Agriculture

Agriculture

Artificial Fertilizers, Nutrient Pollution and Ecological Collapse

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Eliminating use of animals from farm land and use of artificial fertilizer in farms – these two steps are enough to recognize current western civilization as most barbaric and idiotic society.

India – this land and her culture, instead of leading the world for sustainable future, is under same trap. Thanks to her idiot and selfish children. The Political terrorists.

Nutrients

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Everyone should read this paper. Realize the unity in diversity. Sanatana principle of give and take. Mutual existence. Synergy.

Nature has its own economy, with trading as dynamic as that of any stock exchange. To cope with nutrient deficiencies in their respective habitats, certain plants, animals and fungi have evolved partnerships by which they can swap resources.

But the economic tradeoffs in the natural marketplace are becoming unbalanced by nutrient pollution, most of which can be traced back to nitrogen fertilizers and fossil-fuel consumption. The partners have evolved a reciprocal exchange whereby the heterotroph provides metabolic waste — nitrogen and phosphorus — to the phototroph, which requires these key nutrients to survive. In return, the phototroph supplies its partner with photosynthetically fixed carbon as sugar that the heterotroph uses for energy.

“When you start to add more and more of the nutrients that the animal would normally be providing, the plant is no longer as dependent on that animal for those nutrients and so it starts to return less of the sugars back to the animal,” explained lead author Shantz, a doctoral candidate in the Burkepile Community Ecology Laboratory.


Research


Nutrient loading alters the performance of key nutrient exchange mutualisms

Abstract

Nutrient exchange mutualisms between phototrophs and heterotrophs, such as plants and mycorrhizal fungi or symbiotic algae and corals, underpin the functioning of many ecosystems. These relationships structure communities, promote biodiversity and help maintain food security. Nutrient loading may destabilise these mutualisms by altering the costs and benefits each partner incurs from interacting. Using meta-analyses, we show a near ubiquitous decoupling in mutualism performance across terrestrial and marine environments in which phototrophs benefit from enrichment at the expense of their heterotrophic partners. Importantly, heterotroph identity, their dependence on phototroph-derived C and the type of nutrient enrichment (e.g. nitrogen vs. phosphorus) mediated the responses of different mutualisms to enrichment. Nutrient-driven changes in mutualism performance may alter community organisation and ecosystem processes and increase costs of food production. Consequently, the decoupling of nutrient exchange mutualisms via alterations of the world’s nitrogen and phosphorus cycles may represent an emerging threat of global change.

Give and Take

Researchers analyze how nutrient pollution can negatively impact important ecological relationships

Nature has its own economy, with trading as dynamic as that of any stock exchange. To cope with nutrient deficiencies in their respective habitats, certain plants, animals and fungi have evolved partnerships by which they can swap resources.

However, according to a new study by UC Santa Barbara researchers Deron Burkepile and Andrew Shantz, excess nutrient input — or nutrient pollution —creates an imbalance in the interactions between partner — also known as mutualistic — species across a variety of ecosystems. The culprit: nitrogen fertilizers and fossil-fuel combustion. Their findings appear in the journal Ecology Letters.

In a very short period of time, Burkepile noted, humans have short-circuited the tight recycling of nutrients between mutualistic species, and this in turn has changed the balance of how such partners interact.

“That’s especially important because lots of these organisms are the foundation species of ecosystems without which the ecosystem would cease to exist,” said Burkepile, an associate professor in UCSB’s Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology.

Take, for example, reef-building coral, which contain tiny algae that allow for rapid growth even when nutrient stores are low. “The presence of coral is what makes a coral reef,” Burkepile continued. “Without the association between coral and its symbiotic algae, you wouldn’t have coral reefs. Rainforest trees are what make those systems rainforests, and interactions with microbes are what drive the success of those plants.

“This research,” he added, “really focused on big important organisms within many different ecosystems, so the problem is a worldwide phenomenon.”

