Agriculture

Agriculture

Agnihotra could clear the air in more ways than one

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Using biochar to cut emissions of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) would lower ozone and particulate matter levels in urban areas near farmland and save lives and money, according to Rice University researchers. Illustration by Ghasideh Pourhashem Original image: http://news.rice.edu/files/2017/07/0612_BIOCHAR-3-rn-24jmlns.jpg
Using biochar to cut emissions of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) would lower ozone and particulate matter levels in urban areas near farmland and save lives and money, according to Rice University researchers. Illustration by Ghasideh Pourhashem
Original image: http://news.rice.edu/files/2017/07/0612_BIOCHAR-3-rn-24jmlns.jpg

Holy Agnihotra Ash. The missing gap is, holy ash. It is not just sacrificial fire that purifies air but also holy ash!!

We perform Holika Dahan.
We also play with the mud.
But we forgot the holy ash.

Don’t miss to apply ash of Holika dahan on forehead of each-other. Mud is an extension of holy ash.

विभूति(Holy Ash) is the key. Don’t miss.

—————-

‘प्रभाते बिमले जाते ह्यंगे भस्म च कारयेत्। सर्वागे च ललाटे च क्रीडितव्यं पिशाचवत्॥
सिन्दरै: कुंकुमैश्चैव धूलिभिर्धूसरो भवेत्। गीतं वाद्यं च नृत्यं च कृर्याद्रथ्योपसर्पणम् ॥
ब्राह्मणै: क्षत्रियैर्वैश्यै: शूद्रैश्चान्यैश्च जातिभि:। एकीभूय प्रकर्तव्या क्रीडा या फाल्गुने सदा। बालकै: वह गन्तव्यं फाल्गुन्यां च युधिष्ठिर ॥’

वर्षकृत्यदीपक (पृ0 301)

Clean India? Svacchch Bharat? Without stopping cow-slaughter?

Society that throws away cow dung and urine is disfigured.

यदस्याः पल्पूलनं शकृद्दासी समस्यति ।
ततोऽपरूपं जायते तस्मादव्येष्यदेनसः ।। अथर्व 12-4-9
Throwing away in to waste the Cow Dung and Cow
Urine disfigures the society.
गोबर गोमूत्र व्यर्थ करने से समाज के रूप की सुन्दरता नष्ट हो जाती
है ।

For Manu, dung ash has utmost importance in maintaining societal fabric.

These references from Manu Smriti signifies priceless value of Holy Ash of Gau maa’s Prasad.

तैजसानां मणीनां च सर्वस्याश्ममयस्य च ।
भस्मनाद्भिर्मृदा चैव शुद्धिरुक्ता मनीषिभिः । ।
The wise ordain that all (objects) made of metal, gems, and anything made of stone are to be cleansed with ashes, earth, and water. (Who needs washing powder? )
न मूत्रं पथि कुर्वीत न भस्मनि न गोव्रजे । ।
Do not spoil sacred ash. (It is like spoiling your daily medicines, supplements! Will you do it?)
वेणुवैदलभाण्डानां लवणानां तथैव च ।
मृण्मयानां च हरणे मृदो भस्मन एव च ।
Double the fine when someone steal holy Ash. ( More than gold!)

This shows importance of dung ash.Cycle of destruction started by occupying minds of locals. First, they made Manu and his teaching irrelevant by changing education system. Once Manu became irrelevant and controversial, गौ became just another animal on the street. Now, गौ has become irrelevant…

Can we clean Bharat Bhumi without Gau mata and Homa? I doubt.

Gau seva and Homa were primary duties of the Grihasthi. No more followed now. So we do not have Gau and ash both.

So what do we do after cleaning the public place?

DDT? Is it environment friendly? Is it healthy friendly? Google and find out. Is it really a cleaning?

Solution is in Manu’s code. Follow his instruction. Bring back Gau mata in your life again. Bring back Agni-Fire ritual back in the life.


