाती है मिट्टी को फेरना बंद करो पत्थर जैसी हो जाती है !
मिट्टी को फेरने का मतलब समझते है ?? ऊपर की मिट्टी नीचे ! नीचे की ऊपर !ऊपर की नीचे ,नीचे की ऊपर ये केंचुआ ही करता है ! केंचुआ किसान का सबसे बड़ा दोस्त है ! एक केंचुआ साल भर जिंदा रहे तो एक वर्ष मे 36 मीट्रिक टन मिट्टी को उल्ट पलट कर देता है और उतनी ही मिट्टी को ट्रैक्टर से उल्ट पलट करना पड़े तो सौ लीटर डीजल लग जाता है 100 लीटर डीजल 4800 का है ! मतलब एक केंचुआ एक किसान का 4800 रूपये बचा रहा है ऐसे करोड़ो केंचुए है सोचो कितना लाभ हो रहा है इस देश को !


3 Maps Explain India’s Growing Water Risks


India is one of the most water-challenged countries in the world, from its deepest aquifers to its largest rivers.

Groundwater levels are falling as India’s farmers, city residents and industries drain wells and aquifers. What water is available is often severely polluted. And the future may only be worse, with the national supply predicted to fall 50 percent below demand by 2030.

Enter the India Water Tool 2. 0. The new web platform is the most comprehensive, publicly available online tool evaluating India’s water risks. Created by a group of companies, research organizations, and industry associations—including WRI and coordinated by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD)—the tool can help companies, government agencies, and other water users identify their most pressing challenges and carefully target water-risk management efforts.

The tool illustrates the depth and breadth of India’s water-related challenges. A few trends emerge:

54 Percent of India Faces High to Extremely High Water Stress

The map below illustrates competition between companies, farms and people for surface water in rivers, lakes, streams, and shallow groundwater. Red and dark-red areas are highly or extremely highly stressed, meaning that more than 40 percent of the annually available surface water is used every year.

Read more: http://www.wri.org/blog/2015/02/3-maps-explain-india%E2%80%99s-growing-water-risks

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