These give-and-take scenarios — as with corals and algae — occur between a phototroph, an organism that makes its own food through the process of photosynthesis, and a heterotroph, which must look to its environment for food.

But the economic tradeoffs in the natural marketplace are becoming unbalanced by nutrient pollution, most of which can be traced back to nitrogen fertilizers and fossil-fuel consumption. The partners have evolved a reciprocal exchange whereby the heterotroph provides metabolic waste — nitrogen and phosphorus — to the phototroph, which requires these key nutrients to survive. In return, the phototroph supplies its partner with photosynthetically fixed carbon as sugar that the heterotroph uses for energy.

“When you start to add more and more of the nutrients that the animal would normally be providing, the plant is no longer as dependent on that animal for those nutrients and so it starts to return less of the sugars back to the animal,” explained lead author Shantz, a doctoral candidate in the Burkepile Community Ecology Laboratory.

Synthetic Fertilizer : Opium that kills ecology

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Nehru govt was the most retarded govt in our history who introduced artificial fertilizer units across country and destroyed fertility of the land.

All because of fanatic obsession with western masters life.

One more aspect that green revolution apologists must read. This ostrich vision is right now guiding prime minister of India so we must act, educate farmers and raise their voice.

No agriculture university in India is doing such independent researchers. Forget about them educating farmers.

Prime Minister, in his recent speech did mention over-use of NPK formula but on the other hand he also promoted Genetically modified bananas! So I consider his stand deceptive as far as agriculture matters.

As per this research, when exposed to nitrogen fertilizer over a period of years, nitrogen-fixing bacteria called rhizobia evolve to become less beneficial to legumes — the plants they normally serve, researchers report in a new study.

Researchers call it -> “far-reaching ecological and environmental consequences,”

Havoc is already been implemented on India soil

Not that long ago, before the advent of industrial fertilizers and the widespread use of fossil fuels, soil nitrogen was a scarce commodity. Some plants, the legumes, found a way to procure the precious nitrogen they needed — from rhizobia.

“The rhizobia fix nitrogen — from atmospheric nitrogen that we’re breathing in and out all the time — to plant-available forms,” Heath said. “Plants can’t just take it up from the atmosphere; they have to get it in the form of nitrate or ammonium.”

Nitrogen

In return, legumes shelter the rhizobia in their roots and supply them with carbon. This partnership benefits the bacteria and gives legumes an advantage in nitrogen-poor soils. Previous studies have shown that nitrogen fertilizers can affect the diversity of species that grow in natural areas, Heath said. In areas polluted with fertilizer runoff, for example, legumes decline while other plants become more common.

What exactly is happening?
We are changing the प्राणिक footprints of the local environment. And this is no way helping crops. We are killing natural mutualisms. This is not science but moronic pseudo-science.


Research


Long-term nitrogen fertilizer use disrupts plant-microbe mutualisms

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN

When exposed to nitrogen fertilizer over a period of years, nitrogen-fixing bacteria called rhizobia evolve to become less beneficial to legumes – the plants they normally serve, researchers report in a new study.

These findings, reported in the journal Evolution, may be of little interest to farmers, who generally grow only one type of plant and can always add more fertilizer to boost plant growth. But in natural areas adjacent to farmland, where fertilizer runoff occurs, or in areas where nitrogen oxides from the burning of fossil fuels settle, a change in the quality of soil rhizobia could have “far-reaching ecological and environmental consequences,” the researchers wrote.

“The nitrogen that we apply to agricultural fields doesn’t stay on those fields, and atmospheric nitrogen deposition doesn’t stay by the power plant that generates it,” said University of Illinois plant biology professor Katy Heath , who led the study with Jennifer Lau , of Michigan State University. “So this work is not just about a fertilized soybean field. Worldwide, the nitrogen cycle is off. We’ve changed it fundamentally.”

Not that long ago, before the advent of industrial fertilizers and the widespread use of fossil fuels, soil nitrogen was a scarce commodity. Some plants, the legumes, found a way to procure the precious nitrogen they needed – from rhizobia.