Research


http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.est.7b00748

Valuing the air quality effects of biochar reductions on soil NO emissions

While it is clear that biochar can alter soil N2O emissions, data on NO impacts are scarce. Reports range from 0-67% soil NO emission reductions post-biochar amendment. We use regional air quality and health cost models to assess how these soil NO reductions could influence U.S. air quality and health costs. We find that at 67% soil NO reduction, widespread application of biochar to fertilized agricultural soils could reduce O3 by up to 2.4ppb and PM2.5 by up to 0.15µg/m3 in some regions. Modeled biochar-mediated health benefits are up to $4.3 million/county in 2011, with impacts focused in the Midwest and Southwest. These potential air quality and health co-benefits of biochar use highlight the need for an improved understanding of biochar’s impacts on soil NO emissions. The benefits reported here should be included with estimates of other biochar benefits, such as crop yield increase, soil water management, and N2O reductions.

Biochar could clear the air in more ways than one

“Our model projections show health care cost savings could be on the order of millions of dollars per year for some urban counties next to farmland,” Pourhashem said. “These results are now ready to be tested by measuring changes in air pollutants from specific agricultural regions.”

Pourhashem noted the key measurements needed are the rate of soil emission of nitric oxide (NO), which is a smog precursor, after biochar is applied to fields. Many studies have already shown that biochar reduces the emissions of a related compound, nitrous oxide, but few have measured NO.

“We know that biochar impacts the soil nitrogen cycle, and that’s how it reduces nitrous oxide,” said Masiello, a professor of Earth, environmental and planetary science. “It likely reduces NO in the same way. We think the local impact of biochar-driven NO reductions could be very important.”

Using the higher figure in their calculations, they determined that a 67 percent reduction in NO emissions in the United States could reduce annual health impacts of agricultural air pollution by up to $660 million. Savings through the reduction of airborne particulate matter — to which NO contributes — could be 10 times larger than those from ozone reduction, they wrote.

Pesticide vs Pest-aside : Real cause of pest/pathogens

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====================
Are bacteria responsible for our illness?

Are viruses responsible for our illness?

Are pest destroying crops?
====================

pesticide-danger-cancer

No. They are Mother nature’s most trusted messengers. They appears only when we create situations for them in our body or in our local environment by our activities.

Nature has different types of creatures, some with long life and some with very short life. Some with micro body and some with giant body combination of trillions and more micro bodies. Formation of them depends upon the specific combination of environmental factors.

So when you are afflicted by the specific bacteria or virus, try to find root change in the environment. And this physical changes are manifestation of more subtle प्राण. Which action, activity or habit caused it. Sometimes it is beyond our control. Sheer nature’s work. Like mass epidemic.

Insects

Insects 2

 

Same is true for growing food.

Understand this comment shared by Gyan Mitra ji on Jagannath Chatterjeeji’s post to realize it.

“This is the PEST niche graph, part of the I.I.T. Bombay PhD thesis 1996 of Dr. Uday S. Bhawalkar, a chemical engineer from the same institute 1973 batch. He is the first person to say that a PEST has an ecological role, and is a Policeman/woman, Inspector and Regulator too. The fire brigade visits only when there is a fire. The same logic applies for PESTS.This graph is rudimentary, and other graphs followed later, which will also be posted. Contrary to popular belief, these pests are not simply hanging around waiting to commit mayhem. They appear only when there is a need by multiplying, else remain very very few. For example, if a PEST appears in a field and starts chewing up the leaves, it simply means that there is nutrient in the leaves, in a related Carbon to Nitrogen ration relating to that particular pest. Industry gets rid of the PEST with poison / pesticide. But this does not address the root cause viz nutrient for the PEST. Eating such food is unsafe because the nutrient for the PEST is toxic for human consumption. Hence, can you see that PESTS also are quality control mechanism of Nature ? Forget pesticide, even if you were able to physically remove the PESTS by hand, its still no good. Therefore, even ‘organic pest control’ is not O.K. Cost effective Eco Technology if retrofitted into the well / bore well takes care of such toxicity and then the food crops grow without pests. Don’t forget that poor air quality causes acid rain which leaches heavy metals from rocks that gets into the crop. The trace heavy metals break down through a ‘ nature chemistry ‘ and invite PESTS. If you can understand what I have written, you will also be able to develop an argument against G.M. crops. I just saw a BBC film speaking for GM and the main goal is stated to produce food for expected 15 Billion people in the future. What is not discussed is that the food is toxic to human homeostasis. When pest free agriculture is possible even without the use of chemical fertilisers, to produce quality food ( one eats less ) which also has natural antidotes to remedy prevailing regional natural pollution, the modern goal of producing poor quality food in quantity without the antidote property is misplaced. Industrial farming is a model created with inputs and active management. There can never be a food shortage because Nature ensures that the food is made available for the life form first. You need to believe this. Also, borewells are bringing up more salts so much more water is needed for irrigation. And then, when the top soil ecology is pristine and appropriate crops are grown, only moisture is needed, NOT water.”