“The rhizobia fix nitrogen – from atmospheric nitrogen that we’re breathing in and out all the time – to plant-available forms,” Heath said. “Plants can’t just take it up from the atmosphere; they have to get it in the form of nitrate or ammonium.”

In return, legumes shelter the rhizobia in their roots and supply them with carbon. This partnership benefits the bacteria and gives legumes an advantage in nitrogen-poor soils. Previous studies have shown that nitrogen fertilizers can affect the diversity of species that grow in natural areas, Heath said. In areas polluted with fertilizer runoff, for example, legumes decline while other plants become more common.

In the new analysis, Heath and her colleagues looked at six long-term ecological research fields at Michigan State University’s Kellogg Biological Station. Two experimental plots were located in each of six different fields. One plot in each field had been fertilized with nitrogen for more than two decades; the other, a control plot, had never been fertilized.

The researchers isolated rhizobia from the nodules of legumes in fertilized and unfertilized plots. In a greenhouse experiment, they tested how these bacteria influenced legume growth and health. The researchers found that the plants grown with the nitrogen-exposed rhizobia produced 17 to 30 percent less biomass and significantly less chlorophyll than plants grown with rhizobia from the unfertilized plots.

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-02/uoia-lnf022315.php

Myth Breaker : Agriculture and Women in Ancient India

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Two myths

1) Females were never educated in ancient India
2) Best farming is natural farming – no ploughing, no soil preparation

There is often common rhetoric in armchair intellectuals that condition of females in ancient India were not good. There was male-dominated society. Bla bla bla….

Here is one example from Bengal to break the myth.

Khana (Bengali: খনা, pron. khawnaa) was an Indian poet and legendary astrologer, who composed in the medieval Bengali language between the ninth and 12th centuries AD. She is associated with the village Deuli, in Barasat district, West Bengal.
Her poetry, known as khanAr bachan (or vachan) (খনার বচন) (meaning “khana’s words”), among the earliest compositions in Bengali literature, is known for its agricultural themes.

One of her aphorism says:

” For the successful cultivation of cotton one has to plough the land 16 times, for radish 8 times, for paddy 4 times and for betel nil.”

Cotton plant has an elaborate root-system, radish is a herb, paddy is a surface feeder, and betel is a climber that produces numerous adventitious aerial roots.

So, a female agricultural scientist teaches many generations to come agriculture in effortless, shareable, copyright-free form of wisdom i.e. aphorisms and songs.

First myth is wrong.
Second is not agriculture but lethargy driven by deluded sentiments towards mother nature.

Biological importance of Forest Fire and cow dung ash

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It is foolish attempt to imagine agriculture without cows. Mother गौ (Gau) play several roles in maintaining eco system. One of the roles she play with her children’s help is to maintain water levels and nutrients for land. It is via Homa/Agnihotra.

Dung ash is sacred in Hinduism. It is gold. (Already covered in old notes. Search ‘dung ash’)

dungash

Here are some more papers.


Research


When fire occurs naturally in the wild, it is good for future of the flora and fauna. But since we now live in sentimental world with no or little rationality left, we curse every natural phenomenon and in same breathe, we blissfully enjoy man-made destructions all around by keeping blind eyes.
 
I do remember some tribal igniting fire in certain part of Satpuda jungles. They told me that this helps to maintain jungle. They did not know, how part. Same is the role of their fire rituals. Same is the role of Agnihotra for our farms and gardens.
 
Read this to realize biological importance of charcoal and importance of fire in jungle ecosystem.
 
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Wildfire-produced charcoal directly influences nitrogen cycling in ponderosa pine forests [2006]

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Fire is the primary form of disturbance in temperate and boreal forest ecosystems. However, our knowledge of the biochemical mechanisms by which fire stimulates forest N cycling is incomplete. Charcoal is a major byproduct of forest fires and is ubiquitous in soils of most forest ecosystems, yet the biological function of charcoal in soils of forest ecosystems has been greatly overlooked. We conducted a suite of laboratory experiments on soils from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws) forests to determine the influence of charcoal on soil N dynamics and in particular, nitrification. The addition of NH4(+) to forest soils had absolutely no effect on nitrification demonstrating that this process is not substrate limited. The amendment of these soils with NH4(+) and field collected charcoal (1% w/w) significantly increased the nitrification potential, net nitrification, gross nitrification, and decreased the solution concentrations of plant secondary compounds (phenolics). Charcoal had no effect on nitrification in soils (from a grassland site) that had naturally high rates of nitrifier activity. The increase in gross nitrification in forest soils and lack of effect on grassland soils suggests that charcoal may alleviate factors that otherwise inhibit the activity of the nitrifying microbial community in forest soils. These results reveal the biological importance of charcoal and advance our mechanistic understanding of how fire drives nutrient cycling in te
 

Long term effects of manure, charcoal and mineral fertilization on crop production and fertility on a highly weathered Central Amazonian upland soil

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11104-007-9193-9

The Charcoal Vision: A Win–Win–Win Scenario for Simultaneously Producing Bioenergy, Permanently Sequestering Carbon, while Improving Soil and Water Quality

Application of charcoal to soils is hypothesized to increase bioavailable water, build soil organic matter, enhance nutrient cycling, lower bulk density, act as a liming agent, and reduce leaching of pesticides and nutrients to surface and ground water. The half-life of C in soil charcoal is in excess of 1000 yr. Hence, soil-applied charcoal will make both a lasting contribution to soil quality and C in the charcoal will be removed from the atmosphere and sequestered for millennia.

http://chargrow.org/sites/default/files/LAIRD.pdf

Biochar impact on nutrient leaching from a Midwestern agricultural soil

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0016706110001758

Charcoal Volatile Matter Content Influences Plant Growth and Soil Nitrogen Transformations

Research: Soil microbes flourish with reduced tillage

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Before farmers were fooled to believe that tractor based farming is the way forward, traditional farmers used various ways of ploughing. From no tilling to precision tilling. Different land, different season, different crop, different tilling. Or No tilling at all.

There was not compulsion yet the outcome was precise, as per the needs of the soil.

Here, Inspector-General of Agriculture in India in 1900 confessed honestly that Indian Agriculture is just perfect. No improvement is needed. 🙂 If I boast about self, you will doubt. Here, a foreigner’s bias-free account.

Perfect blend of blessings by विश्वकर्मा देव & intuitions and hints gifted by माँ अदिति.

And we are taught in school and colleges that Indians were primitive, knew nothing about science and British actually taught them techniques and all by their modern education reforms.

Pre-British, Pre-Industrial farming, Indian Precision Ploughing/tillage
Pre-British, Pre-Industrial farming, Indian Precision Ploughing/tillage

Here is the latest research recommending reduced tillage for flourished microbial communities in soil. Re-confirming ancient scientific practices.


Research


Soil microbes flourish with reduced tillage

http://www.alphagalileo.org/ViewItem.aspx?ItemId=168600&CultureCode=en

Soil Wealth - Microbes
Soil Wealth – Microbes

It’s the microbes that matter most.

Microbes improve soil quality by cycling nutrients and breaking plant residues down into soil organic matter. In an effort to detect consistent patterns across a large geographical area, University of Illinois researchers conducted a meta-analysis of 62 studies examining the effect of tillage on soil microbes. No-till systems had greater soil microbial biomass and enzymatic activity. Tilled systems that used a chisel plow were equivalent to no-till systems, in terms of microbial biomass.

“Soil microbes are the workhorses of the soil. They break down crop residues and release nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and other nutrients back to the soil so they’re plant-available. We want a healthy, diverse microbial community so that those processes can happen and improve our soils,”

For the past several decades, farmers have been abandoning their plows in favor of a practice known as no-till agriculture. Today, about one-third of U.S. farmers are no longer tilling their fields, and still more are practicing conservation tillage—using equipment that only disturbs the soil to a minimal degree. No-till and, to a lesser degree, conservation tillage maintains or improves soil quality by preserving soil structure and moisture, increasing soil organic matter, and providing habitat for soil microbes.