Air pollution and Agriculture : Increased carbon dioxide levels in air restrict plants ability to absorb nutrients

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co2_sky-small

You try all you can with soil improvement or better water management, if air is putrid, nothing will work.

Higher CO2 (or Higher O2 or higher NO) means disturbed Prana. Disturbed Prana means no ingestion, digestion, excretion. No excretion -> all sicknesses. So this is very critical for urban terrace farmers. They have worse air pollution to handle.

Agnihotra plays a vital role here. Doing homam in the vicinity of the land, with the use of Pure desi cow ghee, dung and other herbs produces balancing oxygen, NO and other gases. In short, it stabilizes Vayu and in turn Prana.

Planting more trees too will help. Peepal, Banyan and other fruit trees.

Cow dung microbial world also work hard for increasing Prana.

Presence of Desi Cow/Bull in the farm itself is sacred and self-saving.


Comment by Ranjit Kumar Dash

“Prana pervades all that we see on Earth; is impaired in neon-lit fume-soaked urban interruptions, which are but maiming mother nature. Terrace this, vermiculture that cannot make good what is getting damaged. Doom will eventually overtake all arty, smarty palliatives. Tatha na astu (May that never take place).”


Increased carbon dioxide levels in air restrict plants ability to absorb nutrients

http://science.gu.se/english/News/News_detail//increased-carbon-dioxide-levels-in-air-restrict-plants-ability-to-absorb-nutrients.cid1309352

The rapidly rising levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere affect plants’ absorption of nitrogen, which is the nutrient that restricts crop growth in most terrestrial ecosystems. Researchers at the University of Gothenburg have now revealed that the concentration of nitrogen in plants’ tissue is lower in air with high levels of carbon dioxide, regardless of whether or not the plants’ growth is stimulated. The study has been published in the journal Global Change Biology.

Researcher Johan Uddling has been working with Swedish and international colleagues to compile data on how raised levels of carbon dioxide impact on plant growth and nitrogen absorption.

Plant quality impaired by increased carbon dioxide levels

Embracing Weeds: Holistic Agriculture

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Weeds

Weeds have purpose. Amount of stress corn (or any crop for that matter) feels due to lack of supporting weeds is often transformed into viral and bacterial sickness.

“Weeds are weeds! No good! Pusley is weed and no good for crop! My textbook says so!”

“That’s what people think. Look at this. Look at this broken corn roots scattered among Pusley roots. You know what does that mean? Pusley roots are helping corn roots by breaking the dirt/soil so that corn roots can go deeper. Got it? Pusley is helping corn to better manage its nutrition and so good healthy crop.”

Weeds are good.

Based on my reading of book :”Weeds, guardians of the soil”.

Agnihotra Impact on Crops

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18010335_1264837123612216_4710148612518931599_n

Some more connecting dots evidences about Homa/Agnihotra’s positive impact on crops.

As per paper 1 [1], Nitric oxide plays a central role in determining lateral root development in tomato.

As per paper 2 [2] Agnihotra promotes root length and overall rice seeds germination

Cow dung is full of Nitric Oxide metabolites. Ghee helps in diffuse NO in local environment.


Research

[1] http://www.cas.miamioh.edu/~meicenrd/pdevlmnt/stdpresents/tomato.pdf
 
[2] http://nopr.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/9356/1/IJTK%203%283%29%20231-239.pdf

Agnihotra NitrixOxide

Banyan and Peepal : Farmer’s happy harvesting witnesses

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BanyanPeepal

These two trees are mentioned umpteen times in our scriptures, literature and local stories. We have found many ways by which they help us to sustain.

One farmer’s son gave me interesting perspective.

They are not only giving us shade in hot summer or fresh air 24x7x365 but they play vital role in farming too.

How?

बरगद और पीपलके वृक्ष जब अपने छोटे छोटे फलोंसे लद जाते है , तब यह हजारों चिड़ियोंके लिए पर्याप्त भोजन सामग्री होते है । विभिन्न प्रकारके पक्षी बहुत दिनों तक इन फलों को खाने में व्यस्त रहते थे इस तरह अप्रत्यक्ष रूप से ये फसलों और अन्य फलदार वृक्षों की पक्षिओं से रक्षा करते है ।

Can a urban kid develop such perspective in cement jungle?

Desertification follows Overfarming : California Case

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harvest-2

California is an epitome of Modern Agriculture practices. Farming started in the mid 19th century and by the early 21st century, doomed.Desert everywhere.

Desertification is defined as the deterioration of land in typically arid areas due to changes in climate and human activities. In the United States, desertification is typically caused by poor farming practices and the conversion of grazing areas to cropland.

In order to salvage lands affected by desertification, farmers begin to invest more in irrigation, which in turn diminishes groundwater resources and is the beginning of long-term impacts such as drought and famine. Additionally, as the topsoil becomes less nutrient rich from desertification plants become less productive and many of the ecosystem services they were providing are diminished.

Bharat is still alive after 40 years of mindless farming for two reasons:

1) Gau (Cow)
2) Traditions

Now both are diminishing rapdily. Are we expecting Sahara here? The California way!


Article Reference


Overfarming and overgrazing, two of the most common triggers of desertification (Google / USC)

https ://desertification.wordpress.com/2012/02/19/overfarming-and-overgrazing-two-of-the-most-common-triggers-of-desertification-google-usc/

California Desertification: How do we keep California the Golden Coast?

California has always been seen as the Golden Coast.  It is a land of plenty that supports millions of people and has an immense and productive agricultural industry, producing almost 15% of the nation’s annual crops.

But the productiveness of California has a limit, and both its climate and human overuse can distress the land beyond repair.  Desertification is the process of the loss of nutrients (top soil) to drylands, resulting in infertile land that can be easily eroded due to the lack of vegetation that would normally provide soils with the structural component to combat erosion.  Vegetation is vital to dry soils, prominent in much of the California climate, because the soils can easily be carried away by wind, or on the rare occasion of rain in Southern California, water.  Overfarming, which depletes the soils nutrients, or overgrazing, which physically strips the soil of vegetation, are two of the most common triggers of desertification.

Desertification can be a natural process too.  The United Nations Conference to Combat Desertification identifies that desertification is also due to climactic changes, where extended periods of drought or dryness can harm vegetation and leave soil dry and exposed to the elements, although some may argue that these may be anthropogenic as because of the link between global climate change and greenhouse gas emissions.

But while desertification can be a natural process, these natural processes and tendencies of Southern California are only augmented by the anthropogenic abuse of the land such as over farming and overgrazing.

Perfection of Indian Agriculture : British Accounts

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===============================
Perfection of Indian Agriculture – Part 3

#IndianAgriFacts
===============================

indian-farmer-and-a-yoke-of-oxen-farming-in-india-date-1860-G36MBX

Augustus Voelcker was a Royal Agricultural Society of England chemist. Voelcker was known for his methodical and precise analytical practices as applied to agricultural chemistry. He was consultant chemist appointed to study Indian Agriculture and suggest improvements.

In introduction passage, he said that British Farmers must not feel bad if I praise Indian farmers. We must realize that they are eternally groomed farmers and they started farming much before we did. Their methods are just perfect.