“Helping the soil function better helps your crops grow better, and can also maintain high quality soil for sustainability purposes. In Illinois, we have such great soil; it’s our biggest resource. Farmers can help protect it by making sure the microbial community is healthy.”

Research: Human activity (Fertilizers and Pesticides, Deforestation) affecting microbes in soil

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“Adding nitrogen and phosphorous, commonly used as fertilizers, to the soil beneath grasslands shifts the natural communities of fungi, bacteria and microscopic organisms”

Can you imagine the rampant destruction of our soil in last 50 years? So called Green revolution destroyed microbial wealth we once had. Reason why India was known as land of golden sparrows.

Urea Microbes
Urea Microbes

Our present govt is planning to promote second wave of Green Revolution. Few more forests will be cut and soil nurtured for 1000s of years will become desert in few years.

There is only one solution. Gau mata and her prasad. Cow-dung, urine, milk – they can only replenish dying soil in shortest possible time.


Research


Consistent responses of soil microbial communities to elevated nutrient inputs in grasslands across the globe

http://www.pnas.org/content/112/35/10967.abstract

Significance

Human activities have resulted in large increases in the availability of nutrients in terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. Although plant community responses to elevated nutrients have been well studied, soil microbial community responses remain poorly understood, despite their critical importance to ecosystem functioning. Using DNA-sequencing approaches, we assessed the response of soil microbial communities to experimentally added nitrogen and phosphorus at 25 grassland sites across the globe. Our results demonstrate that the composition of these communities shifts in consistent ways with elevated nutrient inputs and that there are corresponding shifts in the ecological attributes of the community members. This study represents an important step forward for understanding the connection between elevated nutrient inputs, shifts in soil microbial communities, and altered ecosystem functioning.

Abstract

Soil microorganisms are critical to ecosystem functioning and the maintenance of soil fertility. However, despite global increases in the inputs of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to ecosystems due to human activities, we lack a predictive understanding of how microbial communities respond to elevated nutrient inputs across environmental gradients. Here we used high-throughput sequencing of marker genes to elucidate the responses of soil fungal, archaeal, and bacterial communities using an N and P addition experiment replicated at 25 globally distributed grassland sites. We also sequenced metagenomes from a subset of the sites to determine how the functional attributes of bacterial communities change in response to elevated nutrients. Despite strong compositional differences across sites, microbial communities shifted in a consistent manner with N or P additions, and the magnitude of these shifts was related to the magnitude of plant community responses to nutrient inputs. Mycorrhizal fungi and methanogenic archaea decreased in relative abundance with nutrient additions, as did the relative abundances of oligotrophic bacterial taxa. The metagenomic data provided additional evidence for this shift in bacterial life history strategies because nutrient additions decreased the average genome sizes of the bacterial community members and elicited changes in the relative abundances of representative functional genes. Our results suggest that elevated N and P inputs lead to predictable shifts in the taxonomic and functional traits of soil microbial communities, including increases in the relative abundances of faster-growing, copiotrophic bacterial taxa, with these shifts likely to impact belowground ecosystems worldwide.

Cow Agriculture : Only Way Forward

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Organic Agriculture is the only way forward. For us, here, it is गौ आधारित कृषि.

Neither we, the citizens, nor our govt is sincere enough, to protect cow based agriculture. Govt is succumbed to global agri powers and allowing GMO seeds. And we the citizens are so busy in personal lives that we really don’t care about our food chain.

Forget about protecting mother Earth and mother cow.

Washington State University researchers have concluded that feeding a growing global population with sustainability goals in mind is possible. Their review of hundreds of published studies provides evidence that organic farming can produce sufficient yields, be profitable for farmers, protect and improve the environment and be safer for farm workers.