Agriculture

Show this to all who are living under inferiority complex that Indians are always primitive and barbaric and it is exposure to British that made us more productive. This is utterly nonsensical. Shows slavery imprints on our mind. Sometimes I feel that Independent India’s govt did more brainwashing then the British. I think, it is true.

It seems, in name of ‘Improvement’, British planned destruction of Indian Agriculture 🙁.

Glorious Bharatiya Agriculture – British Observations

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====================================
Glorious Bharatiya Agriculture Part 2 : Fallowing process
As observed by British officers.
#IndianAgriFacts (will use this tag to compile all posts on this subject)
====================================

37_10103_S6s

The Greed based farming has no concept of fallowing. A process in which Land left unseeded during a growing season. Yes! deliberate yield break!

This was key method by which the Sun was harvested time to time. When you keep the land fallow without unseeded, mother Earth with the help of local soil microbes and other birds and insects, will cover the land with grass. Call it weeds in your technical language. This helps Mother Earth to replenish herself with enough energy which is used extensively during planned crops.

Research hint: Fallowing = Restoring प्राण for Soil. Not following fallowing means, producing humans every year from your wife. Can you imagine her health? She will die prematurely. At least 4 years gap is suggested between two children. Maximum 4 children as per economic and health capacity. Same gap is needed for Mother Earth too.

In our times, this is not possible without community support. Majority farmers have small piece of land. So for them to help mother Earth, community must support them. That is possible at village level .That is possible only when urbans support them.

Here are the observations by British scientists about benefits reaped by Bombay presidency farmers by this method.

11081042_396853363772911_5479011023929159701_n

Fertilizer Now, pollute water for decades

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Research shows nitrogen is accumulating in soil – creating health risks like “blue baby syndrome” and environmental dead zones in rivers and oceans

Soil acidity from N cycle_1
https://www.agric.wa.gov.au/sites/gateway/files/styles/original/public/Soil%20acidity%20from%20N%20cycle_1.jpg?itok=Vo4HSwjO

If there will be water after our cilizational disrespect to water usage (by inefficient agriculture, unwanted industry usage, faulty management, deforestation), that water will be poison due to excess use of fertilizers.

“A large portion of the nitrogen applied as fertilizer has remained unaccounted for the last several decades,”

“The fact that nitrogen is being stored in the soil means it can still be a source of elevated nitrate levels long after fertilizers are no longer being applied.”

This nitrogen is easily converted to nitrate, a highly soluble, inorganic compound that has become the most common drinking water pollutant in the U.S. (Imagine worse for India)

Will PMO India dare to stop fertilizer production altogether? Or since it is politically incorrect step, they will see the self-destruction?


Research


Fertilizer applied to fields today will pollute water for decades

https://uwaterloo.ca/stories/fertilizer-applied-fields-today-will-pollute-water-decades

Nitrogen fertilizer applied to farmers’ fields has been contaminating rivers and lakes and leaching into drinking water wells for more than 80 years. Now, a new University of Waterloo study shows that fertilizer applied today will continue to pollute water for decades because it’s building up in the soil.

The findings are significant because agricultural runoff that leaches into drinking water wells can cause newborns to develop something called “blue baby syndrome,” a potentially fatal condition that reduces oxygen-flow in the blood. There are also serious environmental concerns because excess nitrogen, flowing into rivers and oceans, creates “dead zones” for fish and other marine life.

Where does all the fertilizer go?

Since the 1970s, farmers and policymakers alike have worked hard to reduce the amount of fertilizer leaching from agricultural fields to groundwater and nearby lakes and streams. Yet in some rural areas, nitrate levels in groundwater have been found to be more than ten times the drinking water standard.

“Public drinking water sources are vulnerable to receiving elevated nitrate,” says Basu. “But an even greater danger is for people in rural areas living on private well sources.”

To quantify the true extent of the nitrogen problem, numerous researchers have attempted to account for all of the nitrogen inputs to and outputs from watersheds around the world.  These so-called mass balance studies, however, have consistently come up short. Although we know that nitrate levels have been increasing in our waterways, the fate of much of the nitrogen that is applied to the land as fertilizer has remained a mystery.

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