“Hundreds of scientific studies now show that organic ag should play a role in feeding the world” said Reganold, lead author of the study. “Thirty years ago, there were just a couple handfuls of studies comparing organic agriculture with conventional. In the last 15 years, these kinds of studies have skyrocketed.”


Research


Organic Agriculture Is Key to Helping Feed the World Sustainably

 

Agnihotra Impact on Crops

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Some more connecting dots evidences about Homa/Agnihotra’s positive impact on crops.

As per paper 1 [1], Nitric oxide plays a central role in determining lateral root development in tomato.

As per paper 2 [2] Agnihotra promotes root length and overall rice seeds germination

Cow dung is full of Nitric Oxide metabolites. Ghee helps in diffuse NO in local environment.


Research

[1] http://www.cas.miamioh.edu/~meicenrd/pdevlmnt/stdpresents/tomato.pdf
 
[2] http://nopr.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/9356/1/IJTK%203%283%29%20231-239.pdf

Agnihotra NitrixOxide

Agriculture In Water Stressed Terrain

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WaterStressedCow

All Utopians criticizing beef ban, remember one thing : Without her, situation will be worse than predicted.

And all who are rejoicing for MH-Law, don’t stop here! Come out from your homes, do Gupt daan to farmers and inspire them to do Gau-based farming!

At least, spend 10% of your earning in Cow-protection. Both your time and money. Must!

All your idealistic human rights ideas will become dust when tap at home won’t give water!

Read this:

गोबर की खाद जब हम खेत मे डालते है तो होता क्या है ?? दरअसल गोबर जो है वो बहुत तरह के जीव जन्तुओ का भोजन है और यूरिया भोजन नहीं जहर है आपके खेत मे एक जीव होता है जिसे केंचुआ कहते हैं केंचुआ को कभी पकड़ना और उसके ऊपर थोड़ा यूरिया डाल देना आप देखोगे केंचुआ तरफना शुरू हो जाएगा और तुरंत मर जाएगा ! जब हम टनों टन यूरिया खेत मे डालते है करोड़ो केंचुए मार डाले हमने यूरिया डाल डाल के !!
केंचुआ करता क्या है ?? केंचुए मिट्टी को नरम बनाते है पोला बनाते है उपजाऊ बनाते हैं केंचुए का कम क्या है ?? ऊपर से नीचे जाना ,नीचे से ऊपर आना पूरे दिन मे तीन चार चक्कर वो ऊपर से नीचे ,नीचे से ऊपर लगा देता है ! अब जब केंचुआ नीचे जाता तो एक रास्ता बनाते हुए जाता है और जब फिर ऊपर आता है तो फिर एक रास्ता बनाते हुए ऊपर आता है ! तो इसका परिणाम ये होता है की ये छोटे छोटे छिद्र जब केंचुआ तैयार कर देता है तो बारिश का पानी एक एक बूंद इन छिद्रो से होते हुए तल मे जमा हो जाता है !
मतलब water recharging का काम पूरी दुनिया मे कोई करता है तो वो केंचुआ है जो यूरिया के कारण मर जाता है इसलिए यूरिया डालना मतलब किसान के लिए आत्मह्त्या करने के बराबर है ! जिस किसान के खेत मे यूरिया डालेगा तो केंचुआ मर जाएगा केंचुआ मर गया तो मिट्टी मे ऊपर नीचे कोई जाएगा नहीं तो मिट्टी कठोर होती जाएगी कड़क होती जाएगी मिट्टी और रोटी के बारे एक बात कही जाती है की इन्हे फेरते रहो नहीं तो खत्म हो जाती है रोटी को फेरना बंद किया तो जल जाती है मिट्टी को फेरना बंद करो पत्थर जैसी हो जाती है !
मिट्टी को फेरने का मतलब समझते है ?? ऊपर की मिट्टी नीचे ! नीचे की ऊपर !ऊपर की नीचे ,नीचे की ऊपर ये केंचुआ ही करता है ! केंचुआ किसान का सबसे बड़ा दोस्त है ! एक केंचुआ साल भर जिंदा रहे तो एक वर्ष मे 36 मीट्रिक टन मिट्टी को उल्ट पलट कर देता है और उतनी ही मिट्टी को ट्रैक्टर से उल्ट पलट करना पड़े तो सौ लीटर डीजल लग जाता है 100 लीटर डीजल 4800 का है ! मतलब एक केंचुआ एक किसान का 4800 रूपये बचा रहा है ऐसे करोड़ो केंचुए है सोचो कितना लाभ हो रहा है इस देश को !


3 Maps Explain India’s Growing Water Risks


India is one of the most water-challenged countries in the world, from its deepest aquifers to its largest rivers.

Groundwater levels are falling as India’s farmers, city residents and industries drain wells and aquifers. What water is available is often severely polluted. And the future may only be worse, with the national supply predicted to fall 50 percent below demand by 2030.

Enter the India Water Tool 2. 0. The new web platform is the most comprehensive, publicly available online tool evaluating India’s water risks. Created by a group of companies, research organizations, and industry associations—including WRI and coordinated by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD)—the tool can help companies, government agencies, and other water users identify their most pressing challenges and carefully target water-risk management efforts.

The tool illustrates the depth and breadth of India’s water-related challenges. A few trends emerge:

54 Percent of India Faces High to Extremely High Water Stress

The map below illustrates competition between companies, farms and people for surface water in rivers, lakes, streams, and shallow groundwater. Red and dark-red areas are highly or extremely highly stressed, meaning that more than 40 percent of the annually available surface water is used every year.

Read more: http://www.wri.org/blog/2015/02/3-maps-explain-india%E2%80%99s-growing-water-risks

Research : Greater Yield by Plant Communities compare to Mono-culture

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monoculture

Mono-culture is a biggest brainwash of 20th century. Greed based agriculture is a total failure. Unfortunately, this brainwash is so intense that many educated citizens still believe that chemical based mono-culture agriculture is the answer for world-hunger! 😀

“Diverse plant communities are more successful and enable higher crop yields than pure monocultures, a research team has discovered. The scientists are convinced that the cultivation of crop mixtures in agriculture and forestry will play a key role in food safety in the future.”

I laughed when I read this line : “The scientists are convinced..”

What nonsense! Convinced for what? Common sense? This is common sense! Mono-culture farming is a killer of civilization. It is huge task ahead for us to reach out to our farmer brothers and open their eyes.

If you still have doubts, read this paper.

Selection for niche differentiation in plant communities increases biodiversity effects

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v515/n7525/full/nature13869.html

nature13869-f1

In experimental plant communities, relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning have been found to strengthen over time1, 2, a fact often attributed to increased resource complementarity between species in mixtures3 and negative plant–soil feedbacks in monocultures4. Here we show that selection for niche differentiation between species can drive this increasing biodiversity effect. Growing 12 grassland species in test monocultures and mixtures, we found character displacement between species and increased biodiversity effects when plants had been selected over 8 years in species mixtures rather than in monocultures. When grown in mixtures, relative differences in height and specific leaf area between plant species selected in mixtures (mixture types) were greater than between species selected in monocultures (monoculture types). Furthermore, net biodiversity and complementarity effects1, 2 were greater in mixtures of mixture types than in mixtures of monoculture types. Our study demonstrates a novel mechanism for the increase in biodiversity effects: selection for increased niche differentiation through character displacement. Selection in diverse mixtures may therefore increase species coexistence and ecosystem functioning in natural communities and may also allow increased mixture yields in agriculture or forestry. However, loss of biodiversity and prolonged selection of crops in monoculture may compromise this potential for selection in the longer term.

 

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Real Milk vs Factory milk vs Vegan Alternatives

Simpletons do more harm to society than ignorant. I often receive shallow arguements from those who are consuming factory made milk or vegan sentimental...

Biodiversity and Agriculture